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who is made of the dust, and must return relation given by an Armenian bishop, to dust again. In the New Testament who spent twenty years in visiting the the word is frequently employed in con- Christians on the coast of Coromandel, trast to heaven, and things earthly and is to be credited. These examples, carnal are placed in opposition to things Calmet thinks, confirm the opinion that, heavenly and spiritual.
in the language of the Scriptures, The EAST, or Kedem, is used to denote East is often used for the provinces a certain region of the globe which which lie easterly, though perhaps inclinincludes various empires, kingdoms, and ing to the north of Judea and Egypt. countries. The Hebrews expressed east, EBAL, a heap, or collection of old west, north, and south, by before, behind, age, or a mass that runs away and disleft, and right, according to the peculiar perses, a celebrated mountain in the tribe situation of the places looking eastward. of Ephraim, opposite Mount Gerizim. By The East are frequently comprehend. Those two mountains are separated from ed not only Arabia Deserta, Moab, and each other by a valley of two hundred Ammon, which are literally east of Pa- paces wide, within which is situated the lestine, but also Assyria, Mesopotamia, ancient Sichem or Shechem, now called Babylonia or Chaldea, which lie north- Neapolis, Napolese, or Nablous, for every east and north of Judea. The term is traveller seems to have an orthography now applied in modern geography to all of his own. Mount Ebal is similar in the Asiatic countries, considered in their appearance to Mount Gerizim, but is position to Europe. It is, however, very very barren, while that mountain is exevident that the sacred writers designate tremely fertile. Moses commanded the Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Persia, pro- Israelites, as soon as they had passed the vinces beyond the Tigris and Euphrates, Jordan, to proceed to Shechem, which is as Kedem, or The East. Moses, who was on the way to Jerusalem—" and it shall educated in Egypt, and resided some time come to pass, when the Lord thy God in Arabia, seems to have followed this hath brought thee in unto the land custom, especially as Babylonia, Chaldea, whither thou goest to possess it, that Susiana, Persia, a considerable part of thou shalt put the blessing upon Mount Mesopotamia, and the rivers Tigris and Gerizim, and the curse upon Mount Euphrates, during the greater part of Ebal. Are they not on the other side their course, are east of Palestine, Egypt, Jordan, by the way where the sun goeth and Arabia. As those who entered Pa- down, in the land of the Canaanites, lestine and Egypt on the east chiefly which dwell in the champaign over travelled from Armenia, Syria, Media, against Gilgal, beside the plains of Moreh?” and Upper Mesopotamia, the Hebrews Deut. xi. 29, 30. Mount Gerizim thus generally designated those countries The was to become the mountain of blessing, East. Balaam says that Balak, king of and Mount Ebal the mountain of rursMoab, had brought him from the moun- ing. These hills were fixed on by Moses tains of the East, or from Pethor on the for the purpose of pronouncing from Euphrates. We are informed that Abra- them the blessings and the cursings ham came from The East into the Land which he proposed to the Children of of Canaan, and it is known that he came Israel after they had entered Canaan ; from Mesopotamia and Chaldea. St and though he never saw the hills himself, Matthew says that the Wise Men who as he did not live to enter the Promised worshipped our Saviour on the Nativity Land, yet, probably from the information came from The East. Some of those of his spies, he speaks accurately of their Wise Men, who saw the star of the local situation. Immediately before his Messiah, and came to Judea to worship death, we find him giving particular him, are believed to have assembled at instructions respecting the ceremony Muscat in Arabia on their way, if the which was to be performed on Mount Ebal and the neighbouring mountain. EBENEZER, the stone of help, the An altar was to be erected on Mount name of a place where the Israelites enEbal built of entire stones, plastered camped in their war with the Philistines, over with plaster, but no iron tool was Sam.iv. 1, and near which they were deto be used in the construction, and on feated by the latter with the loss of 30,000 the stones were to be written all the men, when the ark of God was taken by words of the law to be pronounced. This the victors and carried from Ebenezer to was to be done in the presence of all the Ashdod, 1 Sam. iv. 10,11; v.1. Hophni Israelites; the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Phineas, the two sons of Eli the Asher, Zebulun, Dan, and Naphtali, were Judge of Israel, were slain in this battle. to be stationed on Mount Ebal, from After the repentance and contrition of which the cursings were to be pronounc- the Israelites, they retrieved their disased; while the tribes of Simeon, Levi, ters by defeating the Philistines, and the Judah, Issachar, Joseph, and Benjamin, Prophet Samuel took a stone and set it were to be stationed on Mount Gerizim, up between Mizpeh and Shen, and called Deut. xxvii. 4-13. The cursings are the name of it Ebenezer, saying, Hitherto given in that chapter of the Book of hath the Lord helped us, 1 Sam. vii. 12. Deuteronomy (14-26), and are those EBRONAH, or HEBRONAH, the name read in the office of the Commination of an encampment of the Israelites in of the Church of England on the first the Wilderness, between Jotbathah and day of Lent, otherwise Ash-Wednesday. Elath, Numb. xxxiii. 