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open and two closed-the former are the Jaffa Gate, on the west, called by the Arabs Bâbel-Khalil, or the Gate of the Friend, leading to Hebron; the Damascus Gate, leading to Samaria and Damascus; St. Stephen's Gate, leading to Olivet and Bethany; the Dung

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Gate, or Gate of the Western Africans, leading to Siloam; and Zion Gate, or Gate of the Prophet David, on the ridge of Zion. The closed gates are the Golden Gate in the eastern wall of the Harâm, and the Gate of Herod.

The town itself covers an area of 209.5 acres, of which 35 are occupied by the Harâm-eshSherîf the plateau of the Temple. The remaining space is divided into different quarters

Casiat quarter, including the part occupied by the Armenians, taking up the western at Xoia medane have the north-east portion; the Jews the south-east. "The circumference is neary two and a quarter miles, while the extent of the city-small as it is, it my son to ing for the population-may be illustrated by the fact that it would nearly verupy the spruce meinded between Oxford Street and Piccadilly on the north and south, aut Fark Zane and Bond Street on the east and west.”* The streets are narrow, badly alt er et as a corkscrew; the principal being the Street of David, leading from the Wall Grave 1 the Harun; the Street of the Gate of the Columns, running from the Latam Grave 1 the Street of the Gate of the Prophet David, under which name it contrue to 2.4. Gat: Christian Street, running from the Street of David to the Church of the lily be Jeur ; and the Via Dolorosa, running from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to De Bert Gate.

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en an very few open spaces, and not one street in which a carriage can be driven; the vacaar, are poor, and not to be compared for a moment with those of Cairo or Damascus ; to an 11 arrow lanes, for the most part vaulted over, and exhibit the usual articles to be Das Lavier inzaare-shoes, pipes, tobaccos, hardware, jewellery, cutlery, and so forth

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ig under the superintendence of a man in flowing robes and turban, who sits kousenzore, and see wile the crowd buzzes unceasingly around him. There are two good the Mediterranean" and the "Damascus ;" and several hospices-the Casa Nova of the kie mieste, the Austrian Hospice, and the Prussian Hospice of St. John-but the majority 2' traveler was are making the tour of Palestine camp outside the city, as indeed do many abrane in the summer-time for the sake of the purer air. Almost every

darum, at derutem has a cupola, with a flat space on the roof to allow a stroll round it, and teamen are of stone. Very few of them exhibit any traces of architectural beauty; in Lat. La cue ing-houses generally suggest poverty and dirt.

u now in imagination enter Jerusalem by the Jaffa Gate, and, after looking round, Band our way to Christian Street, the principal bazaar-street of the city, and thence to the Ca. of the Holy Sepulchre.


Itratur "scson"-that is to say, the spring or the autumn, but more especially the tarting some will be witnessed as soon as the Jaffa Gate is passed and the large yen a unyous it reached. The scene resembles a fair, or carnival, at which representatives conditions of men, of all nations and kindreds and peoples and tongues, are Gottan, quessed in every conceivable and outlandish costume, wrought in every shade Sivt at veined women in bright blue, or yellow, or scarlet; Turks in embroidered in de tatt it g Nurane; Bedouins with glittering weapons in their girdles; Albanians in go to our biste jackets abounding in gold and silver threadwork; Nubians in white mga faces and hair in ringlets; Russian pilgrims wrapped in fur as if Nte of Jerusalem to turn to that of Moscow; Englishmen in tourist never deelitate of garb; dragomans; Turkish soldiers; Greek priests with at monks with pointed black hoods; high-capped and black-habited Stats, all crowded together; while amongst them run and plead a

• Our Work in Palestine," p. 28.

legion of beggars droning or screaming the everlasting cry of "Backsheesh!" Rows of stalls line the way, at which men and boys with loud voices are calling out their waressherbet, nuts, oranges, sweetmeats, and cooked food of doubtful aspect; while a row of small shops and cafés appear to be doing a roaring trade, especially in those where a tempting placard announces "English beer sold here."

On the right hand the eye rests at once upon a massive square tower, forming part of the citadel. It is the Tower of Hippicus-the tower described by Josephus-the tower about which there has been endless controversy. The substructures are very solid and of great antiquity; the stones, many of them ten feet in length, are bevelled, with rough surfaces. Over the height of thirty-nine feet the masonry is of a different character, and it is supposed by some that the lower part is a portion of the fortress erected by King David, or, according to others, of the Tower of Hippicus, built by Herod. Whichever it may have been—or it may have been both-there is every probability that this tower was standing in the days when our Lord was on earth. Josephus tells us that Titus left this tower standing when he destroyed the city; and it was the last place to yield when Jerusalem was taken by the Franks. "There is not one house standing," says MacLeod, "on which we can feel certain that our Lord ever gazed, unless it be the old tower at the Jaffa Gate."

