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share it with Geneva!" On the day following the frustrated attempt the venerable Theodore Beza, then fourscore years of age, gave out from the pulpit the 124th Psalm, and ever since on the anniversary of the Escalade that psalm has been sung in the Genevan churches.

A gateway close by the Hôtel de Ville leads to the pleasant promenade of La Treille, with its beautiful view of La Salève. Beyond this terrace lie the Botanical Garden, laid out by the celebrated De Candolle in 1816, and the Promenade du Bastion. Marble busts of celebrated Genevese adorn the greenhouse, and a colossal bust of De Candolle surmounts a bronze pedestal in front. The façade of the Athénée, the handsome Renaissance building to the south-east of the Garden, is also adorned with some busts. of noble Genevan citizens. On the Bastion Promenade stands the New University building, with its glass galleries connecting the three different departments. In the centre are the lecture-rooms and laboratories, and the collections of coins, medals, and antiquities. In the left wing is a valuable Natural History Museum; the right wing contains the Bibliothèque Publique, founded by Bonnivard (the "Prisoner of Chillon "), in 1551, and removed to the present building, along with Calvin's Academy and College, in 1871. The Library contains over a hundred thousand volumes, and in a hall near the entrance there is a fine collection of ancient and modern portraits of princes, statesmen, Reformers, and scholars, chiefly of the Reformation epoch. Amongst them is a picture of Servetus, bearing the label-" Burnt at Geneva to the honour and glory of God." Amongst the MSS. are many rare and precious specimens ;-there are homilies of St. Augustine, written on papyrus in the sixth century; the housekeeping accounts of Philippe le Bel (1308); MSS., illuminated with miniatures, captured when Charles the Bold was defeated at Grandson in 1476. A French Bible, splendidly bound in red morocco, printed at Geneva in 1588, was intended as a present to Henry IV. from the Council, but news came that the king had abjured Protestantism, and so the Council of Geneva altered its mind, and kept the Bible as an historical memento.

There are two or three museums in Geneva. The Musée Fol contains Greek and Etruscan antiquities, and Medieval and Renaissance curiosities and art specimens. The Musée Rath owes its origin to the generosity of the Russian general, Rath, who was a native of Geneva. It contains paintings and sculpture-a good deal of it by Genevan artists. Opposite this museum stands the Theatre, a fine building completed in 1879. For many years theatrical performances were unknown in Geneva-Rousseau accused Voltaire of corrupting the Republic by introducing stage plays at Ferney, just over

the frontier.

Geneva has many holidays in the course of the year besides the festival of the Escalade already described. A strangely peculiar one is the New Year's Festival. As the old year nears its close a people's fair is held in the streets, and is kept up without cessation for three days and nights. During the night the most interesting and attractive phases of the spectacle are displayed. The streets are thronged with joyous crowds, and brightly illuminated with torches and coloured lanterns; the gaily-decked bazaars, the peasant costumes, the ceaseless revelry, all go to make up a scene that defies description. Lines of booths, for the sale of wares of the most varied kind, fill up the principal

street. Panoramas and menageries, shows and theatres put forth their attractions on every hand. Thousands of people flock into the city from the surrounding districts to see the fair, and freedom of action is interfered with by the police as little as possible. And so the singing and dancing, the buying and selling go on till the New Year Festival is over, and the usual quietude of the city is restored. The fête is in commemoration of the emancipation of the city from the French rule, as well as a welcome to the New Year.

