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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

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JERUSALEM

PAGE
The “Ecce Homo” Arch, Jerusalem Frontispiece
The Damascus Gate, Jerusalem. . . . . 1
Map of Jerusalem and surrounding Country. 5
Church of the Holy Sepulchre . . . . . 9
The Via Dolorosa . . . . . . . . 13
The Mosque of Omar . . . . . . 16
View of Jerusalem from the East .
The Golden Gate . . . .

. .
The Jews' Wailing-Place . . . .
Valley of Jehoshaphat, with “ Absalom's Pillar" .

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PHILADELPHIA (continued):-
Independence Hall .

. . .
Old Liberty Bell . . . . . .
The Ridgway Library . . . . .
Christ Church . . . . . . .
Franklin's Grave . . . . . .
The New Municipal Buildings.
The Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul .
Views in Philadelphia :-

Academy of Fine Arts . . . .
Pennsylvania Hospital . . . .
Girard College . . . . . .
Academy of Natural Sciences . .
Old Swedes' Church . . . .

University of Pennsylvania . . .
View in Fairmount Park . . . .

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BRUSSELS AND THE CITIES OF BELGIUM :-
'Views in Brussels . . . . . to face page

Palais de Justice.
Monument of Counts Egmont and Horn.
Place de l'Eglise St. Catherine.

The Bourse.
View in the Park, Brussels . . . . . .
Arms of Brussels . . . . . . .
The Hôtel de Ville, Brussels . . . ..
The Chamber of Representatives, Brussels .
The Church of St. Gudule . . . .
The Field of Waterloo . . . . . ..
Notre Dame, Antwerp . . . . . .
The Belfry of Bruges . . . . . ..
The Belfry, Ghent . . . . . . . .
On the Canal. Ghent

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Moscow :

Arms of Moscow . . . . . . . . 128
View of Moscow from the Kremlin .to face page 129
General View of Moscow . . . . . . 129
The Spaski or Redeemer Gate of the Kremlin 132
The Great Bell of Moscow (“Czar Kolokol"). .
Plan of Moscow . . . . . . . .
Krasnoi Ploschad (Place) . . . . . . 140
The Cathedral of St. Basil . . . . .
Church of St. Saviour, erected to Commemorate

the Deliverance of Russia from the French . 144 The Château of Petrofski . . . . . . 119 The Troitsa Monastery of St. Sergius . . . 153

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ATHENS
Views in Athens . . . . . to face page 65

The Erechtheium.
The Propylæa.
Mars Hill and the City.
Tower of the Winds.

Temple of Unwinged Victory.
Distant View of Athens ..
Lenten Festival in the Olympieium. . . .
The Piræus, Athens . . . . . . .
Plan of Athens. . . . . . . . .
Modern Athens . . . . . . . .
The Acropolis, Gate of Hadrian, and Ruins of

Temple of Jupiter . . . . . . .
Ruins of the Parthenon . . . . . . .
The Temple of Theseus. . . . . . .
The Straits of Salamis

.....

....

ROME:

The Arms of Rome. . . . . . 155
Bridge of St. Angelo, with St. Peter's in the Back-

ground . . . . . . . . 157
The Castle of St. Angelo . . . to face page 160
St. Peter's Cathedral . . . . . . . 161
Interior of St. Peter's . . . . . . 165
Plan of Rome . . . . . . . . . 168
Statue of Marcus Aurelius . . . . . .
The Scala Coeli : Stairs of the Church of St. Mary

of the Capitol . . . . . . . . 173 Entrance to the Forum by the Sacred Way

to face page 175 The Arch of Titus . . . . . . . . 176 Tabularium and Back of Senatorial Palace, from

the Forum . . . . . . . . . 177
The Colosseum
The Pantheon . . . . . .
Interior of the Pantheon . . . . . . 185
Interior of St. John Lateran. . . .
The Scala Sancta, or Holy Staircase. .
The Palace Pamphili-Doria . . . .

..

