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remains of Solomon's Temple; and a cistern, known and revered as the Well of the Leaf. Tradition says that Mohammed delivered a prophecy that one of his followers should enter Paradise while yet alive. During the caliphate of Omar, a worshipper, one Sherik-ibnHaiyan, came to this well to draw water, when his bucket slipped from his hands and fell in. He went down after it, and to his infinite surprise came to a door, which he thrust open, and found it led to a magnificent garden. He wandered about for some time and then returned, bringing with him a leaf which he had plucked as a token. The leaf never withered, and devout Moslems have ever since regarded this well as one of the entrances 'to Paradise.

Before referring in detail to the substructions of the Mosque El-Aksa, let us return to the Harâm, and glance at some of the things that meet the eye there.

Opposite the east portal of the Dome of the Rock is the Dome of the Chain, or David's Place of Judgment—an elegant structure supported by antique columns of different designs, paved with costly mosaics, and surmounted with a dome said by Moslems to have been the model for the Dome of the Rock. It is believed that once--a long time ago

—a chain was suspended from heaven, and stood over this spot, and that when any two disputants could not agree the chain would move towards the one who had the right on his side, and this would settle the dispute. Near here is a structure where the prophets are said to have preached, and another where Solomon offered his prayer on the dedication of the Temple to the service of God; another, erected to commemorate Mohammed's nightjourney to heaven ; an elegant pulpit, on horse-shoe arches—a fine specimen of Arabian artwhere a sermon is preached every Friday in Ramadan ; and various other buildings.

Between El-Aksa and the Dome of the Rock is a marble fountain, beneath which is a large reservoir, formerly supplied from the Pools of Solomon, seven or eight English miles distant.

A tour round the Harâm by the walls will introduce us to many places of absorbing interest. By the east wall is a stairway ascending to the top of the wall, and here the view is very striking. Immediately below is the valley of Jehoshaphat-a mass of graves and memorial-stones, the dead of all generations filling up the once deep valley. Jews and Moslems believe that this valley will be the scene of the Last Judgment: the Jews, on the ground of a prophecy in which it is said, “I will also gather all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat ... for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about” (Joel iii. 2, 12); the Moslems, on the ground of a tradition that when Mohammed comes to judge the world he will sit on this wall at a spot marked by a broken column, built in horizontally to the wall. This is the first pier of the great bridge Es Sir’ab, which is to be thrown over the gulf of hell and to be crossed by all who wish to reach Paradise. But, thin as the bridge is at the starting-place, it will, as it lengthens, become fine as a hair, and each person will have to carry the burden of his sins as fetters. The wicked will fall into the gulf, but the righteous will be supported by angels, and the farther they go along the bridge the lighter will be their burdens, till at length they will fly in safety to their heaven.

Near to this is the celebrated Golden Gate, or, according to tradition, the Beautiful Gate of the Temple, where Peter and John cured the lame man. It is one of the closed gates, and


311 312 it ie me i the Crusalas it was

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l s me in Es Tumcal preession on Palm -73 :

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to in the Talmud ; and, . - Ets - De 1 an. mi ir

v e cse the High Priest - - * . is *13. 2014 mt 3 je V et of Oves.” The gate - - -

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10 IS T:1 . 1.

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s et viis sui. lai i wis dot tiil the worms had gnawed . w si e botir o Bilt the demons became aware that they

SM me 's city. Looking thrvagh a breach in the north in ni ?rii Becs i xen, 12 yaris king and 15 wide, lying nearly and ii ce Turzie paczu, and called at the present time the Birket

Hi e zuri-vest srple of the Harâm are the Turkish barracks

eri vare site of the fortress of Antonia—and the highest minaret men .II.

Saite sure the main futures of this remarkable spot, where, for centuries, no e ine Juda Rua: in quite recent times—a spot which is second to hardly any

were we were still be buried secrets which, so soon as the prejudices is bei veitta szent be rental', w duabciess be revealed to the searching eye of science.

