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general advantage thanit can grow these arti- |-would not have had existence without it. If des, is it not better to be on friendly terms liability to consumption forms an objection with these countries, thau to shut ourselves to the value of any thing, our corn and beef ont from a communication attended with are open to the objection. But, although manifest advantage; because we can and foreigr: comiðerce is useful to its natural exwill be independent of foreign commerce. tent, it does not follow that we are to fight In what light, Sir, can we look upon those all the world to monopolize it ; and still less circumstances of different countries; that should we adopt this maxim if we are res the productions of one country are so useful l solved to abandon it. The policy of this and desirable to another ; but as a bond of country has been as mad as that of rival union and friendship ordained by Providence? | coach proprietors, who sometimes will carry And for what reason should we haughtily their passengers for one half what it costs dissolve this bond? It is undoubtedly proper | them, because their neighbouring proprietor that every nation should be independent of wishes to have a share of the run. A trades. all others for its chief necessaries, and so I man who should form an establishment of believe it invariably is. And as hemp and £1000 a year, to prosecute a trade that could flaxare not necessary to our comfort, but to not produce him more than £500 per anour power, our dependence on a foreign pum, would be justly deemed a fcol. Yet country for the article ooght to teach us a this has been the practice of this country. use of that power consistent with the inte. We have been carrying on war for the mainrests of the world. In what way it may be tenance of commerce, while we are annual... asked is commerce the cause of all the mis- ly obliged to borrow 12 millions to supply chiefs we deplore? Does it require the esta- the expences created over and above the anblishment of a foreign office, which we are nual revenue, which is consequently a dead told costs the country from two to three loss of 12 millions annually. I beg, Sir, hundred thousand pounds a year? I see no you will reconsider the matter, and I entersuch necessity. Does it require a secretary tain a hope that you will acknowledge that of state for the home department-a war | foreign commerce divested of war, and of secretary-a chancellor of the exchequer- chartered companies would be a benefit to. lords of the treasury-an host of revenue the country. I will conclude this epistle officers-120,000 seamen, with a train of with a remark on your illustration of the national expence which has brought the inutility of commerce, in the case of Mr. debt of the nation to the amount of Nokes and the Timkin race. You observe, £540,000,000? No. Commerce requires that if Mr. Nokes gains £10,000 a year by scarcely any of this. But war requires thethe Tinkins in selling tea to them; if this whole, or is at least a pretence for them. I article be prohibited Mr. Nokes's profits are War has been the cause of the whole. War ( gone, but the purchasers have their money bas been the cause of all our evils, while to furnish both a revenge to government, commerce is innocent of them all. Yet you and to spend among other people, and that who deprecate the evils of the country are: none but Mír. Nokes would be a loser. for cherishing this destructive practice, and Now, Sir, Mr. Spence bas stated what to me for banishing that intercourse which requires appears very probable, and that is, that habits of peace and friendship to maintain; though a person may save the money usually and to cultivate'which, we must avoid those laid out in foreiga produre, he might not quarrels which are the sources of our grow lay it out in home manuinciure: the conse. ing evils. The policy of this and of every 1 quence would therefore be, that having less country onght to be to supply a home con occasion for expence he wonld be less care. sumption first; but when the fertility of the ful to procure the income out considered land, and the industry of its inbabitants af- necessary. And though you have contined ford them a superfluity, it is certainly ad- your statement to a single tradesman, the vantageous for them to dispose of this super- | supposition must be, that to gain +10,000 a fluity to other countries, and receive produce year, £100,000 is expended, which sould or manufacture in exchange, such as they be lost by its being unnecessary to those with can use; therefore, if we send cloth and whom wealth originates. Besides, we musthardware abroad, and receive wine and spi-gencrally consider foreign produce as brought rits, coffee anditea, or more perishable fruits, l. io this country in lieu of a superfluous quan. it is an advantage althongh the articles ex- | tity of British manufacture, whether it be changed by us are more durable: for our done directly by: barier, or throagh the me: own articles being an excess are of no value, 'dium of money ;, therefore, if any article of but as they are exchangeable. It is only for consumption be by The abolition of conia this purpose they are made; and, therefore, I merce kept out of the count(p, qui owu proa!

