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of whom I was acquainted, that I was is not good, but in winter vessels may persuaded he acted from ignorance and anchor in a river five leagues thence, not in defiance of the custom; and as he where they are secure.

“ There is at was under English protection, I hoped present," says Dr Hogg, “an established they would let him go without further demand at Damascus for muslins, cotton molestation. This appeal was successful. yarns, and white and printed goods. The His clothes were unfortunately ruined trade is daily increasing, and the exports beyond repair, but we borrowed for him of the current year (1835) will certainly a large mashlakh, which served to cover exceed L.200,000 sterling West India the little that remained of his Frank cos- produce is sent to a moderate amount, tume, tied a handkerchief round his head, and the various goods are paid for in and engaged a Turk to guide him, terrified specie, bills of exchange, and the proand crest-fallen, to the house of the Greek ductions of the country. The principal archbishop, to whom he was addressed.” returns are silks, galls, madder, gums, The same aversion existed to Christians opium, and sponges—the silk in consibeing seen on horseback in Damascus. derable quantity, but the quality not very “No European," says Mr Hardy, “was fine. The annual amount of imports allowed, even within a few months of my from Syria can scarcely be ascertained, visit, to wear a white turban in public, or the trade being quite new, with every ride on horseback; and I am told that a prospect of being considerably increased. brother missionary of my own (the Wes- Three English houses have already been leyan) Society was compelled to enter established at Damascus—goods designin disguise, and in the darkness of the ed for that market are shipped at Beynight, during the early part of the year ruth—those sent to Aleppo go by way 1824. I wore the prohibited badge, and of Alexandria.” rode several times through the principal The extent of Damascus is variously streets and bazars, and, though there stated, the city being long, but of inconmight be a few murmurings in an undersiderable breadth. Its walls, according tone, I received no open insult. The to Dr Richardson, are “very old and change has arisen from the greater pro- frail, and fallen down in several places;" tection and encouragement that Euro- and Ali Bey in his “ Travels” confirins peans derive from the new government, the statement. “ The true defence of Dawhich I trust will lead to nobler results mascus,” says the latter, “consists in its than the mere setting aside of a few gardens, which, forming a forest of trees, sumptuary regulations.” Dr Hogg also and a labyrinth of hedges, walls, and mentions the revolution of public feel- ditches, for more than seven leagues in ing on this subject in Damascus. “ Mr circumference, would present no small Todd, a respectable British merchant impediment to a Mussulınan enemy who from Alexandria, had already settled at wished to attack the city.” The garDamascus, and rode out in his hat and dens are all private property, and answer Frank dress daily through the town. better to the description of what we call Two other commercial houses have since orchards than gardens. They abound in been established. Mr Farren, the consul. fountains and summer-houses, and furgeneral, and his family, have made it nish a delightful retirement under the their residence, nor is any objection now shade of the walnut, the citron, the made to their wearing Frank clothes.” orange, and the poniegranate. The prinThis traveller informs us, in a note to his cipal gardens lie close to the city on the two interesting volumes, that a consider- west, but they are scattered throughout able trade has already commenced be- the whole of the plantations around it, tween Liverpool and Damascus, the Damascus being nearly in the centre, sea-port of the latter being a place called and about six miles in circumference. Beyruth or Bairoot, the harbour of which The circumference of these gardens is

rated from about twenty to sixty and divides into several branches, and these even seventy miles. “ The city,” says subdivide as they advance into innumeLamartine, “is entirely surrounded by rable fertilizing streams. But within orchards, or rather by forests of fruit this circuit only these waters seem to trees, with which the vines are entwined dispense their beneficent influence, for, as at Naples, and hang in festoons among ere they quit the vicinity of the town, fig, apricot, pear, and cherry trees. Un- the different branches once more unite, der these trees the earth, which is rich and a bare undulating outline alone marks and fertile, and always well watered, is the course of this river, as it rolls away carpeted with barley, corn, maize, and all to form a distant lake, whose waters are the leguminous plants which this soil pro- said to be silently absorbed by the arid duces. Little white houses peep out here sands of the Desert.” This lake, which and there from amidst the verdure of the is about seven hours' journey from forests; they are either the gardeners' Damascus, is called Hotaibe, or Behirat houses, or little summer-houses belong- el Merdj, and is about seven or eight ing to the families who own the ground. leagues in circumference.