Close by is the English church on the site of Herod's palace, a substantial and pretty building, and the interior simple and in good taste-a striking contrast to many of the other churches.

Turning now into Christian Street, where the shops more resemble those of European cities than in the other streets, a narrow turning brings us to one of the most interesting spots in the world, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Rivers of ink have flowed in controversies over the sites of holy places in Jerusalem. generally, and of the Church of the Sepulchre in particular. The site of Golgotha, as indicated in the Scriptures, was outside the walls of the city; the site of the Church of the Sepulchre is far within the present walls. The question is, Could the present site ever have answered to the requirements of the sacred narrative in which it is said that Golgotha was "nigh to the city" (John xix. 20); that our Lord was crucified "without the gate" (Heb. xiii. 12); and that "in the place where He was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid; there laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand"? (John xix. 41-2). Opinions are divided upon this topographical controversy; De Vogüé, Williams, and many others being in favour of the present site; Dr. Robinson, Fergusson, and others taking the opposite view. The next important point of controversy is that of historical evidence; and it is agreed that there is no evidence whatever that this site was held in reverence during the early centuries of the Christian era. It is not mentioned by any of the apostles; nor-with the exception of a passage in Eusebius, in which he states that over the sepulchre, "that illustrious monument of immortality," had been erected a Temple of Venus-is anything known of it until the Emperor Constantine caused the Temple of Venus to be overthrown and the holy cave laid bare. Subsequently, so it is said, Helena, the mother of Constantine, discovered, by a divine vision, the true Cross and all the localities connected with the death and burial of our Lord.

rtain is that on this site a magnificent church was commenced in a.d. 326, ▲.b. 355, and from that time to the present there have been successive eta nata e site, notwithstanding destruction by the Persians, the Moslems, and by fire. Conetian quarter of the city, in a narrow crooked street called Palmer Street, Pada tabe ma of the Holy Sepulchre. A few rough stone steps lead down to a large , javed with yellowish slabs of stone; and the sight which meets the



one of any great festival, is curious in the extreme. A crowd of the colours of the rainbow, and composed of almost every nationality sensors of relics, rosaries, charms, crucifixes, and a variety of other articles; a more uttering their melancholy cries, which seem peculiar to Syria; pilgrims, ng tumann, Micials, priests-these in themselves present a curious spectacle; but court-yard, or, it may be, drawn up in a line with the vestibule of the audit shiny guard of Turkish soldiers-a guard of armed Moslems-to keep the Christian sects!

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* Bauer Palf has not an imposing aspect from the exterior, nor is there any spot ceful proportions can be seen, standing as it does in the midst of a crowded It is, however, an enormous building, or series of buildings, 350 feet w zo wide, and contains "seventy sacred localities presided over by seventeen 4% for were in separate chapels inside the edifice."

Without pausing to describe the architecture of the exterior, or the bas-reliefs over main portal, let us pass the Moslem custodians on their bench in the portal, where they woke their pipes and drink their coffee in utter indifference, as no "backsheesh" can be Gemanded at the times when the church is open, and commence our tour of the church, noting only the principal places of interest and the legends connected with them. And, in doing so, let us remember that we are following the footsteps of millions of pious pilgrims who, from all countries, through many centuries, have come hither, in a spirit of faith, devotion, and self-sacrifice, to worship.

The first thing we observe is a large stone, around which, at all times, there are many kneeling worshippers. It is the Stone of Unction, on which it is said the body of our Lord was laid for anointing when taken from the Cross. Notwithstanding the fact that the stone has often been changed, that it belonged at one time to the Copts, at another to the Georgians, then to the Latins, and afterwards to the Greeks, and that the present stone was only placed in position in the year 1808, it is positively worn down in parts by the lips of pilgrims who have kissed it. All the Christian sects have free access to this part of the church; and over the Stone of Unction, Armenians, Latins, Greeks, and Copts have hung lampe and large candelabra, which are always kept burning. A few paces farther on is another stone, in a railed enclosure, indicating the spot where the mother of our Lord stood while the body of Jesus was being anointed, and where she afterwards stood watching Har tomb. Slabs of marble, inlaid and radiating from the central stone, mark the very spot koown as the Station of Mary. Turning now to the right, a few steps bring us to the Rotunda of the Sepulchre-a vast space, in the centre of which stands the Holy Sepulchre itself. The doms, supported by eighteen piers, over which run two rows of arcades, is sixty-five feet in diameter, richly decorated with mosaics, and is open at the top like the Pantheon at Rome.

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