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Tristram, Porter, and Burton. But to our own day has been reserved the **6.. Ten the first systematic scientific researches, and these have been prosecuted
T-Ezeul lor the Palestine Exploration Committee, with the aid of a band of
$ 116. juve toiled with enthusiasm and heroic resolution. Jin L [onder Grar tells us that one city literally lies heaped upon another. For
471002 no fewer than twenty-seven sieges-from Jebusites and Israelites, Egyptians T. L. Greeks and Romans, Mohammedans and Christians. The last and twentyeri tie tvo: place in 1214, at the hands of the wild Kharezmian hordes, who plundered buye aranci siaugintered the priests and monks. The explorers have thus had to do, not with 13351 ers but with many. The Jerusalem of to-day may be considered the eighth, for even bei op tuk tint of David there was a city there. The second was the city of Solomon, irri L.c. 2000 to E.C. 597, a space of 100 years; the third that of Nehemiah, which tasier for some 300 years; then came the magnificent city of Herod; then that Roman ent which grew up on the ruin Titus had made ; it again was followed by the Mohammedan city; and that in its turn by a Christian city; and now, for 600 years, the modern city has stood on the ruins of those that preceded it.
Rubbish and a bris cover every foot of the ground save where the rock crops up at intervais. Tie rubbish is the wreck of all these cities piled one above the other. If we examint it we lavt iu determine at every step, among the ruins of which city we are standing -Solomon, Nehemiah, Herod, Hadrian, Constantine, Omar, Godfrey, Saladin, Suleiman. Laci: ruin in turn represents a city.
In tracking the foutsteps of the explorers let us go back to the Mosque El-Aksa, and descend, through a small arcade, to look at the artificial substructions of the Temple areil. On our way we pause at a small mosque or oratory, where we are shown a large stone sarcophagus called the Cradle of Christ. In this mosque it is alleged Hebrew women used to await their confinement; here the aged Simeon took up the infant Saviour in his arms; here the Virgin tarried for a few days after the presentation in the Temple; and here she found her son with the Jewish doctors, hearing and answering questions. From here we descend to the magnificent vaults known as Solomon's Stables, brought to light by the workers of the Esploration Fund. They are raulted arenues supported by immense pillars of massive si nes jolaced singly one above the other. Perhaps twenty such avenues iua ve been tip sed, and each may hare a dozen or fifteen of these mammoti plin; at al teuth1347 prestat a most imposing appearance, and it is impossible io s tim: WTIHUI anime these ambicial substructions, merely built for the purpose of extanng tin THP?" 22. wire so grand, what must have been the grandeur of the FURTrumurs 111H sri T...je area was doubtless supported by piers and arches
# IMU 2017 CLiversally admitied that these are a re-construction. (Datin poltorio Hat jemang ? 1913 1: le un lintel; others consisted of weather-worn
wa barber proof that these are not the veritable works of Page 112. mé :1 7.44 ir parte manner in which the raulting joins in with the ular o' "!
Viallit 14 1135*,** III!J***.17 Inati as have been made on the outside of the Temple wala langt
Die still line to ima 10 ml sites of great interest; and it is to these,
rather than to the former, that we shall direct our attention, referring those who wish to know the scientific details of the work of the explorers to the numerous books which have in the past few years been published on the subject.*
Let us make our way to the Bab-el-Mughâribeh, or Gate of the Western Africanscalled in Scripture the Dung Gate (Neh. iii. 13, 14)--then, passing through a jungle of cactus, reach the south-west wall of the Harâm, where some enormous blocks of stone, used in the construction of the plateau, may be seen. One stone seventy-five feet above the foundation is thirty-eight feet four inches long, three and a half high, and seven feet wide. Close by is the celebrated spring of the arch known as Robinson's Arch, which connected the Temple with the city of Zion by spanning the Tyropæon valley. The fragment consists of immense stones projecting from the wall, measuring from twenty to twenty-four feet each in length. The distance from here to the hill-side of Zion is three hundred and fifty feet, and that must have been the length of the ancient bridge.
