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CONTENTS.

JERUSALEM.

PAGE The Holy City of Jew, Moslem, and Christian-A Summary of its History-Situation-Jerusalem of To-day-Popula

tion- Religious Sects—The Walls and Gates-Streets and Bazaars-A Scene near the Jaffa Gate-The Tower of Hippicus-The Church of the Holy Sepulchre-Chapels in the Church-The Holy Fire-Legends-Golgotha-The Via Dolorosa-The Haram-esh-Sherif-Associations—The Dome of the Rock-The Cave-Holy Places of the Moslems-The Mosque El-Aksa–The Dome of the Chain-The Place of Judgment—The Golden Gate-The Throne of Solomon-The First Explorer-Recent Explorations-The Cradle of Christ-Solomon's Stables-Walls of the Haram-Robinson's Arch-Water-Supply-The Jews' Wailing-Place-Hospital of the Knights of St. John -Tomb of David-The Cenaculum. ENVIRONS: Valley of Gihon-Valley of Hinnom-Aceldama-Job's WellEn-Rogel-Pool of Siloam-Fountain of the Virgin-Pyramid of Zacharias-Grotto of St. James-Tomb of Jehoshapbat-Tomb of Absalom-Mount of Olives-View-Bethany-Garden of Gethsemane-Tomb of the VirginTombs of the Kings (or Helena)-Damascus Gate-Quarries-Philanthropic Institutions. . . . . . . 1

BRUSSELS AND THE CITIES OF BELGIUM. A Miniature Paris-Its Foundation and Growth-Walls-Sieges- Population-The Market-Place - Halls - Hotel de

Ville--Bourse-The Halles-Boulevards-Post Office--Galerie St. Hubert-Palaces-New Palace of Justice-Picture Galleries—The Musée Wiertz-Zoological and Botanical Gardens - The Park and Bois de la Cambre-Statues of Patriots, Warriors, Statesmen, &c.—The Cathedral—Notre Dame de la Chapelle-Church of St. James - Palace of Laeken-Road to Waterloo. ANTWERP:-On the Scheldt-Van Speyk-Early History and Progress --Commercial Importance-English Residents-Tyndale and his Labours-Decline of the City-Incorporation into the Kingdom of Belgium-Return of Prosperity-The Cathedral and Churches -Art Treasures-Rubens-Van Dyck-The Printing Press-Place Verte-Hôtel de Ville-Bourse. BRUGES :--An Old-world Town-Its Splendour and Decay-The Cathedral-Notre Dame and its Tombs-The Hospital of St. John-The Grande Place and the Belfry Tower-Hôtel de Ville-Chapel of the Holy Blood-Canals-Trade. GHENT:-Jacques and Philip van Artevelde-Rise and Fall of Ghent-The Manchester of Belgium-Market Day-Cathedral-Belfry-The Vane of the Belfry-Hôtel de Ville-The Marché du Vendredi-Church of St. Nicholas-Gardens--The Béguinages of Ghent; their Past and Present History. LIÈGE :-Picturesque Belgium-The Ardennes-Memories of Liège--The Walloons-Manufactories—Cathedral and Churches—The Palace of Justice-Gardens-Citadel. . . . . 33

ATHENS.

The Piræus-The Long Walls-A Wayside Inn-Modern Athens-Fifty Years ago-Plan of the City-Costumes-The

Palace and Gardens-House of Parliament-University-Academy-Education–The Metropolitan Church-St. Theodore-The Kapnikarea-Bazaars-Public Funerals-A Curious Custom-Ancient Athens-The OlympieiumGate of Hadrian-The Jlissus-Stadium-Monument of Lysicrates-Theatre of Dionysus-Odeum of Herodes Atticus -The Acropolis--Propylæa-Temple of Athene Nike-Erechtheium-The Agora--Mars Hill-The Pnyx-Monument of Philopappus-Tower of the Winds-A Buried Cemetery-Temple of Theseus–Lycabettus-Academy of PlatoThe Colonus-Eleusis-Athens and Edinburgh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

PHILADELPHIA. (By M. F. SWEETSER.)

