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after the woman, that he might out of his mouth. cause her to be carried away of 17 And the dragon was wroth the flood.
with the woman, and went to 16 And the earth helped the make war with the remnant of woman; and the earth opened her seed, which keep the comher mouth, and swallowed up mandments of God, and have the flood which the dragon cast the testimony of Jesus Christ.
flood.” This figure is natural enough, the flood which the dragon cast out if we suppose by the dragon was of his mouth. It was an old axiom meant some huge sea monster; and among the faithful in the house of the word translated dragon, as we Israel, that “when the enemy shall have said, certainly sometimes has come in like a flood, the spirit of the that application. The metaphor may Lord shall lift up a standard against be understood in the manner here him ;" Isa. lix. 19. This verse exdenoted, or it may be understood on presses the sense of the passage bethe same principle we applied to the fore us. The enemy came in like a fire, smoke and brimstone, coming flood, and God interposed a barrier to out of the horses' nostrils, or mouths, his success, – he caused a cavern to ix. 17, 18, and the tails, with heads be opened in the earth to swallow up like serpents, 19, as mere imagery to the waters. represent the fearful power of the 17. Wroth with the woman. — - The cavalry. If the imagery of the Apoc- heathen power was angry that it could alypse in some cases be unnatural, not destroy the gospel. It had used we must look at the intent of it. If its utmost energies to do it, and had the serpent casting water out of his failed. Foiled in every attempt, it is mouth like a food be an unnatural not to be wondered at that the dragon metaphor, the intent of it is easily was wroth ; but as his opposition had
It showed his continued oppo- failed to destroy the woman, and also sition to the woman, - his last efforts the man-child who had been caught to_destroy her.
Lowman says: up to the throne of God, he went to "Floods and inundations often come make war with the remnant of her so suddenly and with such violence, seed." And who these were, we infer as to drown or carry away all things from the description, that they were within their reach, and give no time those “which keep the commandfor an escape. They are a proper ments of God, and have the testimony figure to express some great and sud- of Jesus Christ.” It is certain that den danger. Nahum thus describes the faithful believers are here dethe judgments of God, which shall scribed. They were the objects of utterly destroy his enemies; i. 8: the dragon's vengeance as long as his
But with an overflowing flood, he power lasted. will make an utter end of the place In the next chapter we shall find an thereof.' So that by this similitude account of a beast, resembling in of the serpent casting a flood out of some respects the dragon, but also his mouth, we may well understand differing in important particulars. some quick and smart attempts of the The great red dragon appeared in enemies of true religion to cut off all heaven, the beast rose out of the sea. hope of safety for the true worship- The former represented the Roman pers of God, even in retirement." empire in its spiritual or heathen
16. The earth helped the woman.- character, - the latter, the same emHow? By the power of God. He pire in its civil or secular state. caused caverns to be opened to receive
CHAPTER XIII. rise up out of the sea, having ND I stood upon the sand seven heads and ten horns, and of the sea, and saw a beast upon his horns ten crowns,
sea, or the abyss, rose up from among
the peoples, multitudes, nations and We have contemplated, in the pre- tongues, and doubtless was the emceding chapter, the Roman empire, pire in its secular form. This beast, in its religious or pagan character, like the dragon, had seven heads, under the figure of “a great red denoting Rome, the seat of the power dragon," with seven heads, and ten of the empire. It had also, like the horns, and seven crowns. In the dragon, ten horns, showing a further chapter now to be examined, the same likeness. Who can doubt that the empire is set forth in its civil or dragon and the beast represent the political character, not under the fig- same power, in different characters ? ure of a dragon, (Dracon,) but under Let us look for a moment at the the figure of a beast, (Therion.) There prophetical use of the metaphor. is such a similarity between the de- What did the prophets intend by a scription of the dragon and the beast, beast? In Daniel's vision, chap. vii., that they must both have reference to we read that four great beasts [ Theria the Roman empire; and yet is there in the lxx.) rose up out of the sea, such a difference in the description i. e., rose up from among the multias to show that precisely the same tudes of the people. And they were thing is not in both cases intended. not like the dragon and the beast in
1. I stood upon the sand of the sea. Revelation, viz., much alike, but they That is, I took my position upon the were “diverse one from another ;' sand of the sea-shore; or I was ver. 3. The first was like a lion ; placed there in order to behold the ver. 4 ; the second was like a bear; further revelation that was to be ver. 5; the third was like a leopard; made to me. The former vision had ver. 6; and the fourth was "dreadful been in the firmament; this is to be and terrible, and exceedingly strong, on the sea, or to rise up out of the and it had ten horns,”' &c.; ver. 7.