PHILADELPHIA:

Arms of Philadelphia . . . . . . . 92
William Penn . . . . . . . . . 93
Philadelphia . . . . . . to face page 97
Plan of Philadelphia . . . . . . .
Penn's Residence in Second Street, below Chestnut

Street . . . . . . . . . 100

.....

MOSCOW.

PAGE First Sight of the City - Early Experiences—The Tartar, Fire, and Plague-The French in Moscow-General Aspect of

the City-The Kremlin - Its Wall, Gates, Towers, Bells, Palaces, and Chapels - The Church of the Assumption -of the Archangel Michael-of the Annunciation-Russo-Greek Church Ceremonials-Church of St. Saviour in the Wood-Miracle Monastery - The Chinese City-Religious Symbols—The Iberian Madonna-St. Basil -- The Skull Place - Michel Romanoff's House-Markets and Bazaars-The Foundling Hospital-Ethnographical Museum-The Temple of the Saviour-Tea-houses and Tea-drinkers-The Moskouski Traktir-Tea-gardens-The Russian Peasant-Luxuries of the Table-Water-carriers - Funerals --Pigeons - The University-Monasteries and Convents -Gardens, Palaces, and Country Seats - The Troitsa Monastery . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

ROME. The Flaminian Way--Piazza del Popolo-The Pincio-Piazza di Spagna–The Spanish Staircase-House of Keats

Trinità de' Monti-Propaganda Fide--Column of the Immaculate Conception-Bridge and Castle of St. AngeloSt. Peter's-The Vatican-Corso-The Capitol-Tarpeian Rock-Ara Cæli-Mamertine Prison-Forum Romanum -Arch of Titus- The Palatine and Palace of the Cæsars-Colosseum-Appian Way - Catacombs-Baths of Caracalla - Basilicas and Churches-- Temple of Vesta-Pantheon-St. John Lateran-The Scala Sancta--Santa Croce in Gerusalemme-Santa Maria Maggiore-St. Paul Without the Walls-Other Churches-Palaces and Villas -The Seven Hills-Walls and Gates-Colleges and Academies-Charitable Institutions-Cemeteries- The GhettoPopulation-Modern Aspects of the City . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 155

BERLIN

The Valley of the Spree-Rise of the City-Population-Streets-Unter den Linden-Squares and Open Spaces-Opera

Platz--Palace of the Emperor William-Academy of Art and Science-Palace of the Crown Prince-The Schloss Brücke-Lustgarten - Royal Palace-The Old and New Museums-Churches-Synagogues - Hospitals-BorseChamber of Deputies-Public Museums-The Schloss Montbijou--Factories-Amusements-Suburbs and Environs -The Aeussere Friedrichstadt-The Stralan Quarter-Outside the Brandenburg Gate-The Thiergarten-Char. lottenburg. PoTSDAM, and its Memorials of Frederick the Great-Sans Souci-Voltaire-Spandau . . . . 197

THE CITIES OF NEW ZEALAND. The Five Cities of New Zealand. AUCKLAND: Its Situation-Harbour-Public Buildings-Roads and Railways

Early Days-Mount Eden-Environs-Mineral Resources-Commerce-Hot Springs—The Maoris-Colonisation of the Islands. WELLINGTON : Government Buildings-Post Office-House of Representatives. NELSON : Situation Mineral Products—The Wairau Massacre. DUXEDIN: A Scotch Settlement-Streets-University-Municipal Buildings-Garrison Hall-The Gold-Fields. CHRISTCHURCH: Port Lyttelton-The Avon-Canterbury Plains-" Pippins and Cheese" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

GENEVA. Associations of Geneva-Antiquity of the City-Calvin and the Reformation-Present Aspect-Situation-Bridges

Monuments-Cathedral-Hôtel de Ville--Historical Museum-Memorials of the Escalade-Promenades-Public Library-Holiday Life-Watch-Making-Environs-Lake Leman-Lausanne--Vevey and the Fête des Vignerons-Blonay-Tour de Peilz-Clarens—The Castle of Chillon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

