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remains of Solomon's Temple; and a cistern, known and revered as the Well of the Leaf. Tradition says that Mohammed delivered a prophecy that one of his followers should enter Paradise while yet alive. During the caliphate of Omar, a worshipper, one Sherik-ibnHaiyan, came to this well to draw water, when his bucket slipped from his hands and fell in. He went down after it, and to his infinite surprise came to a door, which he thrust open, and found it led to a magnificent garden. He wandered about for some time and then returned, bringing with him a leaf which he had plucked as a token. The leaf never withered, and devout Moslems have ever since regarded this well as one of the entrances to Paradise.

Before referring in detail to the substructions of the Mosque El-Aksa, let us return to the Harâm, and glance at some of the things that meet the eye there.

Opposite the east portal of the Dome of the Rock is the Dome of the Chain, or David's Place of Judgment-an elegant structure supported by antique columns of different designs, paved with costly mosaics, and surmounted with a dome said by Moslems to have been the model for the Dome of the Rock. It is believed that once--a long time ago -a chain was suspended from heaven, and stood over this spot, and that when any two disputants could not agree the chain would move towards the one who had the right on his side, and this would settle the dispute. Near here is a structure where the prophets are said to have preached, and another where Solomon offered his prayer on the dedication of the Temple to the service of God; another, erected to commemorate Mohammed's nightjourney to heaven; an elegant pulpit, on horse-shoe arches a fine specimen of Arabian art— where a sermon is preached every Friday in Ramadan; and various other buildings.

Between El-Aksa and the Dome of the Rock is a marble fountain, beneath which is a large reservoir, formerly supplied from the Pools of Solomon, seven or eight English miles distant.

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A tour round the Harâm by the walls will introduce us to many places of absorbing interest. By the east wall is a stairway ascending to the top of the wall, and here the view is very striking. Immediately below is the valley of Jehoshaphat—a mass of graves and memorial-stones, the dead of all generations filling up the once deep valley. Jews and Moslems believe that this valley will be the scene of the Last Judgment: the Jews, on the ground of a prophecy in which it is said, "I will also gather all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about" (Joel iii. 2, 12); the Moslems, on the ground of a tradition that when Mohammed comes to judge the world he will sit on this wall at a spot marked by a broken column, built in horizontally to the wall. This is the first pier of the great bridge Es Sir'ab, which is to be thrown over the gulf of hell and to be crossed by all who wish to reach Paradise. But, thin as the bridge is at the starting-place, it will, as it lengthens, become fine as a hair, and each person will have to carry the burden of his sins as fetters. The wicked will fall into the gulf, but the righteous will be supported by angels, and the farther they go along the bridge the lighter will be their burdens, till at length they will fly in safety to their heaven.

Near to this is the celebrated Golden Gate, or, according to tradition, the Beautiful Gate of the Temple, where Peter and John cured the lame man. It is one of the closed gates, and

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be the time f the Crusades it was a lí sem minn states that when our Saviour

die pre in Es trrimptal procession on Palm Ivl 20 VINst dhe aty from the hand of the Moslems; mini vilei x a It is, however, generally as via the late Sinsan reformed to in the Talmud; and, Sashan, and thr nghi e cd see the High Priest Asistants. ving at the Ment of Olives."

The gate

y her Cirst: the interior is used as a place of Is 1 hr mitei pral highly crate, and every pillar, column, Save been debated by the logists, who still differ, and probably f her as the deals.

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s i nospie elled the Thrine of Solomon, marking the spot de vus und lead. - La crier to ecnceal his death from the demons meda is set with his staff, and it was not till the worms had gnawed - mi musel the body to that the demons became aware that they fem the king's authority." Looking through a breach in the north racht mi. Foi of Bethesda is seen, 120 yards long and 45 wide, lying nearly So Now the level of the Temple plateau, and called at the present time the Birket At the north-west angle of the Haram are the Turkish barracks

is beltemal on the site of the fortress of Antonia-and the highest minaret Such are some of the main features of this remarkable spot, where, for centuries, no sa dve has trodden until in quite recent times-a spot which is second to hardly any geun the world, and where still lie buried secrets which, so soon as the prejudices ne Moslems can be overcome, will doubtless be revealed to the searching eye of science.

checo we have been in the track of legend-mongers and travellers; it is time we showed now get on the track of scientific explorers.


the mist explorer of the ruins of Jerusalem was Nehemiah, the prophet, who, in the Seed wired bears his name, gives a singularly vivid description of the difficulties to be overcome in obtaining a rough survey before practical work could be commenced. 40.0 m the night," he says, "I and some few men with me; neither told I any man what God bad put in my heart to do at Jerusalem: neither was there any beast with me, save the beast that I rode upon. And I went out by night by the Gate of the Valley, oven before the Dragon Well, and to the Dung Port, and viewed the walls of Jerusalem, which were broken down, and the gates thereof which were consumed with fire. Then I wonk on to the Gate of the Fountain, and to the King's Pool: but there was no place for Then went I up in the night by the brook, and The beast that was under me to pass. wowed the wall, and turned back, and entered by the Gate of the Valley, and so returned."* Sonce his day dorusalem has been again and again laid low in ruin, and explorers have wow up to do the same good work. Such were Origen and Jerome, Constantine and Helena; medoval poligrime and scientific travellers, such as Drs. Robinson and Smith, Lynch, De

Neh. ii. 12-15.

