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The Holy City of Jew, Moslem, and Christian-A Summary of its History-Situation-Jerusalem of To-day-PopulationReligious Sects-The Walls and Gates-Streets and Bazaars-A Scene near the Jaffa Gate-The Tower of Hippicus -The Church of the Holy Sepulchre-Chapels in the Church-The Holy Fire-Legends-Golgotha -The Via DolorosaThe Hârâm-esh-Sherif-Associations-The Dome of the Rock-The Cave-Holy Places of the Moslems-The Mosque El-Aksa-The Dome of the Chain-The Place of Judgment-The Golden Gate-The Throne of Solomon-The First Explorer-Recent Explorations-The Cradle of Christ-Solomon's Stables-Walls of the Hârâm-Robinson's ArchWater-Supply-The Jews' Wailing-Place-Hospital of the Knights of St. John-Tomb of David-The Conaculum. ENVIRONS: Valley of Gihon-Valley of Hinnom-Aceldama-Job's Well-En-Rogel-Pool of Siloam-Fountain of the Virgin-Pyramid of Zacharias-Grotto of St. James-Tomb of Jehoshaphat-Tomb of Absalom-Mount of OlivesView-Bethany-Garden of Gethsemane-Tomb of the Virgin-Tombs of the Kings (or Helena)-Damascus GateQuarries-Philanthropic Institutions.
7ERUSALEM is unlike any other city in the world. Age after age, pilgrims have been drawn to it; scholars have studied every particular concerning it; explorers have searched with wistful eyes through its ruins; teachers have collected every scrap of information about it to tell reverently to their pupils ; preachers have framed ten thousand sermons upon it; painters and poets have described it over and over again, and in minutest detail. And why? Because in the veins of every man there is the beating of a spiritual life whose origins are recorded in the wondrous series of legends, genealogies, surveys, histories, laws, poetry, which formed
the literature of the ancient people of that land whose capital was Jerusalem a literature preserved in the sacred books which Christendom treasures as her Bible.
Every spot in that "Holy" Land has a sacred interest wherever the Bible is in circulation; but whatever interest other spots may present, the interest of all is summed up in Jerusalem. There was the Salem from whence, in the narrative of Abraham, Melchizedek, the King of Peace, came down to greet the Patriarch of the Hebrew race. "There was the impregnable fortress from which, long after their fellow-Hittites had been swept away, the men of Jebus looked out defiantly over the settlement and strife of the invader. There stood the city of David, and the royal tombs that received, one by one, the long line of David's descendants. There, over against it, rose, fell, and rose again, the great Temple which enshrined the faith of the Jew. There stood that Holy Sepulchre from which flowed the faith of Christendom. It is the Holy City of Jew, of Moslem, of Christian, alike; the one fount to which all these widely diverging streams look back for their origin. It is the one spot where Jew and Christian and Moslem still meet face to face, the home to which that strange race, dispersed throughout the world, clings as its own; the one point where the jealousies of Eastern and Western Christendom still rage with medieval intensity; the one point where the fated rivalry between the Turk and Christendom has taken fire in our own day, and threatens to take fire still.”
In the thrilling story of the history of the Holy City told by sacred and secular writers we have the record of the capture of the citadel of the Jebusites, which thenceforth took the name of the "City of David," and Jerusalem became the civil and religious centre of the united kingdom of Israel and Judah. There, too, we read of how it was adorned and fortified by Solomon, and the great Temple built on Mount Moriah; how in Rehoboam's reign it was besieged and plundered by Shishak, King of Egypt; how it engaged in struggles with the revolted tribes; how it was attacked by Syrians, Assyrians, and Egyptians, pillaged by Philistines and Arabians, besieged by the Assyrians under Sennacherib, fortified and restored by Hezekiah, taken, ransacked, and partially destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, and its inhabitants carried captives into Babylon; how, by the dauntless energy of Ezra, Nehemiah, and others, the city was rebuilt, notwithstanding the opposition of the Samaritans; how it fell into the hands of Alexander the Great, of Ptolemy Sotor, King of Egypt, and of the Seleucidæ of Syria; how it was desecrated and oppressed by Antiochus Epiphanes, and after a national revolution was restored under the sway of the Maccabæan Princes; how it was taken by the Romans under Pompey, and made tributary to Rome; how Herod the Great held sway and rebuilt the splendid temple, and raised magnificent palaces on Mount Zion; and how in A.D. 70, under Titus, the city was besieged, captured, and totally destroyed. Then follows the Christian occupation of three hundred years; the Mohammedan conquest, with its monumental record; the building of the Dome of the Rock; the Crusades, the Christian Kingdom, and the final settling down of the city under the long night of Mohammedan rule, unbroken till our day save by the periodical flocking of pilgrims or travellers to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, or by a more than usually scandalous outbreak between the Greek and Latin monks.
Jerusalem "stands on the line of the great central plateau of limestone which forms the backbone of Western Palestine, on a block scooped out from the rest of the plateau