34, 35. The Levites were ordered to pronounce ECBATANA, brother of death, a them, and all the Israelites were expected celebrated city of Great Media, called to express their assent, by the solemn 'Aybátava by Ctesias and Herodotus, affirmation Amen. The Scriptures seem and the name of which Reland deduces at first to intimate that six entire tribes from the Persian ac, “dominus," and were upon one mountain, and six upon abadan, “locus cultus incolisque frethe other, but besides that the tribes were quens." This city is not mentioned in too numerous to stand upon the two the canonical books of the Old and New mountains, it was hardly possible for Testaments, but is repeatedly alluded to them to witness the ceremony, or to hear in the Apocrypha. In the Book of Ezra, and answer the blessings and cursings; indeed, in the reign of Darius, who conthe Hebrew particle, however, means firmed the decree of Cyrus for the adnear, over against, as well as at the top of, vancement of the building of the Temple, Josh. viii. 33. Joshua, the successor of we are told that “there was found at Moses, having crossed the Jordan, taken Achmetha, in the palace that is in the Jericho, burnt the city of Ai, and put to province of the Medes, a roll, and theredeath its king, proceeded to fulfil the in was a record written” (Ezra vi. 2), last injunctions of Moses. He erected an namely, the decree which Cyrus had altar on Mount Ebal, and placed the one made “concerning the house of God at half of the tribes, as they had been men- Jerusalem.” The word Achmetha is tioned by Moses, on it, and the other explained in the marginal reading of our half on the opposite mountain of Geri- Bibles to denote a coffer, or it may be zim, and all the words of the law, with an office for records, but it evidently the blessings and the cursings, were pro- is a designation of Ecbatana, from the nounced to the Israelites, their wives, and circumstance recorded by Ezra, that after families, omitting nothing of what Moses a vain and fruitless search had been made had commanded. From this it is evident at Babylon for the important decree, it that these opposite hills were sufficiently was discovered among the records at near for the human voice to be distinctly Ecbatana, which it is well known was the heard. The Jews and Samaritans had summer residence of the Persian mobitter disputes about these mountains. narchs. This is confirmed by the writer
of the First Book of Esdras, or Ezra, the winter residence was at Shushan. The name being exactly similar. In compliance Parthian kings also, who succeeded them, with the letter of Sisinnes, governor of retired to it in the summer, to avoid the Syria and Phænicia, about 519 B.C., sultry heats of Ctesiphon. It was surrepresenting the proceedings of the Jews rounded by seven walls which rose in in rebuilding the Temple, and requesting gradual ascent, and were painted in seven the king, before he interfered to prevent different colours. The most distant was or stop them, to “let search be made the lowest, and the innerınost contained among the records of King Cyrus, and if it the royal palace. Those seven inclosures be found that the building of the house of are supposed by some writers to have the Lord at Jerusalem hath been done represented the seven planetary spheres. with the consent of King Cyrus, and if Herodotus informs us that the walls our lord the king be so minded, let him “were built in circles one within another, signify unto us thereof: Then com- rising above each by the height of their manded King Darius to seek among the respective battlements. This mode of records at Babylon; and so at Ecbatana building was favourable to the situation the palace, which is in the country of of the place, which was a gentle rising Media, there was found a roll wherein ground. The largest of these walls was these things were recorded,” i Esdras vi. of a white colour, the next to it was 21, 22, 23. The city is next mentioned black, the next purple, the fourth blue, as the scene of some of the events of the fifth orange. The two innermost Tobit's life, Tobit vi. 5, vii. 1. It was walls were differently ornamented, one the residence of his father-in-law Raguel, having its battlements plated with silver, and he himself is alleged to have died in the other with gold.” The circumference it in the hundred and twenty seventh year of Ecbatana is said to have been from of his age, and “ before he died he heard one hundred and eighty to two hundred of the destruction of Nineve, which was furlongs, which would amount to nearly taken by Nebuchodonosor and Assuerus," twenty-four English miles. In the Book namely, Nabopolassar, the father of Ne- of Judith we are told that the walls of buchadnezzar, and Astyages, the father of the city which Arphaxad built were of Darius the Mede; "and before his death “stones hewn three cubits broad and six he (Tobit) rejoiced over Nineve," Tobit cubits long, and the height of the wall xiv. 12–15. We read in the Second seventy cubits, and the breadth thereof Book of the Maccabees (ix. 3), that An- fifty cubits; and he (Arphaxad) set the tiochus Epiphanes was in the city when towers thereof upon the gates of it an he received intelligence of the defeat of hundred cubits high, and the breadth his armies in Palestine under Nicanor thereof in the foundation threescore cuand Timotheus.