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First Sight of the City - Early Experiences-The Tartar, Fire, and Plague-The French in Moscow-General Aspect of the City-The Kremlin-Its Wall, Gates, Towers, Bells, Palaces, and Chapels - The Church of the Assumption -of the Archangel Michael-of the Annunciation-Russo-Greek Church Ceremonials-Church of St. Saviour in the Wood-Miracle Monastery --The Chinese City-Religious Symbols-The Iberian Madonna-St. Basil The Skull Place Michel Romanoff's House-Markets and Bazaars-The Foundling Hospital-Ethnographical MuseumThe Temple of the Saviour-Tea-houses and Tea-drinkers-The Moskouski Traktir-Tea-gardens-The Russian Peasant-Luxuries of the Table-Water-carriers - Funerals-Pigeons -The University-Monasteries and Convents -Gardens, Palaces, and Country Seats -The Troitsa Monastery


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The Flaminian Way-Piazza del Popolo-The Pincio-Piazza di Spagna-The Spanish Staircase-House of KeatsTrinità de' Monti-Propaganda Fide-Column of the Immaculate Conception-Bridge and Castle of St. Angelo-St. Peter's-The Vatican-Corso-The Capitol-Tarpeian Rock-Ara Coli-Mamertine Prison-Forum Romanum -Arch of Titus-The Palatine and Palace of the Cæsars-Colosseum-Appian Way - Catacombs-Baths of Caracalla-Basilicas and Churches-Temple of Vesta-Pantheon-St. John Lateran-The Scala Sancta-Santa Croce in Gerusalemme-Santa Maria Maggiore-St. Paul Without the Walls-Other Churches-Palaces and Villas -The Seven Hills-Walls and Gates-Colleges and Academies-Charitable Institutions-Cemeteries-The GhettoPopulation-Modern Aspects of the City.




The Valley of the Spree-Rise of the City-Population-Streets-Unter den Linden-Squares and Open Spaces-Opera Platz-Palace of the Emperor William-Academy of Art and Science-Palace of the Crown Prince-The Schloss Brücke-Lustgarten - Royal Palace-The Old and New Museums-Churches-Synagogues - Hospitals-BorseChamber of Deputies-Public Museums-The Schloss Montbijou-Factories-Amusements-Suburbs and Environs -The Aeussere Friedrichstadt-The Stralan Quarter-Outside the Brandenburg Gate-The Thiergarten-Charlottenburg. POTSDAM, and its Memorials of Frederick the Great-Sans Souci-Voltaire-Spandau


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The Five Cities of New Zealand. AUCKLAND: Its Situation-Harbour-Public Buildings-Roads and RailwaysEarly Days-Mount Eden-Environs-Mineral Resources-Commerce-Hot Springs-The Maoris-Colonisation of the Islands. WELLINGTON: Government Buildings-Post Office-House of Representatives. NELSON: SituationMineral Products-The Wairau Massacre. DUNEDIN: A Scotch Settlement-Streets-University-Municipal Buildings-Garrison Hall-The Gold-Fields. CHRISTCHURCH: Port Lyttelton-The Avon-Canterbury Plains-"Pippins and Cheese "


. 220


Associations of Geneva-Antiquity of the City-Calvin and the Reformation-Present Aspect-Situation-BridgesMonuments-Cathedral-Hôtel de Ville-Historical Museum-Memorials of the Escalade-Promenades-Public Library-Holiday Life-Watch-Making-Environs-Lake Leman-Lausanne-Vevey and the Fête des VigneronsBlonay-Tour de Peilz-Clarens-The Castle of Chillon


CHRISTIANIA: Oslö-Industries Houses-The Palace-Storthing-University-Churches-Public Buildings-Castle of Agershuus-Cistercian Monastery-Oscarshall-Egeberg. THRONDHJEM: Beauty of its Situation-The Founding of the City-Cathedral-Palace-Museum-Munkholm-Lerfossen. BERGEN: The Harbour-Murders and Massacres -Trade Fires- Streets and Houses-Markets - Fisher Folk-Tydskebruggen-Peasant Costumes-ChurchesScenery around Bergen. STOCKHOLM: General View- King Agne-Wars and Tumults-The Norrbro-Royal Palace-Esplanade-Library--Museum-Churches-Assembly Hall --Riddarhuus-Town Hall-The Blood BathRoyal Theatre-Parks and Gardens --Palace of Drottningholm-Lake Mälar-Gripsholm-Upsala. COPENHAGEN: Origin and Growth-Historical Events-English Conquest-Plague and Cholera-Citadel-Forts-King's New Market-Christiansborg Palace-Picture Gallery-Rosenborg Castle-Palace of Amalienborg-Other PalacesMuseum of Northern Antiquities-Ethnographic Museum-Thorwaldsen Museum-Churches-Arsenal-LibraryCharitable Institutions -Exchange-Theatre-Environs.




The City of Lilies-Influence, Riches, Memories-View from the Boboli Gardens-Fiesole-Early Struggles-Guelphs and Ghibellines, Parties and Factions Epitome of History The Lung' Arno-Bridges-Streets-Piazza della Signoria - The Loggia dei Lanzi Palazzo Vecchio -The Uffizi Gallery and its Treasures-The Tribune-The Duomo (Santa Maria del Fiore)-Brunelleschi's Dome-Giotto's Campanile - Church of San Lorenzo-Baptistery of St. John -The Gates of Paradise - Santa Croce -Dante-Galileo Galilei-Machiavelli-Church of the Carmine-Santa Maria Maggiore -SS. Annunziata Santo Spirito--Monasteries- San Marco Fra Angelico-Savonarola and his TimesChurch of San Marco The Pitti Palace and the Medici Family-The Story of Bianca Capello-Palaces, and Houses of Celebrated Men-Hospitals The Misericordia-Markets - Campo Santo- Old Protestant Cemetery — Schools, Libraries, Theatres, and Manufactories-Environs -San Miniato-Vallombrosa .


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