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have been asked. In both cases there is a high rock crowned with buildings; but in the one case the rock rises above a plain, in the other from a ridge ; and the one rock is a ridge crowned by the Parthenon, while the other is covered by ugly barracks. The Calton Hill has no doubt some likeness to the Acropolis; but neighbouring chimneys and smoke, and the absence of all association, make the dissimilarity greater than the resemblance.”

The present writer, who is familiar with both Athens and Edinburgh, has searched diligently for the faintest trace of any resemblance whatever between the two cities, and has failed to find it.

Let the reader, therefore, who would realise the appearance of Athens, dismiss from his mind, in the first place, this curious fiction of a likeness to the Scottish metropolis ; and in the second place, let him beware of florid descriptions of scenery. It must be borne in mind that all the country round about is as treeless as Brighton ; that after the spring-tide has passed, the face of nature is brown and red and yellow, bathed in a fierce glare of sunshine ; that Attica as seen in the early morning, or in the beauty of sunset, evening, or moonlight, presents a landscape totally different to that seen by day ; nor must he forget that in regarding the position and perfection of her situation, her climate, her soil, her sea, her sky, he must look on even these in the light of the past. It is because “the face of nature lies so open to the air, the hills and the valleys are so plainly and intelligibly outspread, there is such a look about this bright region of having been created for the abode of a high and fortunate race of men, that the very soil has, as it were, a gracious and kindly appearance.”

And looking at it thus, he can understand the utterance of Pericles: “You inhabit a city, Omen of Athens ! which has nothing to envy any other in the universe !” and appreciate the apostrophe of Aristophanes :

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PHILADELPHIA.

The Ancient Navigators – The Swedish Colony-William Penn, the Founder of the City— The Dreary Morning-Revo

lutionary Annals -- A Capua for Britain's Hannibal – The Area of the City-Fairmount Waterworks—The Monotony of ('omfort-Co-operative Building -A Mosaic of Nationalities–Leagues of Factories - Markets and Bridges-Chestnut Street-Inns, New and Old-Independence 'Hall – The Libraries—Carpenters' Hall—The Exchange and the Banks, The Post-Omce and Mint – Tender Charities Catalogued- Anglicanism in Quakerdom-Gloria Dei–The Swedish Pioneers-Christ Church-St. Peter's – The Grand Avenues—The Public Building-The Masonic Temple-The Clubs Roman Catholicism and its great Cathedral-Protestant Shrines—The Fine Arts—The Academy and its ('ollections-Musio and Theatres, The University and Girard College-A Group of Prisons-Fairmount Park- The Great Pictures-- The Schuylkill Navy-The International Exhibition of 1876–Stately Old Mansions-Lemon Hill and Sweet Brior, Lansdowne and Belmont-Laurel-Hill Cemetery–The American Clyde-The Battle of the Kegs Pirates - The (radle of Steam Navigation–The Navy Yard – The Lazaretto–Pennsylvania Dutch-A Pleasant Legend -Germantown and its Battle The Wooden Walls of England-Summer Joys of the Philadelphians—The Vanished Race.

ENRY HUDSON, the gallant captain of the Half

Moon, was the first European to discover the broad

river on which Philadelphia now stands, and his clumsy little ship bore the Dutch colours up the silent stream as early as the year 1609. A twelvemonth later, when Lord Delaware was sailing westward from merry England, to govem the infant colony of Virginia, his ship entered the bay, and the river and its broad

estuary received his name. In 1692 the Dutch built ARVS or ruuADFITNA.

Fort Nassau, opposite the site of Philadelphia; and in

1631 Fort Oplandt was erected, farther down the river. But one fort was soon abandoned, and the other fell a prey to the Indians, who exterminated its unhappy garrison. A little later, and Gustavus Adolphus, the hen-kings of Sweden, “the Lion of the North," made plans to found a free Protestant clony her, and the mere adventurous of his people crossed the ocean in fleets, and Seite all along the lower Delaware valley, with forts and churches, farms and onhanls. The Puteh, jealous of these intruders, watched them very vigilantly. At last the Suzalish governer stormed the Dutch fort, and placed it in command of his trusty Scandinavian warrior, Svend Schute; whenupon the doughty HWanders of New Anstenlam sint denna salnu and ill soldiers, who extinguished the political and ritary power of the Swedies for ever. A few years later, Sir Robert Carr sailed 1. the river, with the taste of England at the for, and after pourding Fort Trinity wità anh emalment, a jurty of Wue jackets carried it by sterm, killing

2 werden divers of the stunty Dutch garisan. Ia loit the Natch and Swedish Sms x! uw ander the prerument of Gaat Bataan, where the remained for

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A fures of the man cities, ne eme ekranes aber place than "P:n, sonda nival of Peangraria in gesin for debts VF*Hesar. Al Sir

