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PAGE First Sight of the City - Early Experiences-The Tartar, Fire, and Plague-The French in Moscow-General Aspect of
the City-The Kremlin-Its Wall, Gates, Towers, Bells, Palaces, and Chapels - The Church of the Assumption -of the Archangel Michael-of the Annunciation-Russo-Greek Church Ceremonials-Church of St. Saviour in the Wood--Miracle Monastery --The Chinese City-Religious Symbols—The Iberian Madonna-St. Basil- The Skull Place - Michel Romanoff's House-Markets and Bazaars-The Foundling Hospital-Ethnographical MuseumThe Temple of the Saviour-Tea-houses and Tea-drinkers-The Moskouski Traktir-Tea-gardens-The Russian Peasant-Luxuries of the Table-Water-carriers -Funerals-Pigeons - The University-Monasteries and Convents -Gardens, Palaces, and Country Seats - The Troitsa Monastery . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
ROME. The Flaminian Way-Piazza del Popolo-The Pincio-Piazza di Spagna-The Spanish Staircase-House of Keats
Trinità de' Monti-Propaganda Fide-Column of the Immaculate Conception-Bridge and Castle of St. Angelo-St. Peter's-The Vatican-Corso-The Capitol-Tarpeian Rock-Ara Coeli-Mamertine Prison-Forum Romanum --Arch of Titus-The Palatine and Palace of the Cæsars-Colosseum-Appian Way - Catacombs-Baths of Caracalla-Basilicas and Churches-Temple of Vesta-Pantheon--St. John Lateran-The Scala Sancta-Santa Croce in Gerusalemme-Santa Maria Maggiore-St. Paul Without the Walls-Other Churches-Palaces and Villas - The Seven Hills-Walls and Gates-Colleges and Academies-Charitable Institutions-Cemeteries- The Ghetto Population-Modern Aspects of the City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
BERLIN. The Valley of the Spree-Rise of the City-Population-Streets-Unter den Linden-Squares and Open Spaces--Opera
Platz-Palace of the Emperor William-Academy of Art and Science-Palace of the Crown Prince-The Schloss Brücke-Lustgarten - Royal Palace–The Old and New Museums-Churches--Synagogues - Hospitals-BorseChamber of Deputies-Public Museums—The Schloss Montbijou-Factories- Amusements --Suburbs and Environs – The Aeussere Friedrichstadt-The Stralan Quarter-Outside the Brandenburg Gate-The Thiergarten-Charlottenburg. POTSDAM, and its Memorials of Frederick the Great-Sans Souci-Voltaire-Spandau . . . . 197
THE CITIES OF NEW ZEALAND. The Five Cities of New Zealand. AUCKLAND : Its Situation-Harbour-Public Buildings-Roads and Railways
Early Days-Mount Eden-Environs-Mineral Resources-Commerce-Hot Springs-The Maoris-Colonisation of the Islands. WELLINGTON: Government Buildings-Post Office-House of Representatives. NELSON : SituationMineral Products—The Wairau Massacre. DUXEDIN: A Scotch Settlement-Streets-University-Municipal Buildings-Garrison Hall-The Gold-Fields. CHRISTCHURCH: Port Lyttelton-The Avon-Canterbury Plains—“Pippins and Cheese" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
GENEVA. Associations of Geneva- Antiquity of the City-Calvin and the Reformation-Present Aspect-Situation-Bridges
Monuments-Cathedral-Hôtel de Ville--Historical Museum-Memorials of the Escalade-Promenades-Public Library-Holiday Life-Watch-Making-Environs-Lake Leman-Lausanne-Vevey and the Fête des Vignerons-Blonay-Tour de Peilz-Clarens, The Castle of Chillon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
SCANDINAVIAN CITIES. CHRISTIANIA: Oslö-Industries-louses-The Palace-Storthing-University-Churches-Public Buildings-Castle of
Agershuus-Cistercian Monastery--Oscarshall-Egeberg. THRONDHJEM: Beauty of its Situation-The Founding of the City--Cathedral-Palace--Museum-Munkholm-Lerfossen. BERGEN: The barbour-Murders and Massacres - Trade - Fires.-- Streets and Houses — Markets - Fisher Folk-Tydskebruggen-Peasant Costumes -Churches