bits; and he made the gates thereof, even Ecbatana is generally admitted to have gates that were raised to the height of been built by Dejoces I., but the author seventy cubits, and the breadth of them of the Book of Judith hints that its founder was forty cubits, for the going forth of was Arphaxad, who is supposed by Arch- his mighty armies, and for the setting in bishop Usher and Dr Prideaux to be array of his footmen,” Judith i. 2, 3, 4. It the same as Dejoces, and by Calmet to may be observed, however, in opposition be the successor of that monarch, called to the author of the Book of Judith, that Phraortes, who may have repaired the Diodorus Siculus expressly contradicts city or made some additions to it. For both his account and that of Herodotus, beauty and magnificence Ecbatana was asserting that the city had no walls, and we little inferior to Babylon or Nineveh. It certainly find it offering little resistance was the residence of the first Median to any enemy who appeared before it; but kings, and the summer residence in after if the historian Ælian is to be: credited, tiines of the Persian monarchs, whose the walls of Ecbatana were thrown to the ground by Alexander the Great during the tract seems one carpet of luxuriant verbursts of immoderate grief which that con- dure, studded with hamlets and watered queror manifested for the death of Hephæ- by beautiful rivulets. On the south-west, stion his favourite, who died in the city. Orontes, or Elwund (by whichever name The mode of ornamenting walls, describ- we distinguish this most towering divied in this instance by Herodotus, is said sion of the mountain), presents itself in to be still used at the present day in many all the grandeur of its frame and form. towns of India and China.
Near its base appear the dark-coloured The palace of Ecbatana is described as dwellings of Hamadan, crowded thickly having been about an English mile in on each other, while the gardens of the incompass, and was built in a style of great habitants, with their connecting orchards magnificence, some of its beams having and woods, fringe the entire slope of that been of silver, and others of cedar strength- part of the mountain. If the aspect of ened with plates of gold. Josephus in- this part of the country now presents so forms us that the Prophet Daniel built a rich a picture when its palaces are no tower at Ecbatana, which existed in his more,' what must it have been when Astime, of singular beauty and solidity; and tyages held his court here, and Cyrus in some writers have conjectured that this his yearly courses from Persepolis, Susa, tower, as the Jewish historian calls it, and Babylon, stretched his golden sceptre was the palace. If it was not built be- over this delicious plain ? I brought fore the time of Daniel, he could merely away from Ecbatana several old coins of have overlooked the work, or given the Alexander the Great, of different sizes. design by order of Darius the Mede, with The identity of this city's situation seems whom he was in high favour, and who is to be established beyond a doubt ; the alleged to have built the palace when he plain, the mountain, and the relative poselected Ecbatana as his summer resi- sition of the place, with regard to other dence.