| San a beast rise up out of the In explaining these figures Daniel
- Now observe, there is noth- expressly says: “These great beasts, ing said here about “ a wonder in which are four, are four kings, which heaven," as in the case of the dragon. shall arise out of the earth ;" ver. The beast “rose up out of the sea,” | 17. Beasts, wild and ferocious in or as it is expressed in another place, their character, are used to represent the bottomless pit, or abyss ; xi. 7; earthly kings, or kingdoms. “ The xvii. 8; and did not appear as a fourth beast shall be the fourth kingwonder in heaven, or a spiritual won- dom upon earth, which shall be dider. Waters of the sea we know are verse from all kingdoms, and shall used in the Apocalypse to represent devour the whole earth, and shall • peoples, and multitudes, and nations, tread it down, and break it in pieces ;": and tongues ;" xvii. 15: “And hé ver. 23. This must be the Roman saith unto me, The waters which empire, for no other ever had such thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, wide dominion. Hence Daniel's are peoples, and multitudes, and na- beast, like that of the Apocalypse, tions, and tongues.” When John had ten horns, which he explains to thus explains his own metaphor, we be “ten kings that shall arise ;” ver. need look no further for the true 24. The four kingdoms, represented
The beast that rose out of the ) in the 7th of Daniel by the four
and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
beasts, are represented in the second the imperial power) was established ; chapter of that prophecy by the dif- and he also symbolized by them seven ferent parts of the great image, the particular kings, or emperors, whom legs and the feet thereof being of he had in his mind. We follow not iron, and representing the fourth king- our own fancy in these matters, but dom, which was as strong as iron. the indications which were put forth But as the Roman Empire was com- by the revelator himself. " And here posed of heterogeneous materials, so
is the mind which hath wisdom. The the feet of the image were in part of seven heads are seven mountains, on iron and part of clay, which showed which the woman sitteth. And there the divisions of the kingdom, and the are seven kings : five are fallen, and cause of its fall. Now, it was when one is, and the other is not yet come; the Roman Empire was in its fullest and when he cometh, he must conglory that Christ appeared to estab-tinue a short space;" Rev. xvii. 9, 10. lish his spiritual kingdom ; and Dan- Ten horns. — - A horn, as is periel therefore says: “In the days of ceived at the first thought, is the these kings shall the God of heaven agent of power. All animals who set up a kingdom, which shall never are furnished with horns, find them be destroyed: and the kingdom shall to be their means of defence. Hence not be left to other people, but it shall the horn is used as a metaphor of break in pieces and consume all these power. The dragon, mentioned in kingdoms, and it shall stand for the preceding chapter, had seven ever;" ii. 44. This kingdom, which heads and ten horns, the same as the the God of heaven set up, was the beast before us had; and unqueskingdom of Christ, represented not tionably represented the same thing by a wild beast, but by the stone under a different form. But on the cut out without hands,” (1. e., without presumption that the dragon signified earthly aid, as Christ's spiritual king, an invisible, intangible, spiritual addom was built up; Heb. ix. 11;) and versary, commonly called the devil, if the reader will compare carefully what do his seven heads and ten the 2d and 7th chapters of Daniel, he horns mean? Is it proper to suppose will see that it was the intention of that the seven heads and ten horns that prophet to show, that Christianity of the Iragon signify certain things, was to arise in the time of the fourth and the seven heads and ten horns kingdom, terrible and powerful, which of the beast things entirely different? was the Roman Empire. Then Chris- Prof. Stuart supposes the beast, with tiạnity did arise ; and without any his seven heads and ten horns, to manifest aid from men, it prevailed signify the Roman Empire; but the over all human opposition, and shall dragon, with the same number of stand forever.
heads and horns, he interprets to Who, then, can entertain a doubt, mean the devil, after the form of his that the beast having ten horns, in own creed. That sound writer was the Apocalypse, is the same metaphor sadly hampered, in his interpretation with the beast having ten horns, in of the book of Revelation, by his Daniel ?
Who can doubt that the creed; and we are not to wonder at author of the Apocalypse had his eye this, since he is obliged, once in five on Daniel's metaphor when he drew years, to give a renewed affirmation his own figure? | Seven heads.- of his belief in it. By the ten horns By the seven heads the revelator may of the beast we think were intended have intended the seven hills, on ten kings. See the following: “And which the city of Rome (the seat of the ten horns which thou sawest 2 And the beast which I saw | feet were as the feet of a bear, was like unto a leopard, and his and his mouth as the mouth of a are ten kings, which have received seemed to combine the strengih and no kingdom as yet; but receive ferocity of all. The leopard has great power as kings one hour with the agility; the bear's strength is in his beast ;" Rev. xvii. 12. This is fur- feet and legs; the lion's is in his ther confirmed by the fact, that upon mouth; and well said Daniel, thereeach horn was a crown; as though fore, that the “fourth beast was the revelator wished to say, these dreadful and terrible, and strong exhorns represent kings. | And upon ceedingly, and it had great iron teeth ;" his heads the name of blasphemy. vii. 7; or, “the mouth of a lion." The idea seems to be, that each head There will be no longer any dispute, bore a frontlet, on which was in that the fourth beast in Daniel's viss scribed a blasphemous title, i. e., an ion is the beast of the Apocalypse ; honorary name for the emperors, as and as Daniel's fourth beast arose ai if he had said, a name which dero- the time of the establishment