“ It has no These cultivated inclosures are peopled apparent outlet,” observes Ali Bey, “and with horses, sheep, camels, and doves, hence I am led to imagine that there and every thing that can impart anima- exists a subterraneous outlet, for it does tion to the scenery of nature; they are not increase in the rainy season, nor does on the average two or three acres in ex- it diminish in dry weather. Its water is tent, and are separated one from another drinkable. There are a great many by mud walls baked in the sun, and by antelopes and wild boars, as well as fine quickset hedges. Numerous shady water fowl, to be met with in its neighpaths, refreshed by fountains, intersect bourhood.” This writer describes the these gardens, leading from one suburb water of the Barrady as of a “bad to another, or to the different gates of quality, and would not be drinkable if the city."

it were not mixed with that of another We must not omit the rivers of Da- river named Fichée or Feejy, anciently

Naaman, the Syrian general, called Farcana, which rises near a village when he was told by the Prophet Elisha of that name about five hours' journey to wash in the river Jordan seven times distant on the north of Damascus.” This and he would be cured of his leprosy, account is confirmed by Mr Buckingham; indignantly exclaimed, “ Are not Abana but it appears that when both streams are and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus, better united the water is excellent, and flows than all the waters of Israel ? May I not over a plain which is not perhaps wash in them, and be clean ?" 2 Kings exceeded in beauty by any on the surface v. 12. Those two rivers, or rather of the globe. “ So superior,” says Mr branches of one river, although they Buckingham, “are these waters in every cannot now be distinguished, rise in estimable quality of that element to the Mount Hermon, and flow through the Jordan, or any other river of Israel, that valley or plain of Damascus, which lies the rage in which the Syrian is said to between Libanus and Antilibanus. This have turned away at the proposition of river is the Barrady, so called by the washing in the latter to purify himself, moderns, and Arfana by the ancients; when he could do this so much more and Chrysorrhoas, or the Golden Stream, readily and effectually in the former, was by the Greeks. “ The Barrady," says ' natural to one in his situation, and thus Dr Hogg, “having quitted the mountains, easily explained." flows through the plain in a wide and The population of Damascus is also undeep channel, divested of vegetation, in certain. Lamartine says that according to which from the heigh above no water

some auth es, the inhabitants amount As it approaches the city it to 400,000; according to others, only


200,000: "I cannot decide,” he says, put in comparison with the environs of " and indeed it is impossible to do so; London, no more than a river about thirty one can only conjecture. In the East yards broad is to be compared to the there is no exact census taken, and the majestic Thames, or a continuous and travellers can only judge by the eye. almost uninhabited wood of five or six By the extent of the crowd which inun- miles to the beautiful and populous endates the streets and bazars, by the num- virons of the British capital; and the ber of armed men who issue from the boasted view from Salhiyyeh is to that houses on the least signal of revolution or from Hampstead, or Highgate, or Richtumult, and the extent of ground which mond Hill, what a cottage garden is to the houses cover, I should myself be Kew. But if the drapery of external inclined to believe that those who are nature be so inferior in the Syrian capiinclosed within the city walls might tal, that of the intellectual nature is so number between 300,000 and 400,000 many thousand times more to be deplored. souls.” A great uncertainty hangs over The Turks and the Negroes are the unthis part of statistical inquiry in all productive members of our race; they Eastern cities, in which no registers are have never contributed one thought to kept, but the haratch, or poll-tax, affords science, nor suggested one scheme to some grounds for judging of the Christian improve our condition. This cannot be population. According to the Revue des said of any Christian country upon earth, Deux Mondes, quoted in the Asiatic and he that contributes to christianize Journal for 1831, the population of Da- the millions of Moslem and Negroes, conmascus amounted to 170,000 or 180,000 tributes to turn the force of so many adsouls, of whom there are from 120,000 to ditional intellects to improve the science 150,000 Jews and Mahometans, and from and advance the happiness of man.” 25,000 to 30,000 Christians, of whom DAMMIM, or DAMINIM, the name of five-sixths are Roman Catholics. a place in the territory of the tribe of