noted cities, agreeing in every point. The site of this ancient city-for, like The site also of the modern town, like other cities of antiquity, it has disappear- that of the ancient city, is on a gradual ed and given place to a modern one-has ascent, terminating near the foot of the caused considerable discussion. Sir John eastern side of the mountain, but there Chardin, Gibbon, and Sir William Jones, all trace of past appearance would cease, are in favour of the modern Tauris, while were it not for two or three considerable D'Anville and Rennell declare for Hama- elevations and overgrown irregularities dan in the western Persian province of on or near them, which may have been Irac. This latter has been supported by the walls of the royal fortress, with those recent travellers of great learning and of the palaces, temples, and theatres, seen acute observation. Mr Morier merely no more. I passed one of those heights, mentions “ Ecbatana or Hamadan ;" but standing to the south-west as I entered Sir John Malcolm, Sir R. K. Porter, and the city, and observed that it bore many Mr Buckingham, farther confirm the site. vestiges of having been strongly fortified. Hamadan, the ancient Ecbatana, is si. The sides and summit are covered with tuated in a fine plain near the base of the large remnants of ruined walls of a great Orontes, and other widely-extended hills. thickness, and also of towers, the mate. “ This vale," says Sir R. K. Porter, “is rials of which were sun-dried bricks. It varied at short distances with numberless has the name of the Inner Fortress, and castellated villages, rising from amidst certainly holds the most commanding groves of the noblest trees, while the situation near the plain.” great plain itself stretches northward When the name of Ecbatana merged and eastward to such far remoteness, into that of Hamadan, the lofty city of that its mountain boundaries appear like Astyages lost its honour and importance. clouds upon the horizon. The whole While it retained its ancient designation,
as the city in which great monarchs had called forth more saddening reflections dictated their decrees, and where “Cyrus than
that had been awakened in me the king had placed in the house of the on any former ground of departed greatrolls of its palace the record wherein was In some I had seen mouldering written his order for rebuilding Jerusa- pomp or sublime desolation; in this every lem," it was even of some consequence object spoke of neglect and hopeless three centuries after the commencement poverty—not majesty in stately ruin, of the Christian era. Towards the end
Towards the end pining to final dissolution, but beggary of the fourteenth century it received its seated on the place which kings had most disastrous blow from Timour the occupied, squalid in rags, and stupid Tartar, who sacked, pillaged, and de- with misery.” Mr Buckingham found stroyed its proudest buildings, ruined the Hamadan in almost the same situation inhabitants, and reduced the gorgeous when he visited it, although it had a few summer residence of the Persian and Par- years previously been created a royal thian kings, one of the most considerable governinent, to which Mahmoud Ali cities of the East, to a mere skeleton of Mirza, a son of the Shah, had been apits former greatness. In that dismantled pointed; and palaces, mansions, new bastate it lay, dwindled to a mere clay-built zars, and mercantile caravanserais, were suburb of what it was, until the middle of erecting, or had been planned.
66 The the eighteenth century, although it still entrance to the town of Hamadan was as possessed iron gates, until Aga Mahomed mean as that of the smallest village we Khan, then sovereign of Persia, not satis- had seen, and great ruin and desertion fied with the degradation of nearly four were apparent on every side. We con: hundred years, ordered every memorial tinued our way through poor bazars and or building of consequence to be destroy- miserable streets, until after much diffied. His commands were faithfully obeyed. culty we obtained shelter in a half-ruined Narrow mud alleys occupy the sites of caravansera.” Sir R. K. Porter estimates former streets and squares, interrupted by the number of houses at nine thousand, large holes, or hollows in the way, and a third of which are inhabited by persons crumbled walls of deserted dwellings. employed by the state, who are thereby “ A miserable bazar or two,” says Porter, exempted from the taxation of the town,
are passed through in traversing the and the population at between 40,000 town, and large lonely spots are met with, and 50,000 souls, amongst whom there marked by broken low mounds over older are about six hundred Jewish families, ruins, with here and there a few poplars and nearly, the same number of Armeor willow trees shadowing the border of nians. In the time of Benjamin of Tua dirty stream abandoned to the mean- dela, who visited Hamadan, and describes est purposes, which probably flowed pel- the tomb of Esther and Mordecai, there lucid and admired when these places were no less than fifty thousand Jews were gardens, and the grass-grown heap settled in it, which is more than the whole some stately dwelling of Ecbatana. The of the present population; while in the only thing that appears for some years city of Ispahan, although the chief-priest, to have kept the place in any degree on whom all the Jews of Persia were of notice with the modern Persians is dependent, resided there in a kind of colthe manufacture of an inferior sort of lege, there were not more than fifteen leather; but the very article of traffic thousand. This fact certainly proves not proclaims the low order of population to only the high antiquity of Hamadan, but which it has been abandoned, and as I that it was also regarded with such pepassed through the wretched hovelled culiar veneration by the Jews, as to draw streets, and saw the once lofty city of more of them to reside in it than in Astyages shrunk like a shrivelled gourd, Ispahan. the contemplation of such a spectacle Ecbatana, or Hamadan, is not without