SCANDINAVIAN CITIES.
CHRISTIANIA: Oslo-Industries -Tlouses-The Palace-Storthing-University-Churches-Public Buildings-Castle of

Agershuus-Cistercian Monastery--Oscarshall-Egeberg. THRONDHJEM: Beauty of its Situation - The Founding
of the City-Cathedral-Palace-Museum-Munkholm--Lerfossen. BERGEN: The Harbour-Murders and Massacres
-Trade -- Fires. - Streets and Houses - Markets - Fisher Folk-Tydskebruggen-Peasant Costumes Churches-
Scenery around Bergen. STOCKHOLM: General View-King Agne-Wars and Tumults—The Norrbro--Royal
Palace-Esplanade--Library-Museum-Churches-Assembly Hall -Riddarhuus-Town Hall-The Blood Bath-
Royal Theatre-Parks and Gardens-Palace of Drottningholm -Lake Mälar-Gripsholm-Upsala. COPENHAGEN:
Origin and Growth-Historical Events-English Conquest-Plague and Cholera-Citadel-Forts-King's New
Market-Christiansborg Palace-Picture Gallery-Rosenborg Castle - Palace of Amalienborg-Other Palaces-
Museum of Northern Antiquities-Ethnographic Museum-Thorwaldsen Museum-Churches-Arsenal-Library-
Charitable Institutions -Exchange-Theatre-Environs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

FLORENCE

The City of Lilies--Influence, Riches, Memories-View from the Boboli Gardens-Fiesole-Early Struggles--Guelphs and

Ghibellines, Parties and Factions --Epitome of History -- The Lung' Arno-Bridges-Streets -- Piazza della Signoria - The Loggia dei Lanzi - Palazzo Vecchio- The Cflizi Gallery and its Treasures-The Tribune - The Duomo (Santa Maria del Fiore) Brunelleschi's Dome-Giotto's Campanile --Church of San Lorenzo--Baptistery of St. John - The Gates of Paradise - Santa Croce-Dante-Galileo Galilei- Machiavelli --Church of the Carmine-Santa Maria Maxxiore SS. Annunziata Santo Spirito Monasteries San Marco-Fra Angelico-Savonarola and his TimesChurch of San Marco The Pitti Palace and the Medici Family - The Story of Bianca (Capello - Palaces, and Houses of Celebrated Men - Hospitals - The Misericordia - Markets - Campo Santo-Old Protestant Cemetery Schools. Libraries. Theatres, and Manufactories-Environs -San Miniato Vallom brosa,

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

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PHILADELPHIA (continued):

Independence Hall.
Old Liberty Bell . . . . . .
The Ridgway Library . . . . .
Christ Church . .
Franklin's Grave . . . . . .
The New Municipal Buildings . . .
The Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul .
Views in Philadelphia :-

Academy of Fine Arts . . . .
Pennsylvania Hospital . . . .
Girard College . . . .
Academy of Natural Sciences . .
Old Swedes' Church . . . .

University of Pennsylvania . . .
View in Fairmount Park . . . .

. . .

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JERUSALEM :

PAGE The “Ecce Homo " Arch, Jerusalem Frontispiece The Damascus Gate, Jerusalem. . . . . 1 Map of Jerusalem and surrounding Country . . 5 Church of the Holy Sepulchre . . . . . 9 The Via Dolorosa . . . . . . . . 13 The Mosque of Omar . . . . . . View of Jerusalem from the East . . . . 17 The Golden Gate . . . . . . . . 21 The Jews' Wailing-Place . . . . . . 25

Valley of Jehoshaphat, with “Absalom's Pillar". 29 BRUSSELS AND THE CITIES OF BELGIUM :'Views in Brussels . . . . ..to face page 33

Palais de Justice.
Monument of Counts Egmont and Horn.
Place de l'Eglise St. Catherine.