of Chrisgated from the honor and glory of the tianity, vii. 13, 14, 22–27, and as the true God. The source of the imagery Roman Empire was then in its highhere is probably to be sought for in est and most glorious condition, there the custom of persons who held dis can be no doubt that the beast of the tinguished offices having some name, Apocalypse represents the Roman significant of office, rank or duty, Empire in its secular power. The engraved upon the frontlets of their dragon gave him his power, &c. – In mitres or diadems. In the Apoca- what sense did the dragon, or the lypse the promise is repeatedly given, priestly pagan influence, give power that faithful Christians shall be made to the beast, the secular authority ? kings and priests to God; they were It is a fact too notorious to be for one to have a white stone, and in the moment denied, that false spiritual stone a new name written, &c.; Rev. teachers have always given sirength ii. 17; that is, they were to be fur- to those secular rulers, however cornished with a diadem, such as kings rupt, who winked at their iniquities and priests are wont to wear. It is and interfered not with their designs. certain that the statues of the Roman in the history of the Jew's this fact is emperors had inscriptions on them distinctly seen. The false priests that belong only to God. Divine exerted iheir power to keep the people honors were paid to them, and espe-in subjection to bad rulers. cially after their death. From facts wonderful and horrible thing is comlike these, the beast is represented as mitted in the land; the prophets having sonie blasphemous title on each prophesy falsely, and the priests bear of his heads. — (Stuart on xiii. 1.) rule by their means; and my people
2. Like unto a leopard, &c. — Here love to have it so; and what will ye again is a proof that the revelator do in the end thereof?” Jer. v. 30, drew his figure from Daniel; for 31. The prophets uttered lies, and Daniel's four beasts were, first, a the priests ruled the people, indirectly lion ; second, a bear; third, a leop- perhaps, and the people were ard; and the fourth, a sort of inde. infatuated and deceived that they scribable animal, partaking of the loved the oppression. The manner qualities of all. And hence the reve-in which the iniquity of priests served lator says, that the beast he saw rise to sustain the wickedness of secular from the sea, (Daniel's beasts all rose rulers, is set forth by Micah, iii. 10from the sea; vii. 3, 4,) was like unto 12, as follows: • They build up a leopard, a bear, and a lion. He Zion with blood, and Jerusalem with
lion: and the dragon gave him as it were wounded to death : his power, and his seat, and and his deadly wound was great authority.
healed; and all the world won3 And I saw one of his heads dered after the beast.
iniquity. The -heads thereof judge priestly pagan power of Rome sus. for reward, and the priests thereof tained the secular arm, by means of teach for hire, and the prophets the false doctrines, the awful rites, thereof divine for money : yet will the terrible mysteries; and in this they lean upon the Lord, and say, Is way, if in no other, “the dragon gave not the Lord among us? none evil the beast his power, and his seat, can come upon us.
Therefore shall and great authority” over the people. Zion for your sake be ploughed as a Such a construction of this passage is field, and Jerusalem shall become consistent with fact, and makes unity. heaps, and the mountain of the house No man can fail to see that the as the high places of the forest." Roman power is intended both by the That corrupt governments have been dragon (chap. xii.) and the beast, sustained by false doctrines, promul (chap. xiii.,) with some circumstances gated by priests and philosophers, is of dissimilarity. The pagan power acknowledged by credible historians of the empire is put first, because it Polybius, for instance, an ancient rose up first against Christianity ; and Greek historian, tells us plainly that the support which the pagan power “since the multitude is ever fickle gave the secular is described in the and capricious, full of lawless pas- verse before us. sions and irrational and violent re- 3. One of his heads as it were wounded sentments, there is no way left to to death. – The beast, we have seen, keep them in order, but by the terrors had seven' heads, ver. 1. The same of future punishment and all the was true of the dragon ; xii. 3. One pompous circumstance that attends of the heads of the beast was wounded such kind of fiction. On which to death, a hyperbole, perhaps, for a account, the ancients acted, in my very severe wound. This undoubt. opinion, with great judgment and edly describes some calamity that fell penetration, when they contrived to upon the government of the empire, bring in those notions of the gods and in one of its sections, which was a future state into the popular belief.” afterwards repaired. One of the Strabo, another Greek writer, speaks heads was severely wounded and to the same purpose. “It is impos- afterwards healed. If these seven sible,” he says, “to govern women, heads represent seven kings, (as we and the gross body of the people, and should be led to think from chap. to keep them pious, holy and vir- xvii. 10,) then the wounding of one tuous, by the precepts of philosophy : of the heads would refer to some this can only be done by the fear of calamity of one of these kings, which the gods, which is raised and sup- he subsequently recovered from. That ported by ancient fictions and modern it was some disaster suffered by vio. prodigies.” He tells us further, that lence, is apparent from verse 14, the “apparatus of the ancient my where the wound is said to have been thologies” was “an engine which the made “ by a sword.” | All the world legislators employed as bugbears to wondered. - The Roman government strike a terror into the childish imag- was undoubtedly a wonder to all the ination of the multitude." See the world. “ And they that dwell on the work of Rev. Thos. J. Sawyer, enti- earth shall wonder, whose names tled, “ Endless Punishment, its Origin were not written in the book of life and Grounds Examined,” p. 22. The from the foundation of the world,