Nutren we Burren bereit in the track of kgend-mongers and travellers; it is time we while Nowe te pet the track sentitie explorers. phie & s ongs the ruins of Jerusalem was Nehemiah, the prophet, who, in the

A fewers hex markes gives a singularly vivid description of the difficulties to be wwwer the white and match survey before practical work could be commenced. “I

w wie bo sevis, « 1 and some few men with me; neither told I any man w lind band put in my heart to do at Jerusalem : neither was there any beast with

we lid biet thu l le . And I went out by night by the Gate of the Valley w buvin the treesayan Wall, and to the Pung Port, and viewed the walls of Jerusalem. wuch len lukee down and the gates thereof which were consumed with fire. Then I w ewe bou the (iate of the Mountain, and to the King's Pool : but there was no pl

... tomuss. Then went I up in the night by the brook, and M und then thall, and turner buch, and entered by the Gate of the Valley, and so retur,

te houe ha malen les Recen again and again laid low in ruin, and exp Mwl w hile the water and work. Such were Origen and Jerome, Constantine and Helen

lars, such as Drs. Robinson and Smith, Lynch, De medin a ma and cientifio travellers, such as Drs. Robinson and si

• Neh. ii. 12-15.


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MOSCOW. First Sight of the City - Early Experiences-The Tartar, Fire, and Plague-The French in Moscow-General Aspect of

the City-The Kremlin-Its Wall, Gates, Towers, Bells, Palaces, and Chapels - The Church of the Assumption -of the Archangel Michael-of the Annunciation-Russo-Greek Church Ceremonials --Church of St. Saviour in the Wood-Miracle Monastery - The Chinese City-Religious Symbols-The Iberian Madonna-St. Basil The Skull Place - Michel Romanoff's House-Markets and Bazaars-The Foundling Hospital-Ethnographical MuseumThe Temple of the Saviour-Tea-houses and Tea-drinkers-The Moskouski Traktir-Tea-gardens-The Russian Peasant-Luxuries of the Table-Water-carriers - Funerals-Pigeons - The University-Monasteries and Convents -Gardens, Palaces, and Country Seats - The Troitsa Monastery . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

ROME. The Flaminian Way-Piazza del Popolo- The Pincio-Piazza di Spagna - The Spanish Staircase-House of Keats

Trinità de' Monti-Propaganda Fide-Column of the Immaculate Conception-Bridge and Castle of St. AngeloSt. Peter's-The Vatican-Corso-The Capitol – Tarpeian Rock-Ara Cæli-Mamertine Prison --Forum Romanum - Arch of Titus-The Palatine and Palace of the Cæsars-Colosseum-Appian Way - Catacombs-Baths of Caracalla - Basilicas and Churches-- Temple of Vesta-Pantheon-St. John Lateran-The Scala Sancta-Santa Croce in Gerusalemme-Santa Maria Maggiore-St. Paul Without the Walls--Other Churches-Palaccs and Villas -The Seven Hills-Walls and Gates-Colleges and Academies-Charitable Institutions-Cemeteries—The GhettoPopulation-Modern Aspects of the City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155


The Valley of the Spree-Rise of the City-Population-Streets-Unter den Linden-Squares and Open Spaces-Opera

Platz-Palace of the Emperor William-Academy of Art and Science-Palace of the Crown Prince - The Schloss Brücke-Lustgarten - Royal Palace-The Old and New Museums-Churches--Synagogues - Hospitals-BorseChamber of Deputies-Public Museums-The Schloss Montbijou-Factories-Amusements-Suburbs and Environs – The Aeussere Friedrichstadt-The Stralan Quarter--Outside the Brandenburg Gate-The Thiergarten-Charlottenburg. Potsdam, and its Memorials of Frederick the Great-Sans Souci-Voltaire-Spandau . . . . 197

THE CITIES OF NEW ZEALAND. The Five Cities of New Zealand. AUCKLAND : Its Situation-Harbour-Public Buildings-Roads and Railways