The Bourse.
View in the Park, Brussels . . . . .
Arms of Brussels . . . . . . . . ib.
The Hôtel de Ville, Brussels . .
The Chamber of Representatives, Brussels : 41
The Church of St. Gudule . . . . . . 44
The Field of Waterloo . . . .
Notre Dame, Antwerp. . . .
The Belfry of Bruges · · · · · ·
The Belfry, Ghent . . . . . .
On the Canal, Ghent . . . . . .

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Moscow :

Arms of Moscow . . . . . . . .
View of Moscow from the Kremlin .to face page 129
General View of Moscow . . . . . .
The Spaski or Redeemer Gate of the Kremlin . 132
The Great Bell of Moscow (“Czar Kolokol"). .
Plan of Moscow . . . . . . . .
Krasnoi Ploschad (Place) . . . . . . 140
The Cathedral of St. Basil . . . . . . 141
Church of St. Saviour, erected to Commemorate

the Deliverance of Russia from the French . 144 The Château of Petrofski . . . . . . 119 The Troitsa Monastery of St. Sergius . . . 153

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157

ATHENS :
Views in Athens . . . . . to face page 65

The Erechtheium.
The Propylæa.
Mars Hill and the City.
Tower of the Winds.

Temple of Unwinged Victory.
Distant View of Athens . . . . . .
Lenten Festival in the Olympieium. . . .
The Piræus, Athens . . . . . . .
Plan of Athens. . . . . . . . .
Modern Athens . . . . . . .
The Acropolis, Gate of Hadrian, and Ruins

Temple of Jupiter . . . . . . .
Ruins of the Parthenon. . . . . .
The Temple of Theseus . . . . . .
The Straits of Salamis . . . . . .

.....

....

ROME:

The Arms of Rome. . . . . . . 155
Bridge of St. Angelo, with St. Peter's in the Back-

ground . . . . . . . . .
The Castle of St. Angelo . . .to face page
St. Peter's Cathedral . . . . . 161
Interior of St. Peter's . . . . . . . 165
Plan of Rome. . . . . . . .
Statue of Marcus Aurelius . . . . . .
The Scala Coeli : Stairs of the Church of St. Mary

of the Capitol . . . . . . . . 173 Entrance to the Forum by the Sacred Way

to face page 175
The Arch of Titus . . . . . . . 176
Tabularium and Back of Senatorial Palace, from
the Forum . . . .

. . . 177
The Colosseum . . . . . . . .
The Pantheon . . . . . . . .
Interior of the Pantheon . . . . . . 185
Interior of St. John Lateran. . . . . 188
The Scala Sancta, or Holy Staircase .
The Palace Pamphili-Doria . . . . . .

PHILADELPHIA :

Arms of Philadelphia . . . . . . .
William Penn . . . . . . . .
Philadelphia . . . . . . to face page
Plan of Philadelphia .
Penn's Residence in Second Street, below Chestnut
Street . . . . . .

. . .

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GENEVA (continued):-
View of Geneva, looking towards the lake

to face page 235 Plan of Genera . . . . . . . . Interior of St. Peter's Cathedral . .

237 Lausanne . . . . . . . . . .

211 The Castle of Chillon . . . . Dungeons in the Castle of Chillon . . .

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214

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264

BERLIN :

Arms of Berlin. . . . . . . . . 197
Plan of Berlin. .
Views in the Unter den Linden . .to face page 200

The Opernplatz.
Looking towards the Statue of Frederick the

Great.
The Emperor's Gallery.
The Crown Prince's Palace.
Some of the Shops.

Looking towards the Brandenburg Gate.
The Brandenburg Gate . .
The Old Museum . . . . . . .
The Exchange and Friedrichsbrücke '. .
Statue of Frederick the Great . . . .
The Schloss-Brücke with the Lustgarten. .
Views in Berlin :-

Royal Library . . . . . .
Schiller Platz and Deutsche Kirche. .
Royal Palace (Water Front). . . .
The University . . . . . . .
Royal Palace (East Side) . . . .
National Gallery

. ib.
Potsdam, from the Brauhausberg . . .
Views in Sans Souci, Potsdam :-

Sans Souci Palace with the Terraces . . . 217
The Highest Terrace . . . . . . ib.
Sans Souci Park . . . . . . . ib.
The Orangery . . . . . . .