Such is Damascus, before the walls of Judah, between Shochoh and Azekah, which occurred that great and illustrious both of which lay south of the city of event in the history of the Christian Jerusalem, and east of Bethlehem. See Church, the conversion of St Paul. EPHES-DAMMIM. This fact alone invests it with an interest DAMNA, a town belonging to the peculiar to itself, especially when the Tribe of Zebulun, allotted to the Levites very spot is still pointed out where the of that Tribe, of the family of Merari. great Apostle fell to the earth, exclaim- DAN, judgment, or the judge, the ing, in reply to the voice from Heaven, name of a cantonment of Palestine, so “ Who art thou, Lord ?” We may sum called from Dan the fifth son of Jacob, up our account of this famous city, the and the eldest by Bilhah, the handmaid scene of many interesting associations of Rachel, and was the territory allotted and traditions, in the language of Lamar- to his descendants the Tribe of Dan. The tine, that “so long as the earth shall bear province was bounded on the north by empires upon her surface, Damascus will the Simeonites, on the east by Judah and continue to be a great city. On emerg- Benjamin, on the south by Ephraim, and ing from the Desert, and entering on the on the west by the Mediterranean. Its plains of Cælo-Syria and the valleys of greatest length from north to south did Galilee, the caravans of India need re- not exceed forty miles; on the north side pose, and they find a spot of enchant- it was very narrow, and was not above ment at Damascus." Yet, with all the twenty-five broad on the south. The advantages of cloudless skies, the envir- soil was very fertile, and produced corn, ons of Damascus, says Dr Richardson, wine, oil, fruits, and other necessaries ; “in points of natural scenery, extent, or and the vineyards of Timnath and of the cultivation, are not once to be named or Valley of Eshtaol were celebrated for their fine grapes. Froin the latter the Leshem, Dan, after the name of Dan their spies sent by Moses brought excellent father,"Josh. xix. 47. The meaning of this specimens of its fertility to the camp historical passage is, that the Danites of the Israelites. The appearance of were dispossessed of their territory in the country is diversified by hills and some parts by their powerful neighbours valleys, and several brooks and rivulets the Amorites, who forced them into the refreshed and fertilized the soil. Its mountains. The Danites in consequence principal cities and towns were Joppa, fought against and took Leshem, a city Jamnia, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath, Gathrim- not far from Jordan, called Laish in the mon, Timnath, Ajalon, Gibbethon, Baa- Book of Judges, and in after times Cælath, Eltekeh, Lydda, Zorah, and Eshtaol, sarea Philippi, to which they gave the Josh. xix. 40–48, four of which belonged name of Dan. This affair is very mito the Levites of the Children of Kohath, nutely given in the Book of Judges

. It Josh. xxi. 23, 24.

appears from the narrative of the inspired Jacob, in his final blessing of his sons, author that, after the death of Joshua, thus speaks of Dan—" Dan shall judge “the tribe of the Danites sought them an his people as one of the tribes of Israel; inheritance to dwell in, for unto that day Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an all their inheritance had not fallen unto adder (in the Hebrew an arrow-snake) them among the Tribes of Israel," Judges in the path, that biteth the horse heels, xviii. 1. They had their inheritance al. so that his rider shall fall backward," lotted to them like the other Tribes, but, Gen. xlix. 16, 17; and Moses, in his bless- either on account of their own inactivity, ings of the Twelve Tribes immediately or from the want of that assistance which before his death, describes Dan as a the Tribes should have afforded them, lion's whelp, he shall leap from Bashan," they could not get possession of a consiDeut. xxxiii. 22. This latter announce- derable part of it, being compelled by the ment intimated that the Danites were to Amorites, as was previously observed, to be eminent for stratagems and strength inhabit the mountainous parts of the counin wars, and may be compared to the try. After the conquest of Laish, which lions of Bashan, celebrated for their fero- lay in the north part of Palestine, the city, and leaping upon their prey with Danites degenerated into gross idolatry, great force and subtlety. Jacob's an- and this was one of the causes of their exnouncement that “Dan shall judge his clusion from the list of the Twelve Tribes people,” evidently means, that though at a later period. This idolatry had been Dan was the son of a bond-woman, his suggested to them during their march posterity would nevertheless be governed against Laish, when they robbed Micah by a ruler of their own Tribe, as well as the of Mount Ephraim of his idols, and cardirect descendants of Leah and Rachel. ried off the person who officiated as his He was to be “a serpent by the way," priest. We are told that “the Children which may either refer to Samson, who of Dan set up the graven image, and Jowas of the Tribe of Dan, or to the general nathan, the son of Gershom, the son of character of the Tribe, who were to con- Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to duct their wars rather by cunning and the Tribe of Dan until the day of the capdeceit than by open hostility, a remark- tivity of the land. And they set them up able example of which occurs in the Book Mican's graven image, which he made, all of Judges (xviii). In the Book of Joshua the time that the house of God was in we are told that “the coast of the Chil- Shiloh.” The phrase, until the day of the dren of Dan went out too little for them; captivity of the land, has induced some therefore the Children of Dan went up commentators to suppose that the Book to fight against Leshem, and took it, and of Judges was written in later times, after smote it with the edge of the sword, and the Ten Tribes had been carried into possessed it, and dwelt therein, and called captivity by Shalmanezer ; but it is very