I like it' . 13 mii

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duce must be taken instead, whereby the 1 of my people (a matter which I am essengooeral allowance must be reduced by sol tially bound to provide for); and having domuch as is excluded. Tea is not only a lux. I ly made all the reflections presented by the ury, it is become the chief beverage of the occasion, I have resolved to noininate as Go, poor ; and frequently constitutes a part of veroor and Regent of these Kingdoms during every meal. . An article in such universal my absence, my truly and beloved cousin the use cannot be regarded as of trifting conse. Marquis de Abrantio Francisco da Cunha de quence, and could not be excluded without | Menezes, Lieutenant General of my Forces, increasing the sufferings of the poor. These the principal Castro (one of my Council, and remarks though hostile to your views, are a Regidor de Justica); Paetrode Mello Breysubmitted to you in perfect good will; if ner, also of my Council, who will act as. they are untenable, they will afford you President of my Treasury, during the incapa: , means of confirming your doctrines to your city of Luis de Vasconcellos e San zi, (whois readers; and if they lay just clain to truth unable so to do at present on account of ill. and sound argument, I rely on your genero ness); Don Francisco de Nerocha, President sity to acknowledge the receipt of them. of the Board of Conscience and Religious Remaining, Sir, yours.-D. Falmouth, Orders; and in the absence of any of them, Dec. 11, 1907.

the Conde de Castro Mazim, (Grand Hunts. ,

man), whom I have nominated President of OFFICIAL PAPERS.

the Senate, with the assistance of the SecrePORTUGAL. Proclamation of the Prince taries thereof, the Conde de Sampaye, and in :

Regent, daled at the Palace of Ajuda, | his absence Don Miguel Perrura Forfaz, and, Nov. 27, 1907; and issued just upon his of my Attorney General Joas Antonio Salter, embarkation for the Brazils.

de Mendenca, on account of the great confi.. Having tried by all possible means to dence which I have in them, and of the expreserve the neutrality hitherto enjoyed by perience which they possess, in matters of my faithful and beloved subjects, having ex, government, being certain that my people, hausted my royal treasury, and made innu. and kingdom will be governed and directed merable other sacrifices, even going to the l in such a manner that my conscience shall be extremity of shutting the ports of my domi- clear, and that this Regency will entirely fulnions to the subjects of my ancient and royalfil its duty, so long as it shall please God that, ally, the King of Great Britain, this expo- 1 I should be absent from this capital, admi-, sing the commerce of my people to total nistering justice with impartiality, distribue ruin, and consequently suffering the greatest ting rewards and punishments according to ,

In the collection of my royal revenues deserts. And these Regents will further.' of the crown, I find that troops of the Em- take this as nry pleasure, and fulfil my order peror of the French and King of Italy, to in the form thus mentioned, and in conform whom I had united myself on the Continent, 1 ity to the instructions signed by me, and ac. in the hope of being no more disturbed, are companying this decree, which they will actually marching into the interior of my communicate to the proper department.. kingdom, and are even on their way to this capital; and desiring to avoid the fatal con | PORTUGUESE EMIGRATION.— The follow, sequences of a defence, which would be far L ing Letters were published in London, unmore dangerous than profitable, serving only der the authority of Government, on the i to create an effusion of blood, dreadful to hu 191h of Dec. 1807. manity, and to inflame the animosity of the

His Majesty's Ship Hibernia, off the troops which have entered this kingdom,

Tagus, Nov. 29, 1807. with the declaration and promise of not com | Sir, I have the honour of announcing mitting any the smallest hostility; and to you, that the Prince Regent of Portugal, knowing also, that they are most particularly | has effected the wise and magnanimous purs destined against my royal person, and that pose of retiring from a kingdom which he my faithful subjects would be less alarmed could no longer retain, except as the vassal were I absent from this kingdom, I have re. of France; and that his Royal Highness and a solved for the benefit of my subjects, to retire family, accompanied by most of his ships of 1, with the Queen my mother, and all my royal | war, and by a multitude of his faithful sub., fainily, to my dominions in America, therejects and adherents, have this day departed, to establish myself in the City of Rio de Ja from Lisbon, and are now on their way to neiro, until a general peace. And moreover, | the Brazils, under the escort of a British, ; considering the importauce of leaving the ) fleet.-Thiş grand and memorable, event, government of these kingdoms in that good not to be attributed only to the sudden alarm order, which is for its advantage, and for that excited by the appearance of a French army

