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. . im Tristram, Porter, and Burton. But to our own day has been reserved the
- I n the first sistematic scientific researches, and these have been prosecuted tij qe zeal tır the Palestine Exploration Committee, with the aid of a band of 5 $116. juve toiled with enthusiasm and heroic resolution.
- L. [onder Gray tells us that one city literally lies heaped upon another. For
45710L fewer than twenty-seren sieges—from Jebusites and Israelites, Egyptians
11. Greeks and Romans, Mohammedans and Christians. The last and twentyprog Fire 100£ place in 1214, at the hands of the wild Kharezmian hordes, who plundered bugs apranic siauritered the priests and monks. The esplorers hare thus had to do, not with nghe epş vui with many. The Jerusalem of to-day may be considered the eighth, for even beint tilt time of David there was a city there. The second was the city of Solomon, ir L.L. 2004 to B.C. 597, a space of 100 years; the third that of Nehemiah, which lasiti for sumie 300 years; then came the magnificent city of Herod; then that Roman eilt which grew up on the ruin Titus had made ; it again was followed by the Mohammedan city; and that in its turn by a Christian city; and now, for 600 years, the modern citu luas stood on the ruins of those that preceded it.
Kumbush and a cover every foot of the ground save where the rock crops up at intervais. Tie rubbish is the wreck of all these cities piled one above the other. If we examint it we have ti determine at every step, among the ruins of which city we are standing -Soumin. Nehemiah, Herod, Hadrian, Constantine, Omar, Godfrey, Saladin, Suleiman. Laci ruin in turn represents a city.
In trackmg the foutsteps of the explorers let us go back to the Mosque El-Aksa, and descend, through a small arcade, to look at the artificial substructions of the Temple area. On our war we pause at a small mosque or oratory, where we are shown a large stone sarcophagus called the Cradle of Christ. In this mosque it is alleged Hebrew women used to await their confinement; here the aged Simeon took up the infant Saviour in his arms; here the Virgin tarnied for a few days after the presentation in the Temple; and here she found her son with the Jewish doctors, hearing and answering questions. From here we descend to the magnificent vaults known as Solomon's Stables, brought to light bır the workers of the Esploration Fund. Ther are raulted arenues supported by immense pillars of massive stines placed singly one alore the other. Perhaps twenty such avenues have been tIn sed, and each may have a dozen or fifteen of these mammoti plan i at al truth. It present a most imposing appearance, and it is impossible io sex tir"! with anime in these artificial substructions, merely built for the purpose of exienumtihe I+]14 *1. wire so grand, what must have been the grandeur of the FU*irurur: I'tiH iTun Tule area was doubtless supported br piers and arches E tat la tornat ane 1* # Imam Eliversally admitted that these are a re-construction.
( 10 ti poloos liike jouenta 2 1: le an vid lintel; others consisted of weather-worn kibe habe iron 0114 rasmi u torbe proof that these are not the veritable works of tast til "..?! '112*". mi :124 1 manner in which the vaulting joins in with the Lang" : : 11.4410117 Vians at the IIT BIKE IT!ja...17 2.
r ati as have been made on the outside of the Temple wala » Lengt short Bit til 1.116 to TH o site's of great interest; and it is to these,
rather than to the former, that we shall direct our attention, referring those who wish to know the scientific details of the work of the explorers to the numerous books which have in the past few years been published on the subject.*
Let us make our way to the Bab-el-Mugharibeh, or Gate of the Western Africanscalled in Scripture the Dung Gate (Neh. iii. 13, 14)—then, passing through a jungle of cactus, reach the south-west wall of the Harâm, where some enormous blocks of stone, used in the construction of the plateau, may be seen. One stone seventy-five feet above the foundation is thirty-eight feet four inches long, three and a half high, and seven feet wide. Close by is the celebrated spring of the arch known as Robinson's Arch, which connected the Temple with the city of Zion by spanning the Tyropæon valley. The fragment consists of immense stones projecting from the wall, measuring from twenty to twenty-four feet each in length. The distance from here to the hill-side of Zion is three hundred and fifty feet, and that must have been the length of the ancient bridge.