Before passing from Geneva to its environs and to the towns that stud the shores of its famous lake, we must notice the special industry for which Geneva has obtained a world-wide celebrity. A large proportion of the actual work of the Geneva watches is done in the Jura mountains, but Geneva invests the needed capital and superintends operations, and puts together in the form of a watch the various component. parts made in scattered mountain homes. About a tenth part of the million and a half of watches that Switzerland sends out annually comes from Geneva. Over three hundred Genevan firms are engaged in the making and exportation of watches, and about forty other firms produce amongst them jewellery to the value of £560,000 sterling. Two hundred years ago a silver watch was brought home to the village of Chaux-de-Fonds in the Jura mountains by a horse-trader. It was the first that had appeared in the district, and from far and near everybody came to see the wonderful machine that revealed the time of day. But the watch after a time got out of order and stopped. This was no individual trouble, but a local calamity. Amongst those who came to see the now silent instrument was Jean Richard, a lad of fourteen, a smith's apprentice. Warily did this sharp youth peer into the inside of the watch, and note the arrangement of wheels and cogs. He caught the secret of its construction, saw the mishap that had taken place, and speedily set the watch going again. The rejoicing villagers loudly praised the young mechanic, who began to think that if he could mend a watch, perhaps he could make one. In two years' time, in spite of the absence of knowledge or experience, and the want of proper tools and patterns, young Richard's first watch was keeping time. He pushed forward till he saw himself at the head of a large and profitable industry, which since his death in 1741 has enormously developed. Sixty master-workmen now take part in the manufacture of a single watch; each particular piece is the speciality of certain workmen who spend their lives in making duplicates of that particular wheel, plate, or spring. And even the making of this special piece a man subdivides between himself, his wife, and his children. So accurately is the work done that a Genevan exporter may gather up the component parts of his watches from the different valleys of the Jura, and yet every part will fit with mathematical nicety into its place. Seventy thousand people in Geneva and the Jura are engaged in making watches. Fifty firms are occupied in the somewhat kindred employment of making musical-boxes for the entertainment of the world. As a wonderful instance of the way in which skilled labour adds to the value of raw material, we may mention that steel worth £8 produces common watch-springs worth £21,000.

Besides the glorious lake and its surroundings, of which we shall speak presently, there are many places of interest in the neighbourhood of Geneva. A frequently visited

spot is the confluence of the Rhône and Arve, a little way from the town. After the union, the clear blue waters of the Rhône and the thick dirty-white waters of the Arve flow on for a considerable distance without mixing. Mont Salève is a long hill of limestone rocks rising to the height of 4,300 feet, and affording splendid views of

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only five miles from Geneva-a place of which Voltaire was really the founder. Having purchased the land in 1759, he attracted colonists to the neighbourhood, built a mansion for himself, and a church with the inscription-"Deo erexit Voltaire."

Lake Leman is the largest and the deepest of the Swiss lakes, the circuit of its shores measuring a hundred miles. Other Swiss lakes are green in colour, Leman is blue. The scenery, more especially at the upper end of the lake, from Vevey to Villeneuve,

comprises some of the loveliest in Switzerland. "The margin of the lake," says Mr. Laing, "is carved out and built into terrace upon terrace of vineyards and Indian corn plots; behind this narrow belt, grain-crops, orchards, green fields, and chestnut-trees have their zone; higher still, upon the hillside, pasture-grass and forest-trees occupy the ground; above rises a dense mass of pine-forest broken by peaks of bare rocks shooting up, weather-worn and white, through this dark green mantle; and, last of all, the eternal snow piled up high against the deep blue sky; and all this glory of nature, this varied majesty of mountain-land within one glance."

Upon the north bank of the lake beyond Versoix-which Choiseul, the minister of Louis XV., vainly tried to nurse into a rival of Geneva-is Coppet. The old château, with its two grey towers, once belonged to Necker, a native of Geneva, afterwards a Parisian banker, and financial minister to Louis XV. He retired to this spot in 1790, and a long low window that seems to hang out from the rest of the house marks the room in which his gifted daughter, Madame de Staël, used to write and study. The desk at which she sat is still shown to visitors. In a chapel close by, half hidden by a clump of trees, the author of "Corinne" lies beside her scheming and disappointed father. At Nyon is a massive twelfth-century castle, for a time time the refuge of General Carnot. The pleasant little town of Rolle, facing the widest portion of the lake, displays, on a small island, a monument to General La Harpe, a native of the place. Morges boasts a château said to have been built by that industrious Queen Bertha, who used to have her distaff fixed to her saddle, so that she could spin whilst riding about the country. Morges is also proud of its fine view of Mont Blanc seen across the lake, and through a southern valley. Ouchy has an hotel at which Byron and Shelley were detained by bad weather when cruising about the lake, and at which in two days the "Prisoner of Chillon" was written.