The New Palace . . . . . . ib.
The Windmill, Sans Souci . . . . .

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SCANDINAVIAS CITIES :

Christiania
Bergen . . . . . . . . .
Stockholm. . . . . . . .
The Royal Palace . . . . . . .
Gustaf Adolf Torg, with the Monume

Gustavus . . . . . . . .
Rosendal Castle, near Stockholm . .
The Knights' House, Riddarholm . .
View from the Royal Palace at Södermalm
Hasselbakken, near Stockholm. . .
The Royal Summer Palace, Drottningholm
Arms of Stockholm . . . . .
Arms of Copenhagen . . . . .
Copenhagen . . . . . . ...
Views in Copenhagen :-

The Charlottenborg Palace . . .
Interior of the Vor Frue Kirke . . .
University . . . . . .
Kongens Nytorv · · · · ·
Bourse . . . . . .
Thorwaldsen's Museum.
Christiansborg Palace . . .

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FLORENCE :

Florence, from the Belredere . .to face page
Florence, from San Miniato. . . . . .
Dante . . . . . . .
Arnis of Florence . . . .
Plan of Florence ·

· ·
The Ponte Vecchio . . . . . .
Tower of the Palazzo Vecchio .
Courtyard of the Palazzo Vecchio . . .
Birthplace of Dante
Brunelleschi's Dome and Giotto's Campanile.
Side Door of the Duomo . . .
The Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medicis . .
The Church of Santa Croce . . . .
Staircase of the Bargello Palace. . .
Panels of the Gate of the Baptistery of St. John
Giotto. . . . . . . . . . .
Michael Angelo . . . . . . . .
The Cffizi Gallery (1865) . . . . . .

.

.

202

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293 296 297

GENEVA :

Arms of Geneva . . . . . . . . 231
View of Geneva, showing the Isle of Rous-

seau . . . . . . . . . 233

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The Holy City of Jew, Moslem, and Christian-A Summary of its History-Situation-Jerusalem of To-day-Population

Religious Sects-The Walls and Gates-Streets and Bazaars-A Scene near the Jaffa Gate–The Tower of Hippicus - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre-Chapels in the Church-The Holy Fire-Legends-Golgotha - The Via DolorosaThe Hârâm-esh-Sherif - Associations—The Dome of the Rock-The Cave-Holy Places of the Moslems—The Mosque El-Aksa-The Dome of the Chain-The Place of Judgment—The Golden Gate--The Throne of Solomon-The First Explorer-Recent Explorations—The Cradle of Christ-Solomon's Stables-Walls of the Hârâm-Robinson's ArchWater-Supply-The Jews' Wailing-Place-Hospital of the Knights of St. John-Tomb of David–The Conaculum. ENVIRONS : Valley of Gihon-Valley of Hinnom-Aceldama-Job's Well-En-Rogel-Pool of Siloam-Fountain of the Virgin-Pyramid of Zacharias-Grotto of St. James-Tomb of Jehoshaphat-Tomb of Absalom-Mount of Olives View-Bethany-Garden of Gethsemane--Tomb of the Virgin-Tombs of the Kings (or Helena)—Damascus GateQuarries-Philanthropic Institutions.

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YERUSALEM is unlike any other city in the world. Age after age, pilgrims all have been drawn to it; scholars have studied every particular concerning it;

explorers have searched with wistful eyes through its ruins; teachers have

collected every scrap of information about it to tell reverently to their pupils; p reachers have framed ten thousand sermons upon it; painters and poets have y described it over and over again, and in minutest detail. And why? Because in the veins of every man there is the beating of a spiritual life whose origins are recorded in the wondrous series of legends, genealogies, surveys, histories, laws, poetry, which formed

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