improbable that these images should have Dan to Beersheba, which we find repeatbeen suffered to continue so long, espe- edly used in the historical books of the cially during the reign of David. It has Old Testament. Abraham pursued the therefore been concluded that by the four confederated kings who had carried captivity of the land is meant the taking off Lot and his family as far as this place, of the ark by the Philistines, and the which would then be called by its oricarrying of it captive into the temple of ginal name; for Josephus informs us their idol Dagon, 1 Sam. iv. 11. This that the Patriarch pursued as far as the interpretation is confirmed by the next “place called Dan,” where “one of the verse, in which we are informed that the springs of Jordan rises." We are also images remained at Dan during the con- told that “the Lord showed Moses all tinuance of the ark and sanctuary at Shi- the land of Gilead unto Dan" from the loh, which ended in the time of Eli, when top of Pisgah, which is over against the ark was taken by the Philistines, and Jericho,” Deut. xxxiv. l; but it is uncernever afterwards carried back to Shiloh. tain whether this is the place mentioned It is very evident, however, that idolatry as taken by the Danites when it was continued in this place, notwithstanding called Leshem, or Laish, Judges xviii. 29, the zeal of many of the Judges of Israel, or the source of the Jordan so called. It who were distingnished men; and it was has often been remarked, that some names perhaps the well-known character of the in the Pentateuch were not applied city, and the idolatrous propensities of its to the places which they describe until inhabitants, which induced Jeroboam to after the death of Moses. If the truth of set up one of his golden calves in it, while this observation could be proved, we he erected the other at Bethel.

might suppose the modern names to have Dan, the father of this Tribe, had only been substituted by Ezra, or some disone son, named Hushim, Gen. xlvi. 23, tinguished prophet posterior to Moses, and yet, when the eleven secular Tribes for the information of later times. This were numbered in the second year after city became notorious on account of the the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, golden calf which Jeroboam set up in it, the Danites amounted to 62,700, Numb. after the revolt of the Ten Tribes. The i. 39. In the subsequent enrolment of Romans took it, when it received the the Tribes on the Plains of Moab, the name of Paneas. They gave it to Philip Danites amounted to 64,400, Numb. xxvi. the Tetrarch, the son of Herod, who 43. The most celebrated personage be- called it Cæsarea Philippi. See CÆSAREA longing to this Tribe was Samson, Judge Philippi.

. of Israel, whose extraordinary life and DAN, CAMP of, a place so called bedeath are recorded in the Book of Judges. cause the Tribe of Dan encamped there

DAN, the name of a city at the very in their expedition against the preceding northern extremity of Judea, anciently city. The inspired writer of the Book called Leshem and Laish, which the Tribe of Judges (xiii. 25) informs us that it was of Dan took, and called Dan, “after the s between Zorah and Eshtaol,” the corname of their father.” It was situated at rect reading of which is, “ In the Camp of the foot of Mount Libanus, near the springs Dan, and between Zorah and Eshtaol;" of the Jordan, and hence some writers have for that place did not lie near the two deduced the etymology of Jordan, Jor latter, but in or near the tribe of Judah. signifying a spring, and Dan a town near It is subsequently called Mahaneh-dan, its source. As this city stood on the Judges xviii. 12. It was the residence utmost verge of Judea on the north, it is of Samson, who was buried in it, Judges often mentioned along with Beersheba, xvi. 31. which stood on the most southern extre- DANABA, a town of Palestine menmity, to denote the whole length of the tioned by Ptolemy, but not known by this Holy Land, and hence the phrase, from name in the sacred writings.

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