Lausanne is a town of nearly 30,000 inhabitants, the capital of the canton of Vaud. It seems to cling in a wonderful way to the edges and sides of a group of hills. None of the streets are either straight or level, but this only adds to the picturesqueness of the town, which is further enhanced by steps, and arches, and bridges in every direction. One of the intersecting valleys is spanned by a fine structure, with a double row of arches, called the Grand Pont, which affords a fine general view of the city. The grand old cathedral, whose Gothic towers rise high and dark against the clear blue sky, is approached from the market-place by one hundred and sixty-four steps. The edifice is characterised by massive simplicity. The porticoes are beautifully sculptured, and the handsome roof of nave and choir and transept is supported by over a thousand clustered columns. In this building-which was consecrated by Gregory X., in presence of Rudolph of Hapsburg-Calvin, Farel, and Viret met in conference in 1536, the result being the separation of Vaud from the Romish Church, and its alliance with Berne in place of its former submission to the House of Savoy. Lausanne overflows with schools and educational establishments, and the environs of the town are very beautiful. One of the chief associations of the town is with the historian Gibbon, who here spent many years of his long and solitary life. The site of his house is occupied by a large hotel that bears his name. The garden, though entirely changed, is still

there, of which he speaks in connection with his great work, "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." He says "It was on the day, or rather the night, of the 27th of June, 1787, between the hours of eleven and twelve, that I wrote the last line of the last page in a summer-house in my garden. After laying down my pen I took several turns in a berceau, or covered walk of acacias, which commands a prospect of the country, the lake, and the mountains. The air was temperate, the sky was serene, the silver orb of the moon was reflected from the waves, and all nature was silent." No doubt at that moment Gibbon felt an intense sympathy with the silent rest of nature; his own day's work was nearly accomplished, and the night fast coming on.

Vevey, which represents the old Roman Vibiscum, is picturesquely situated at the end of a narrow valley. Its environs are very beautiful. In its church are buried Ludlow and Broughton-two of the judges who sentenced Charles I. to death. Vevey is the centre of the wine-growing district of Switzerland, and is the headquarters of an ancient guild known as "L'Abbaye des Vignerons," who present prizes to successful wine-growers, and in various ways promote the interests of that class. A grand festival known as "La Fête des Vignerons" is held at intervals, and is considered to be a genuine relic of the old worship of Bacchus. "The continuance of this fête," says a recent writer, "is characteristic of the conservative and mirth-loving Vaudois. It comes off every fifteen years in the market-place of Vevey. A large platform is raised, the square is gay with flags and triumphal arches, and thronged with spectators-artisans, little peasant proprietors by hundreds, and strangers from all quarters. The music strikes up and gives the signal for the grand allegorical procession of the Four Seasons. But first come a corps of Swiss halberdiers in motley costume, the vintner-guilds of Vevey la Paus, and their abbé carrying a gilt crozier. He opens the proceedings with a speech and the coronation of the two most successful vintners. The little ceremony over, the procession begins. First enters Spring-a young girl in the character of Pales, reclining in a triumphal car. Children and shepherdesses dance around her; haymakers, labourers, and Alpine cowherds sing their Ranz des Vaches. Summer follows-a lady of riper years, impersonating Ceres, in a car drawn by two large oxen, accompanied by children carrying bee-hives and other appropriate fixtures. With Autumn comes the climax of excitement as Bacchus, the god of the vine, appears in a chariot, drawn by horses covered with tiger-skins. This is the signal for wild dances and wilder music after the fashion of the ancients. He is accompanied by his train, among which Silenus mounted on his ass figures conspicuously. Winter ends the cortége, which thus forms a complete series of illustrations of rural life. In this the cold season-the peasant's work is ended, and he returns to his cottage hearth; so winter stands in their minds for things domestic, and is pictured accordingly. The aged parents lead the way, then come the young couple-bride and bridegroom. Rustic dances by woodmen and huntsmen follow, and the whole concludes by a grand patriotic hymn. The tenacity of life shown by this remarkable fête arises, no doubt, from its being more than a mere recreation and show. It still breathes the true spirit of the people of whose labours and joys it is a faithful picture. The same heart is in it as that which gave it birth in the beginning, and keeps it alive."

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