The Ancient Navigators-The Swedish Colony-William Penn, the Founder of the City-The Dreary Morning

Revolutionary Annals-A Capua for Britain's Hannibal — The Area of the City-Fairmount Waterworks-The
Monotony of Comfort-Co-operative Building-A Mosaic of Nationalities-Leagues of Factories-Markets and
Bridges-Chestnut Street-Inns, New and Old-Independence Hall-The Libraries-Carpenters' Hall-The Exchange
and the Banks-The Post-Office and Mint-Tender Charities Catalogued-Anglicanism in Quakerdom-Gloria Dei-
The Swedish Pioneers-Christ Church--St. Peter's—The Grand Avenues—The Public Building-The Masonic
Temple-The Clubs-Roman Catholicism and its great Cathedral-Protestant Shrines--The Fine Arts--The
Academy and its Collections Music and Theatres-The University and Girard College-A Group of Prisons-
Fairmount Park-The Great Pictures--The Schuylkill Navy-The International Exhibition of 1876-Stately Old
Mansions-Lemon Hill and Sweet Brier, Lansdowne and Belmont-Laurel-Hill Cemetery - The American Clyde-
The Battle of the Kegs-Pirates—The Cradle of Steam Navigation-The Navy Yard- The Lazaretto-Pennsylvania
Dutch-A Pleasant Legend-Germantown and its Battle-The Wooden Walls of England-Summer Joys of the
Philadelphians—The Vanished Race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

CONTENTS.

JERUSALEM.

PAGE The Holy City of Jew, Moslem, and Christian-A Summary of its History-Situation–Jerusalem of To-day-Popula

tion- Religious Sects—The Walls and Gates-Streets and Bazaars-A Scene near the Jaffa Gate-The Tower of Hippicus-The Church of the Holy Sepulchre-Chapels in the Church-The Holy Fire-Legends-Golgotha-The Via Dolorosa-The Haram-esh-Sherif-Associations—The Dome of the Rock-The Cave-Holy Places of the Moslems-The Mosque El-Aksa-The Dome of the Chain-The Place of Judgment—The Golden Gate-The Throne of Solomon-The First Explorer-Recent Explorations—The Cradle of Christ-Solomon's Stables-Walls of the Haram-Robinson's Arch-Water-Supply-The Jews' Wailing-Place-Hospital of the Knights of St. John -Tomb of David–The Conaculum. ENVIRONS: Valley of Gihon-Valley of Hinnom-Aceldama-Job's WellEn-Rogel-Pool of Siloam-Fountain of the Virgin-Pyramid of Zacharias--Grotto of St. James-Tomb of Jehoshapbat-Tomb of Absalom-Mount of Olives-View-Bethany-Garden of Gethsemane-Tomb of the VirginTombs of the Kings (or Helena)-Damascus Gate--Quarries-Philanthropic Institutions. . . . . . 1

BRUSSELS AND THE CITIES OF BELGIUM.

A Miniature Paris-Its Foundation and Growth--Walls-Sieges-Population—The Market Place - Halls - Hôtel de

Ville--Bourse-The Halles-Boulevards-Post Office--Galerie St. Hubert-Palaces-New Palace of Justice-Picture Galleries-The Musée Wiertz-Zoological and Botanical Gardens -The Park and Bois de la Cambre-Statues of Patriots, Warriors, Statesmen, &c.-The Cathedral-Notre Dame de la Chapelle-Church of St. James - Palace of Laeken-Road to Waterloo. ANTWERP:-On the Scheldt-Van Speyk-Early History and Progress-Commercial Importance-English Residents-Tyndale and his Labours-Decline of the City-Incorporation into the Kingdom of Belgium-Return of Prosperity-The Cathedral and Churches -Art Treasures-Rubens-Van Dyck-The Printing Press-Place Verte-Hôtel de Ville-Bourse. BRUGES :- An Old-world Town-Its Splendour and Decay-The Cathedral-Notre Dame and its Tombs—The Hospital of St. John-The Grande Place and the Belfry Tower-Hôtel de Ville-Chapel of the Holy Blood-Canals-Trade. GHENT :-Jacques and Philip van Artevelde-Rise and Fall of Ghent–The Manchester of Belgium-Market Day-Cathedral-Belfry-The Vane of the Belfry-Hôtel de Ville-The Marché du Vendredi-Church of St. Nicholas-Gardens-The Beguinages of Ghent; their Past and Present History. LIÈGE :-Picturesque Belgium-The Ardennes-Memories of Liège-The Walloons-Manufactories-Cathedral and Churches-The Palace of Justice-Gardens-Citadel . .