Early Days-Mount Eden-Environs-Mineral Resources-Commerce-Hot Springs-The Maoris-Colonisation of the Islands. WELLINGTON: Government Buildings-Post Office-House of Representatives. NELSON : SituationMineral Products--The Wairau Massacre. DUYEDIN: A Scotch Settlement-Streets-University-Municipal Buildings-Garrison Hall-The Gold-Fields. CHRISTCHURCH: Port Lyttelton-The Avon-Canterbury Plains-"Pippins and Cheese" . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . 220

GENEVA. Associations of Geneva-Antiquity of the City-Calvin and the Reformation-Present Aspect-Situation-Bridges

Monuments-Cathedral-Hotel de Ville--Historical Museum-Memorials of the Escalade-Promenades-Public Library-Holiday Life-Watch-Making-Environs-Lake Leman-Lausanne-Vevey and the Fête des VigneronsBlonay-Tour de Peilz-Clarens-The Castle of Chillon

SCANDINAVIAN CITIES. CHRISTIANIA: Oslo-Industries flouses—The Palace-Storthing-University-Churches--Public Buildings-Castle of

Agershuus-Cistercian Monastery-Oscarshall-Egeberg. THRONDHJEM: Beauty of its Situation—The Founding of the City-Cathedral-- Palace-Museum-Munkholm-Lerfossen. BERGEN: The Harbour-Murders and Massacres -Trade Fires - Streets and Houses - Markets -- Fisher Folk-- Tydskebruggen--Peasant Costumes -ChurchesScenery around Bergen. STOCKHOLM: General View-King Agne-Wars and Tumults—The Norrbro-Royal Palace-Esplanade--Library-Museum-Churches - Assembly Hall - Riddarhuus-Town Hall-The Blood BathRoyal Theatre-Parks and Gardens-Palace of Drottningholm-Lake Mälar-Gripsholm-Upsala. COPENHAGEN: Origin and Growth-Historical Events-English Conquest-Plague and Cholera-Citadel-Forts-King's New Market-Christiansborg Palace - Picture Gallery-Rosenborg Castle - Palace of Amalienborg-Other PalacesMuseum of Northern Antiquities--Ethnographic Museum-Thorwaldsen Museum-Churches-Arsenal-LibraryCharitable Institutions-Exchange-Theatre-Environs. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 217

The City of Lilies--Influence, Riches, Memories-- View from the Boboli Gardens-Fiesole-Early Struggles-Guelphs and

Ghibellines, Parties and Factions Epitome of History - The Lung' Arno-Bridges-Streets-Piazza della Signoria
- The Loggia dei Lanzi Palazzo Veccbio- The l'fizi Gallery and its Treasures-- The Tribune - The Duomo (Santa
Maria del Fiore) - Brunelleschi's Dome-Giotto's Campanile -(hurch of San Lorenzo-Baptistery of St. John-The
Gates of Paradise Santa Croce -Dante-Galileo Galilei-Machiavelli-Church of the Carmine-Santa Maria
Maggiore-SS. Annunziata Santo Spirito - Monasteries - San Marco-Fra Angelico-Savonarola and his Times--
Church of San Marco The Pitti Palace and the Medici Family - The Story of Bianca Capello-Palaces, and
Houses of Celebrated Men - Hospitals - The Misericordia - Markets - Campo Santo-Old Protestant Cemetery-
Schools, Libraries, Theatres, and Manufactories-Environs -San Miniato-Vallombrosa. . . . . . .277


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The “Ecce Homo * Arch. Jerusalem Frontispiece
The Damascus Gate, Jerosalem. . . . . 1
Map of Jerusalem and surrounding Country. - 5
Church of the Holy Sepulctere . . . . 9
The Via Dolorosa . . . . . . . . 13
The Mosque of Omar . .
View of Jerusalem from the East .
The Golden Gate.
The Jews" Wailing-Place .

Valley of Jehostaust. rith - Absalom's Pilar .

Views in Brussels . . . . .to fart page 3

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