It is in the Tyropæon valley, which cleaves the heart of Jerusalem, and along the southern front of the hill Moriah, where the site of the Temple is now occupied by the Mosque of Omar, that important excavations have in recent years been carried on. Shafts and galleries have been driven through the mass of rubbish which covers the base of the Temple rock, and have revealed the enormous depth to which it has accumulated. Through the débris the cyclopean walls supporting the Temple have been traced to a depth varying from sixty to ninety feet, and the wall itself has been shown to have reached at this point to a height of from one hundred and seventy to one hundred and eighty feet-a curious justification of a passage of Josephus, in which he describes the dizziness with which the spectator looked down into the valley beneath. The whole rock must have been honeycombed with aqueducts, cisterns, channels, and passages; thirty feet beneath the vaults, which had been known to exist at its south-eastern corner, a passage has been found leading into the solid substance of the wall, and indicating probably large substructions, where it is not unreasonable to look for discoveries of no little interest. Of the two great viaducts, which moored, as it were, the sacred rock of Moriah to the western and eastern hills of Zion and Olivet, the one most interesting to us, as the road by which Christ entered the Temple, has indeed wholly disappeared ; but a single colossal abutment of the bridge which spanned the Tyropeon—the road by which the kings passed from Zion to Moriah-remains, and the researches of Captain Warren have proved it to have been one hundred and fifty feet in height. If this be—as Captain Warren supposes—the “ascent to the house of the Lord” which Solomon showed to the Queen of Sheba, we can hardly wonder that, on seeing it, “there was no spirit left in her."
The excavations disclosed, at a distance of sixty feet under the present surface of the soil, fragments of voussoirs, or bevelled stones, lying where they fell when, by some means or other unknown, the bridge was destroyed. The place in which they now lie scattered in confusion once formed the level of a street running under the arch, like the street in Edinburgh under the North Bridge, or that in London under the Holborn Viaduct. The excavations also laid open a vast conduit running under this ancient street,
* Especially to “The Recovery of Jerusalem,” and “ Underground Jerusalem.” By Chas. Warren, Capt. R.E, F.G.S., &c.
rezerrel to 14 zime Ferod, there is convincing proof that the present Haram was, in tv in tur 12 inaladed within the circuit of the city wall.
1: 7. 11:e minunt below Moriah, Captain Warren recognises the site of Solomon's pudde-ip Tui viu: King Manasseh “ compassed about, and raised up to a very great *** at piram. imd also "built much upon the wall.” This wall, not many years
Et prel 10 setenty feet in height, having conjoined with it a great prie uzatiei 01.
1 Smrtave it set at last the mighty front of the Temple rock, as the Twelve SaT be tujer marselied at the great stones which were still fresh from the chisel of
229;r at tilt discoveries have been under the anspices of the Palestine Exploration ili at taer art prvivuilly few who will entirely endorse the claims put forth by Captain
rai sitt. concerning the Temple : “We have been able to point out the
In Fierce and the work of Solomon, and if it were necessary we could identify sn't ac aterations of the Roman Emperors. We can follow the description of com ci tie Tuimudie acounts, and find ereryiling fall into its place with the ease 2. TOLIT to be obtained from correct identifications. Te can stand on the spot turen samtides were made, where the high priest stood onde a year before the ark of ito IPIPI. where St. Simeon received our Lord, where the Sanhedrim listened to His
Flere the moner-changers' talles were overturned, where the lame man was a rout. There St. Paul was carried up the steps to the Antonia, where St. James 1 235. Fiul before he was cast down. All this information is the result of our
PIE, and though all do not agree with me in my indications, yet I find more ei tee."
beint uuirting the walls of the Temple we mast refer to one spot familiar to every rozí from the countless pictures and other illustrations of it to be met with everywhere. a ja sport is the Jews' Wailing-place, under the western wall of the Harâm, their only Lorate in their own city. It is a little narrom court, close by the miserable horels of the
re!1115. or Moslems from the north-West of Africa. But in this court rises the celeiurditc wall, fiftr-two yards long and fifty-sis in height, of massive stones—one being siside: feet and one thirteen in length-all that is left to the Jews of their marvellous lempie. It is one of the most affecting sights in that cty of strange memories to see til "ancient peopule" standing there, psalter in hand, waiting out words which have a singular rignificance in that place. The place is sacred with the tears of many generations, for even so far back as the time of Jerome we fnd him making an affecting allu«l iz tv the murners who, in his dar; paid the Roman soldiers for aliowing them to go and weapover the ruins of their Temple. And manr a time since then have those old wat echowd bark this passionate cry": " Zion is a wilderness, Jerasalem a desolation. Our a ani cur brautiful house where our fathers praised Thee is burned up with fire, and
pleasant things are laid waste! O God, the hea:hen are come into Thine inherit23. Ins Iloir Temple have they dotiled; they have laid Jerusalem on heaps. How long, r! Wil Thou lie angry for ever!"
1. Fridays, and on great Jewish festivals, it is a painful sight to see the groups of