Bergen. STOCKHOLM: General View-King Agne-Wars and Tumults--The Norrbro-Royal Palace-Esplanade-Library-Museum-Churches--Assembly Hall -Riddarhuus-Town Hall-The Blood BathRoval Theatre-Parks and Gardens-Palace of Drottningholm -Lake Mälar-Gripsholm-Upsala. COPENHAGEN: Origin and Growth-Historical Events-English Conquest-Plague and Cholera-Citadel--Forts -King's New Market-Christiansborg Palace - Picture Gallery-Rosenborg Castle-Palace of Amalienborg-Other PalacesMuseum of Northern Antiquities-Ethnographic Museum-Thorwaldsen Museum-Churches-Arsenal-LibraryCharitable Institutions - Exchange-Theatre-Environs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
The City of Lilies-Influence, Riches, Memories-View from the Boboli Gardens-Fiesole-Early Struggles-Guelphs and
Ghibellines, Parties and Factions --Epitome of History - The Lung' Arno-Bridges -Streets-Piazza della Signoria
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
The “Ecce Homo " Arch, Jerusalem Frontispiece
. . . . . . . 21 The Jews' Wailing-Place . . . Valley of Jehoshaphat, with “ Absalom's Pillar". 29
Independence Hall . . . . . .
Academy of Fine Arts.
University of Pennsylvania . . .
BRUSSELS AND THE CITIES OF BELGIUM :-
Palais de Justice.
Arms of Moscow . . . . . . . .
the Deliverance of Russia from the French . 144 The Château of Petrofski . . . . . . 119 The Troitsa Monastery of St. Sergius . . . 153
Temple of Unwinged Victory.
Temple of Jupiter . . . . . .
The Arms of Rome. . . . . . . 155
ground . . . . . . . . . 157
. . . . . . . . 168 Statue of Marcus Aurelius . . . . . . The Scala Coeli : Stairs of the Church of St. Mary
of the Capitol . . . . . . . . 173 Entrance to the Forum by the Sacred Way
to face page
the Forum . . . . . . . . .
ROME (continued) :
PAGE Palace of the Medici . . . . . . . 193 Seven-branched Candlestick. (From the Arch of
Titus, Rome) . . . . . . . . 196
PAGE View of Geneva, looking towards the lake
to face page 235 Plan of Geneva . . . . . . . .
Arms of Berlin. . . . . . . . . 197
Looking towards the Brandenburg Gate.
Royal Library. . . . . .
National Gallery . . . . . .
Sans Souci Palace with the Terraces . ..
The New Palace
SCANDINAVIAN CITIES :-
. . . . . 219 Bergen
Gustavus . . . . . . . . . 261
The Charlottenborg Palace . . . .
Florence, from the Belvedere . .to face page
. . . . . . . . ib.
293 Staircase of the Bargello Palace. Panels of the Gate of the Baptistery of St. John. 297 Giotto. .
300 Michael Angelo · · · · ·
ib. The Uffizi Gallery (1865) . . . . . .
Arms of Geneva . . . . . . . 231
seau . . . . . . . . . . 233
The Holy City of Jew, Moslem, and Christian-A Summary of its History-Situation-Jerusalem of To-day-Population
Religious Sects—The Walls and Gates-Streets and Bazaars-A Scene near the Jaffa Gate-The Tower of Hippicus -The Church of the Holy Sepulchre-Chapels in the Church- The Holy Fire-Legends-Golgotha – The Via DolorosaThe Hârâm-esh-Sherif-Associations—The Dome of the Rock—The Cave-Holy Places of the Moslems—The Mosque El-Aksa–The Dome of the Chain-The Place of Judgment–The Golden Gate-The Throne of Solomon-The First Explorer-Recent Explorations—The Cradle of Christ-Solomon's Stables-Walls of the Hârâm -Robinson's ArchWater-Supply-The Jews' Wailing-Place-Hospital of the Knights of St. John-Tomb of David-The Conaculum. ENVIRONS : Valley of Gihon—Valley of Hinnom-Aceldama-Job's Well-En-Rogel-Pool of Siloam-Fountain of the Virgin-Pyramid of Zacharias-Grotto of St. James-Tomb of Jehoshaphat-Tomb of Absalom-Mount of Olives View-Bethany-Garden of Gethsemane-Tomb of the Virgin-Tombs of the Kings (or Helena)—Damascus GateQuarries-Philanthropic Institutions.
