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open and two closed—the former are the Jaffa Gate, on the west, called by the Arabs Bâbel-Khalîl, or the Gate of the Friend, leading to Hebron ; the Damascus Gate, leading to Samaria and Damascus; St. Stephen's Gate, leading to Olivet and Bethany; the Dung

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Gate, or Gate of the Western Africans, leading to Siloam ; and Zion Gate, or Gate of the Prophet David, on the ridge of Zion. The closed gates are the Golden Gate in the eastern wall of the Harâm, and the Gate of Herod.

The town itself covers an area of 209.5 acres, of which 35 are occupied by the Harâm-eshSherif—the plateau of the Temple. The remaining space is divided into different quarters, European brethren; many of them have come to the Holy City in order that they may die there and be buried with their people. There are several admirable institutions for the benefit of poor Jews in Jerusalem, founded by Sir Moses Montefiore and other wealthy and benevolent European Jews.

The Christians of Jerusalem are composed of various sects, the most powerful being those of the - Greek Church, whose patriarch has his residence and episcopal throne there. They possess some of the largest and richest monasteries and foundations in the city. The Armenians, whose patriarch is styled “Patriarch of Jerusalem," and lives at the monastery next to Zion Gate, are a branch of that church and nation whose members are spread so widely over the various provinces of the Turkish Empire. The Armenians and the Greeks are better disposed towards the Protestants than towards their chief opponents—the Roman Catholics. The Copts, the sole representatives of the ancient race that built the Pyramids, who intermarry only with their own sect, are not numerous, but they have a monastery which is the residence of a bishop. The Syrians of the ancient church (Jacobites) are under the protection of the Armenians, but have a bishop and a few priests; and the poor Abyssinians, who live from hand to mouth, have a monastery beside the Church of the Sepulchre.

The Latins, or Roman Catholics—the deadly enemies of the Greeks-number about 1,500 souls, and are possessed of considerable wealth and influence. Affiliated to them are the Oriental churches of the Greek Catholics and the United Armenians, numbering about 50 souls.

It is hardly necessary to say that the Protestants are not a numerous community in Jerusalem. A Mission of Inquiry was instituted in 1820 by the Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews, and in 1824 Dr. Dalton, the first missionary, took up his residence there. In 1841 the Governments of England and Prussia entered into an agreement to establish a bishopric there, the diocese to embrace Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Abyssinia. In connection with the evangelical work of the mission is a school for proselytes and Jewish children, a boys' school for natives and Protestant Arabs, an Arabic church and school, a Hospital of the Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth-an admirable institution open to every suffering human creature of whatever faith—two orphanages, a leper hospital, a children's hospital, and the Hospital of St. John. The English church, for many years under the care of Bishop Gobat, is situated on Mount Zion.

The best approach to Jerusalem is from the Mount of Olives, when the whole city bursts

the view and presents an appearance more imposing than from any other spot, every building of importance standing out sharply, and the walls and other surroundings giving to it a vastness which is not seen elsewhere. The next best approach is from the hill Scopus, the route taken by travellers from the north; while the least impressive first-view of the city is that seen by those who come from Jaffa, the effect of the general appearance being greatly marred by huge blocks of modern buildings, chiefly Russian.

Jerusalem is enclosed by a wall nearly forty feet high, irregular, and conformed to the lills over which it passes, massive in appearance, but in reality very far from substantial; it was built in the sixteenth century, and only a few courses of its stone belong to the wall of an ancient date. Around the walls are thirty-four towers, and in the walls are seven gates, five

upon

open and two closed—the former are the Jaffa Gate, on the west, called by the Arabs Bâbel-Khalîl, or the Gate of the Friend, leading to Hebron ; the Damascus Gate, leading to Samaria and Damascus; St. Stephen's Gate, leading to Olivet and Bethany; the Dung

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Gate, or Gate of the Western Africans, leading to Siloam; and Zion Gate, or Gate of the Prophet David, on the ridge of Zion. The closed gates are the Golden Gate in the eastern wall of the Harâm, and the Gate of Herod.

The town itself covers an area of 209.5 acres, of which 35 are occupied by the Harâm-eshSherîf—the plateau of the Temple. The remaining space is divided into different quarters

European brethren; many of them have come to the Holy City in order that they may die there and be buried with their people. There are several admirable institutions for the benefit of poor Jews in Jerusalem, founded by Sir Moses Montefiore and other wealthy and benevolent European Jews.

The Christians of Jerusalem are composed of various sects, the most powerful being those of the · Greek Church, whose patriarch has his residence and episcopal throne there. They possess some of the largest and richest monasteries and foundations in the city. The Armenians, whose patriarch is styled “Patriarch of Jerusalem," and lives at the monastery next to Zion Gate, are a branch of that church and nation whose members are spread so widely over the various provinces of the Turkish Empire. The Armenians and the Greeks are better disposed towards the Protestants than towards their chief opponents—the Roman Catholics. The Copts, the sole representatives of the ancient race that built the Pyramids, who intermarry only with their own sect, are not numerous, but they have a monastery which is the residence of a bishop. The Syrians of the ancient church (Jacobites) are under the protection of the Armenians, but have a bishop and a few priests; and the poor Abyssinians, who live from hand to mouth, have a monastery beside the Church of the Sepulchre.

The Latins, or Roman Catholics—the deadly enemies of the Greeks-number about 1,500 souls, and are possessed of considerable wealth and influence. Affiliated to them are the Oriental churches of the Greek Catholics and the United Armenians, numbering about 50 souls.

It is hardly necessary to say that the Protestants are not a numerous community in Jerusalem. A Mission of Inquiry was instituted in 1820 by the Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews, and in 1824 Dr. Dalton, the first missionary, took up his residence there. In 1811 the Governments of England and Prussia entered into an agreement to establish a bishopric there, the diocese to embrace Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Abyssinia. In connection with the evangelical work of the mission is a school for proselytes and Jewish children, a boys' school for natives and Protestant Arabs, an Arabic church and school, a Hospital of the Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth—an admirable institution open to every suffering human creature of whatever faith-two orphanages, a leper hospital, a children's hospital, and the Hospital of St. John. The English church, for many years under the care of Bishop Gobat, is situated on Mount Zion.

The best approach to Jerusalem is from the Mount of Olives, when the whole city bursts upon the view and presents an appearance more imposing than from any other spot, every building of importance standing out sharply, and the walls and other surroundings giving to it a vastness which is not seen elsewhere. The next best approach is from the hill Scopus, the route taken by travellers from the north; while the least impressive first-view of the city is that seen by those who come from Jaffa, the effect of the general appearance being greatly marred by huge blocks of modern buildings, chiefly Russian.

Jerusalem is enclosed by a wall nearly forty feet high, irregular, and conformed to the Juills over which it passes, massive in appearance, but in reality very far from substantial; it was built in the sixteenth century, and only a few courses of its stone belong to the wall of an ancient date. Around the walls are thirty-four towers, and in the walls are seven gates, five open and two closed—the former are the Jaffa Gate, on the west, called by the Arabs Bâbel-Khalîl, or the Gate of the Friend, leading to Hebron; the Damascus Gate, leading to Samaria and Damascus; St. Stephen's Gate, leading to Olivet and Bethany; the Dung

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Gate, or Gate of the Western Africans, leading to Siloam; and Zion Gate, or Gate of the Prophet David, on the ridge of Zion. The closed gates are the Golden Gate in the eastern wall of the Harâm, and the Gate of Herod.

The town itself covers an area of 209.5 acres, of which 35 are occupied by the Harâm-eshSherîf—the plateau of the Temple. The remaining space is divided into different quarters,

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