. 33

ATHENS.

The Piræus-The Long Walls-A Wayside Inn-Modern Athens-Fifty Years ago-Plan of the City-Costumes-The

Palace and Gardens-House of Parliament-University-Academy-Education-The Metropolitan Church--St. Theodore-The Kapnikarea-Bazaars-Public Funerals-A Curious Custom-Ancient Athens-The OlympieiumGate of Hadrian-The Ilissus--Stadium-Monument of Lysicrates-Theatre of Dionysus-Odeum of Herodes Atticus -The Acropolis-Propylæa-Temple of Athene Nike-Erechtheium-The Agora-Mars Hill-The Pnyx-Monument of Philopappus-Tower of the Winds-A Buried Cemetery-Temple of Theseus–Lycabettus-Academy of PlatoThe Colonus-Eleusis-Athens and Edinburgh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

PHILADELPHIA. (By M. F. SWEETSER.)

The Ancient Navigators—The Swedish Colony-William Penn, the Founder of the City-The Dreary Morning

Revolutionary Annals-A Capua for Britain's Hannibal-The Area of the City--Fairmount Waterworks-The
Monotony of Comfort-Co-operative Building-A Mosaic of Nationalities-Leagues of Factories–Markets and
Bridges-Chestnut Street-Inns, New and Old-Independence Hall-The Libraries-Carpenters' Hall-The Exchange
and the Banks, The Post-office and Mint-Tender Charities Catalogued-Anglicanism in Quakerdom-Gloria Dei-
The Swedish Pioneers-Christ Church--St. Peter's- The Grand Avenues—The Public Building-The Masonic
Temple-The Clubs-Roman Catholicism and its great Cathedral-Protestant Shrines - The Fine Arts- The
Academy and its Collections Music and Theatres—The University and Girard College- A Group of Prisons-
Fairmount Park-The Great Pictures--The Schuylkill Navy-The International Exhibition of 1876—Stately Old
Mansions-Lemon Hill and Sweet Brier, Lansdowne and Belmont-Laurel-Hill Cemetery- The American Clyde-
The Battle of the Kegs-Pirates—The Cradle of Steam Navigation-The Navy Yard--The Lazaretto--Pennsylvania
Dutch-A Pleasant Legend-Germantown and its Battle—The Wooden Walls of England-Summer Joys of the
Philadelphiang- The Vanished Race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

PAGE

MOSCOW. First Sight of the City - Early Experiences—The Tartar, Fire, and Plague-The French in Moscow-General Aspect of

the City-The Kremlin-Its Wall, Gates, Towers, Bells, Palaces, and Chapels - The Church of the Assumption --of the Archangel Michael --of the Annunciation --Russo-Greek Church Ceremonials-Church of St. Saviour in the Wood-Miracle Monastery - The Chinese City-Religious Symbols—The Iberian Madonna-St. Basil – The Skull Place - Michel Romanoff's House-Markets and Bazaars-The Foundling Hospital --Ethnographical MuseumThe Temple of the Saviour-Tea-houses and Tea-drinkers-The Moskouski Traktir-Tea-gardens-The Russian Peasant-Luxuries of the Table-Water-carriers - Funerals-Pigeons - The University-Monasteries and Convents -Gardens, Palaces, and Country Seats - The Troitsa Monastery . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

ROME. The Flaminian Way-Piazza del Popolo-The Pincio-Piazza di Spagna --The Spanish Staircase-House of Keats

Trinità de' Monti-Propaganda Fide-Column of the Immaculate Conception-Bridge and Castle of St. AngeloSt. Peter's-The Vatican-Corso-The Capitol-Tarpeian Rock-Ara Cæli-Mamertine Prison-Forum Romanum --Arch of Titus- The Palatine and Palace of the Cæsars-Colosseum-Appian Way - Catacombs-Baths of Caracalla-Basilicas and Churches-Temple of Vesta-Pantheon-St. John Lateran-The Scala Sancta-Santa Croce in Gerusalemme--Santa Maria Maggiore-St. Paul Without the Walls--Other Churches-Palaces and Villas -The Seven Hills-Walls and Gates-Colleges and Academies-Charitable Institutions-Cemeteries--The GhettoPopulation-Modern Aspects of the City . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . 157