WP Te Pean had early embraced the singular doctrines of the Friends, and was expelled from Oxford University. He received his education at Paris and (in law) at Lincoln's Inn. Afterwards he became a street-preacher and a prolific writer in defence of the Friends, and was imprisoned for heresy in the Tower of London and in Newgate. In November, 1682, he came to his new domain of Pennsylvania, where a great city had already been

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laid out, under his authority, by an English surveyor. Penn convened the Indian lords of the soil, and formed with them a covenant of peace; and christened his new capital PhiladelphiaBrotherly Love. Most of his remaining years were spent in England, with occasional visits to the colony; and in 1718, worn out with his long conflicts in behalf of the oppressed Quakers, he passed to the life immortal. Two years after its settlement, Philadelphia had 2,000 inhabitants; and twenty years after, the population had more than doubled, and there were 700 houses in the city. The government of

PHILADELPHIA.

The Ancient Navigators-The Swedish Colony-William Penn, the Founder of the City—The Dreary Morning-Revo

lutionary Annals-A Capua for Britain's Hannibal– The Area of the City-Fairmount Waterworks—The Monotony of Comfort-Co-operative Building-A Mosaic of Nationalities–Leagues of Factories–Markets and Bridges-Chestnut Street-Inns, New and Old-Independence Hall—The Libraries-Carpenters' Hall—The Exchange and the Banks, The Post-Office and Vint-Tender Charities Catalogued - Anglicanism in Quakerdom-Gloria Dei –The Swedish Pioneers-Christ Church-St. Peter's—The Grand Avenues—The Public Building—The Masonic Temple, The Clubs-Roman Catholicism and its great Cathedral-Protestant Shrines—The Fine Arts—The Academy and its Collections Music and Theatres—The University and Girard College-A Group of Prisons-Fairmount Park-The Great Pictures--The Schuylkill Navy-The International Exhibition of 1876—Stately Old Mansions-Lemon Hill and Sweet Brier, Lansdowne and Belmont-Laurel-Hill Cemetery– The American Clyde-The Battle of the Kegs-Pirates—The Cradle of Steam Navigation—The Navy Yard— The Lazaretto–Pennsylvania Dutch-A Pleasant Legend-Germantown and its Battle—The Wooden Walls of England-Summer Joys of the Philadelphians-The Vanisned Race.

H

ENRY HUDSON, the gallant captain of the Half

Moon, was the first European to discover the broad

river on which Philadelphia now stands, and his clumsy little ship bore the Dutch colours up the silent stream as early as the year 1609. A twelvemonth later, when Lord Delaware was sailing westward from merry England, to govern the infant colony of Virginia, his ship entered the bay, and the river and its broad

estuary received his name. In 1622 the Dutch built ARMS OF PHILADELPHIA.

Fort Nassau, opposite the site of Philadelphia ; and in

1631 Fort Oplandt was erected, farther down the river. But one fort was soon abandoned, and the other fell a prey to the Indians, who exterminated its unhappy garrison. A little later, and Gustavus Adolphus, the hero-king of Sweden, “the Lion of the North,” made plans to found a free Protestant colony here, and the more adventurous of his people crossed the ocean in fleets, and settled all along the lower Delaware valley, with

Delaware valley, with forts and churches, farms and orchards. The Dutch, jealous of these intruders, watched them very vigilantly. At last the Swedish governor stormed the Dutch fort, and placed it in command of his trusty Scandinavian warrior, Svend Schute; whereupon the doughty Hollanders of New Amsterdam sent down a squadron and 700 soldiers, who extinguished the political and military power of the Swedes for ever. A few years later, Sir Robert Carr sailed into the river, with the flag of England at the fore, and after pounding Fort Trinity with an old-fashioned bombardment, a party of blue-jackets carried it by storm, killing and wounding divers of the sturdy Dutch garrison. In 1674 the Dutch and Swedish settlements all passed under the government of Great Britain, where they remained for a century.

Among the founders of the American cities, no one occupies a higher place than William Penn, who secured a royal grant of Pennsylvania in compensation for debts which England owed his father, Admiral Sir William Penn. Young Penn had early embraced the singular doctrines of the Friends, and was expelled from Oxford University. He received his education at Paris and (in law) at Lincoln's Inn. Afterwards he became a street-preacher and a prolific writer in defence of the Friends, and was imprisoned for heresy in the Tower of London and in Newgate. In November, 1682, he came to his new domain of Pennsylvania, where a great city had already been

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laid out, under his authority, by an English surveyor. Penn convened the Indian lords of the soil, and formed with them a covenant of peace; and christened his new capital Philadelphia—Brotherly Love. Most of his remaining years were spent in England, with occasional visits to the colony; and in 1718, worn out with his long conflicts in behalf of the oppressed Quakers, he passed to the life immortal. Two years after its settlement, Philadelphia had 2,000 inhabitants; and twenty years after, the population had more than doubled, and there were 700 houses in the city. The government of

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