It is in the Tyropæon valley, which cleaves the heart of Jerusalem, and along the southern front of the hill Moriah, where the site of the Temple is now occupied by the Mosque of Omar, that important excavations have in recent years been carried on. Shafts and galleries have been driven through the mass of rubbish which covers the base of the Temple rock, and have revealed the enormous depth to which it has accumulated. Through the débris the cyclopean walls supporting the Temple have been traced to a depth varying from sixty to ninety feet, and the wall itself has been shown to have reached at this point to a height of from one hundred and seventy to one hundred and eighty feet-a curious justification of a passage of Josephus, in which he describes the dizziness with which the spectator looked down into the valley beneath. The whole rock must have been honeycombed with aqueducts, cisterns, channels, and passages; thirty feet beneath the vaults, which had been known to exist at its south-eastern corner, a passage has been found leading into the solid substance of the wall, and indicating probably large substructions, where it is not unreasonable to look for discoveries of no little interest. Of the two great viaducts, which moored, as it were, the sacred rock of Moriah to the western and eastern hills of Zion and Olivet, the one most interesting to us, as the road by which Christ entered the Temple, has indeed wholly disappeared ; but a single colossal abutment of the bridge which spanned the Tyropæon—the road by which the kings passed from Zion to Moriah-remains, and the researches of Captain Warren have proved it to have been one hundred and fifty feet in height. If this be—as Captain Warren supposes—the “ascent to the house of the Lord” which Solomon showed to the Queen of Sheba, we can hardly wonder that, on seeing it, “ there was no spirit left in her.”
The excavations disclosed, at a distance of sixty feet under the present surface of the soil, fragments of voussoirs, or bevelled stones, lying where they fell when, by some means or other unknown, the bridge was destroyed. The place in which they now lie scattered in confusion once formed the level of a street running under the arch, like the street in Edinburgh under the North Bridge, or that in London under the Holborn Viaduct. The excavations also laid open a vast conduit running under this ancient street,
* Especially to “ The Recovery of Jerusalem,” and “ Underground Jerusalem." By Chas. Warren, Capt. R.E, F.G.S., &c.
Tejerzi 1 14 Tims Herod, there is convincing proof that the present Haram was, in t im
2. inuinded within the circuit of the city wall. I: rice. iive mount below Moriah, Captain Varren recognises the site of Solomon's Dulatie uns vu King Manasseh “compassed about, and raised up to a very great
' atze mircuan iud also "built mach upon the wall.” This wall, not many years SIP din lur PTEL IO Setenty feet in height, having conjoined with it a great 2011 augtitt 61016.
Ti l tag 11 set at last the mights front of the Temple rock, as the Twelve SIIT T2 tier murvelied at the great stones which were still fresh from the chisel of
co m at tilt discoveries have been under the auspices of the Palestine Exploration ! I te taer art prutainly few who wil entirely endorse the claims put forth by Captain Viuni TV 14. SIVE, toncerning the Temple : * We have been able to point out the Vreme Ime Eier i and the work of Solomon, and if it were necessary we could identify " we had an anc alterations of the Roman Emperors. We can follow the description of
* 22 tit Taimidie arcounts, and find erertiling fall into its place with the ease 2. ULIT to be obtained from correct identifications. We can stand on the spot
wem i susties were made, where the high priest stood onoe a year before the ark of i no Ier T-PI. where St. Simeon receired our Lord, where the Sanhedrim listened to His -- Flere the moder-changers' talles were overturned, where the lame man was
a ruut, there St. Paul was carried up the steps to the Antonia, where St. James 1 705. fione before he was cast duwd. All this information is the result of our - E, and though all do not agree with me in my indications, yet I find more tiesi Ten."
bei uit quirting the walls of the Temple we must refer to one spot familiar to every post from the evultless pictures and other illustrations of it to be met with everywhere.
aj stov i the Jews Talling-place, under the western wall of the Harâm, their only 17 in their own city. It is a little nartor conrt, close by the miserable horels of the H e : 0105, or Moslems from the north-west of Africa. But in this court rises the cele
iuraitc wall, fiftr-two cards long and fifty-six in height, of massive stones—one being Fixit: feet and one thirteen in length all that is left to the Jews of their marvellous "lemple. It is one of the most affecting sights in that city of strange memories to see tik -ancient people” standing there, psalter in hand, wailing out words which have a singular rignificance in that place. The place is sacred with the tears of many generationis, for even so far back as the time of Jerome we find him making an affecting allu*?"I to the murders who, in his day, paid the Roman soldiers for allowing them to go and pater the ruins of their Temple. And manr a time since then have those old Pue blod bark this passinate cry': " Zion is a wilderness, Jerasalem a desolation. Our 15 ani vur beautiful house where our fathers praised Thee is burned up with fire, and
a pleasant things are laid waste! O God, the heathen are come into Thine inherit:*. Ins Iloir Temple have they dotiled; they have laid Jerusalem on heaps. How long,
. Wil Thou be angry for ever!"