BERLIN. The Valley of the Spree-Rise of the City-Population-Streets-Unter den Linden-Squares and Open Spaces--Opera

Platz-Palace of the Emperor William-Academy of Art and Science-Palace of the Crown Prince-The Schloss Brücke-Lustgarten - Royal Palace --The Old and New Museums-Churches-Synagogues - Hospitals-BorseChamber of Deputies-Public Museums - The Schloss Montbijou-Factories-Amusements-Suburbs and Environs – The Aeussere Friedrichstadt-The Stralan Quarter-Outside the Brandenburg Gate, The Thiergarten-Charlottenburg. POTSDAM, and its Memorials of Frederick the Great-Sans Souci-Voltaire-Spandau . . . . 197

THE CITIES OF NEW ZEALAND. The Five Cities of New Zealand. AUCKLAND: Its Situation-Harbour-Public Buildings-Roads and Railways

Early Days-Mount Eden-Environs-Mineral Resources-Commerce-Hot Springs—The Maoris-Colonisation of the Islands. WELLINGTON: Government Buildings-Post Office-House of Representatives. NELSON: SituationMineral Products-The Wairau Massacre. DUXEDIN: A Scotch Settlement-Streets-University-Municipal Build. ings-Garrison Hall-The Gold-Fields. CHRISTCHURCH: Port Lyttelton-The Avon-Canterbury Plains-"Pippins and Cheese" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

GENEVA. Associations of Geneva-Antiquity of the City-Calvin and the Reformation-Present Aspect-Situation-Bridges

Monuments-Cathedral-Hotel de Ville- Historical Museum-Memorials of the Escalade-Promenades --Public Library-Holiday Life-Watch-Making-Environs-Lake Leman-Lausanne-Vevey and the Fête des VigneronsBlonay-Tour de Peilz-Clarens--The Castle of Chillon . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

SCANDINAVIAN CITIES. CHRISTIANIA: Oslö-Industries -Tlouses-The Palace-Storthing-University-Churches-Public Buildings-Castle of

Agershuus-Cistercian Monastery-Oscarshall-Egeberg. THRONDHJEM: Beauty of its Situation, The Founding of the City-Cathedral - Palace-Museum-Munkholm-Lerfossen. BERGEN: The Barbour-Murders and Massacres -Trade - Fires.- Streets and Houses - Markets - Fisher Folk - Tydskebruggen-Peasant Costumes -ChurchesScenery around Bergen. STOCKHOLM: General View-King Agne-Wars and Tumults-The Norrbro-Royal Palace-Esplanade--Library-Museum-Churches - Assembly Hall - Riddarhuus-Town Hall-The Blood Bath

Parks and Gardens - Palace of Drottningholm-Lake Malar-Gripsholm-i'psala. CoPENHAGEN: Origin and Growth-Historical Events-English Conquest-Plague and Cholera-Citadel-Forts - King's New Market-Christiansborg Palace-Picture Gallery-Rosenborg Castle-Palace of Amalienborg--Other Palace Museum of Northern Antiquities–Ethnographic Museum-Thorwaldsen Museum--Churches-Arsenal-LibraryCharitable Institutions - Exchange-Theatre-Environs. . . . . . . . . .

. 247

FLORENCE.

The City of Lilies-Influence, Riches, Memories View from the Boboli Gardens-Fiesole-Early Struggles-Guelphs and

Ghibellines, Parties and Factions - Epitome of History - The Lung' Arno-Bridges-Streets-Piazza della Signoria - The Loskia dei Lanzi Palazzo Vecchio The l'ffizi Gallery and its Treasures-The Tribune - The Duomo (Santa Maria del Fiore) - Brunelleshi's Dome-Giotto's Campanile-Church of San Lorenzo-Baptistery of St. John-The Gates of Paradim Santa Croce Dante-Galileo Galilei - Machiavelli --Church of the Carmine-Santa Maria Maguiore 89. Annunziata Santo Spirito-Monasterieg - San Marco -Fra Angelico-Savonarola and his Times-(hurch of San Marco The Pitti Palace and the Medici Family - The Story of Bianca Capello-- Palaces, and House of Celebrated Men - Hospitals The Misericordia - Markets - Campo Santo-Old Protestant Cemetery-Schools Librarica Theatre and Manufactories-Environs -San Miniato Vallombrosa.

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