ERUSALEM is unlike any other city in the world. Age after age, pilgrims
have been drawn to it; scholars have studied every particular concerning it; w explorers have searched with wistful eyes through its ruins ; teachers have en collected every scrap of information about it to tell reverently to their pupils;
preachers have framed ten thousand sermons upon it; painters and poets have
described it over and over again, and in minutest detail. And why? Because in the veins of every man there is the beating of a spiritual life whose origins are recorded in the wondrous series of legends, genealogies, surveys, histories, laws, poetry, which formed
the literature of the ancient people of that land whose capital was Jerusalem-a literature preserved in the sacred books which Christendom treasures as her Bible.
Every spot in that“ Holy” Land has a sacred interest wherever the Bible is in circulation; but whatever interest other spots may present, the interest of all is summed up in Jerusalem. There was the Salem from whence, in the narrative of Abraham, Melchizedek, the King of Peace, came down to greet the Patriarch of the Hebrew race. « There was the impregnable fortress from which, long after their fellow-Hittites had been swept away, the men of Jebus looked out defiantly over the settlement and strife of the invader. There stood the city of David, and the royal tombs that received, one by one, the long line of David's descendants. There, over against it, rose, fell, and rose again, the great Temple which enshrined the faith of the Jew. There stood that Holy Sepulchre from which flowed the faith of Christendom. It is the Holy City of Jew, of Moslem, of Christian, alike; the one fount to which all these widely diverging streams look back for their origin. It is the one spot where Jew and Christian and Moslem still meet face to face, the home to which that strange race, dispersed throughout the world, clings as its own; the one point where the jealousies of Eastern and Western Christendom still rage with mediæval intensity; the one point where the fated rivalry between the Turk and Christendom has taken fire in our own day, and threatens to take fire still.”
In the thrilling story of the history of the Holy City told by sacred and secular writers we have the record of the capture of the citadel of the Jebusites, which thenceforth took the name of the “ City of David,” and Jerusalem became the civil and religious centre of the united kingdom of Israel and Judah. There, too, we read of how it was adorned and fortified by Solomon, and the great Temple built on Mount Moriah; how in Rehoboam's reign it was besieged and plundered by Shishak, King of Egypt; how it engaged in struggles with the revolted tribes; how it was attacked by Syrians, Assyrians, and Egyptians, pillaged by Philistines and Arabians, besieged by the Assyrians under Sennacherib, fortified and restored by Hezekiah, taken, ransacked, and partially destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, and its inhabitants carried captives into Babylon; how, by the dauntless energy of Ezra, Nehemiah, and others, the city was rebuilt, notwithstanding the opposition of the Samaritans; how it fell into the hands of Alexander the Great, of Ptolemy Sotor, King of Egypt, and of the Seleucidæ of Syria ; how it was desecrated and oppressed by Antiochus Epiphanes, and after a national revolution was restored under the sway of the Maccabæan Princes; how it was taken by the Romans under Pompey, and made tributary to Rome; how Herod the Great held sway and rebuilt the splendid temple, and raised magnificent palaces on Mount Zion; and how in A.D. 70, under Titus, the city was besieged, captured, and totally destroyed. Then follows the Christian occupation of three hundred years; the Mohammedan conquest, with its monumental record; the building of the Dome of the Rock; the Crusades, the Christian Kingdom, and the final settling down of the city under the long night of Mohammedan rule, unbroken till our day save by the periodical flocking of pilgrims or travellers to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, or by a more than usually scandalous outbreak between the Greek and Latin monks.
Jerusalem "stands on the line of the great central plateau of limestone which forms the backbone of Western Palestine, on a block scooped out from the rest of the plateau