within the frontiers of Portugal. It lias| Those dispatches were drawn up under the been the genuine result of the systein of idea that I was still resident at Lisbon, and persevering confidence and moderation adont. though I did not receive them until I had ed by his Majesty towards that country; for | actually taken my departure from that court, the ultimate success of which I had in a still, upon a careful consideration of the te. manner rendered myself responsible; and nor of your instructions, I thought that is which, in obedience to your instructions, I would be right to act as if that case had not had uniformly continued to support, even occurred. I resolved, therefore, to proceed under appearances of the most discouraging forthwitla to ascertain the effect produced by .. nature.--I had frequently and distinctly sta- | the blockade of Lisbon, and to propose 10 . ted to the Cabinet of Lisbon, that in agrec. ! the Portuguese-government, as the only coning not to resent the exclusion of British dition upon which that blockade could cease, commerce from the parts of Portugal, Iris | the alternative (stated by you) either of su Majesty bad exhausted the means of forbear- | rendering the fleet to bis Majesty, oi of imance; that in making that concession to the mediately employing it to reinove the Prince peculiar circumstances of the Prince Regent's Regent and his family to the Brazils. I situation, bis Majesty had done all that took upon myself this responsibility in refriendship and the remembrance of ancient newing negociations after my public func- alliance could justly require; but that a sin- ' tions had actually ceased, convinced that, al. gle step beyond the line of modified hostili. I though it was the fixed determination of his ty, thus most reluctantly consented to, must Majesty not to suffer the fieet of Portugal.10. necessarily lead to the extrenity of actual fall into the possessiou of his enemies, still war.-The Prince Regent, however, suffer: 1 bis Majesty's first ohject continued to be the ed himself for a moment to forget that, in the application of that fleet to the original pur. present state of Europe, no country could be pose, of saving the Royal Family of Bragane. permitted to be an enemy to England with za froin the tyranny of France --I accord.. impunity, and that however much bis Ma- | ingly requested an audience of the Prince jesty might be disposed to make allowance | Regent, together with due assurances of for the deficiency of the means possessed by protection and security; and upon receiving Portugal of resistance to the power of bis Royal Highness's answer, I proceecled to France, neither his own dignity, nor the in: | Lisbon on the 27th, in his Majesty's ship terests of his people, would permit his Ma- Confiance, bearing a flag of trace. I had jesty to accept that excuse for a conipliance | immediately most interesting communica with the full extent of her unprincipled de- tions with the Court of Lisbon, the particr- . mands, On the sth inst. H. R. H. was in- | lars of which shall be fully detailed in a fu. duced to sign an order for the detention of l ture dispatch. It sufiices to mention in this the few British subjects, and of the inconsi. I place, that the Prince Regent wisely directed derable portion of British property which all his apprchonsions to a French army, and. yet remained at Lisbon. On the publication I all his hopes to an Englisb fleet; that be re. of this order I caused the arms of England | ceived the most explicit assurances from me to be removed from the gales of my resio | that his Majesty would generously overlook dence, demanded my passports, presented a those' acts of unwilling and momentary hosfinal remonstrance against the recent conduct / tility to which H. R. Hi's consent had been of the Couft of Lisbon, and proceeled to the extorted; and that I promised to H. R. H.,, , squadron commanded by Sir Sidney Smith, i on the faith of my Sovereign, that the Bri. wbich arrived off the coast of Portugal some ! tish squadron before the Tagus should be days after I bad received my passports, and l employed to protect bis retreat from Lisbon, which I joined on the 17th instant-lim- , and his voyage to the Brazils A decree . mediately suggested to Sir Sidney Smith the l was published yesterday, in which the Prince expediency of establishing the most rigorous i Regent announced his intention of retiring blockade at the mouth of the Tagus; and I l to the City of Rio de Janeiro until the conhad the high 'satisfaction of afterwards find clusion of a general peace, and of appointing ing, that I had thus auticipated the inten a regency to transact the administration of tions of his Majesty; your dispatches, government at Lisbon during H, R. H's ab. which I receiged by the messevger Sylvester sence from Europe. --This morning the Por.. on the 23d, directing me to authorise that tuguese fieet leri tlfe Tagus. I had the ho, measure, in case the Portuguese government | nour to accompany the Prince in his passage. should pass the bounds which his Majesty 1 over the Bar. The' feet consisted of s sail had thought fit to set to his forbearance, and of the line, 4 large frigates, several armed, ato npt to take any farther step injurious iobrigs, sloops, and corveties, and a number of the bonour for, aterests' of G. Britain. Brazil ships, amounting, I believe, to ahout,

36 sail in all. They passed through the Bri-, had pussessions on that of America, affordtish squadion, and his Majesty's ships fired a ing an rpe banci Fot 20 y sacrifice he salute of 21 guns, which was returned with might make here, an fi 13 which he would an equal number. A more interesting spec. be cut off by the nature of maritime warfare, tacle than that afforded by the junction of the the termination of which could not be dictatwo fleets has been rarely beheld. On ted by the combination of the continental quitting the Prince Regent's ship, 3 repaired | powers of Europe. In this view Lord on board of the Hibernia, but returned im Strangford having received an acquiescence mediately accompanied by Sir Sidney Smith; to the proposition which had been made by whom I presented to the Prince, and who | us, for his Lordship to land and confer with was received by H. R. H' with the most the Prince Regent under the guarantee of a marked and gracious condescension. I flag of truce, I furnished his Lordship with have the honour to inclose lists of the ships tbat conveyance and security, in order that of war which were known to bave left Lishe night give to the Prince, that confidence bon this morning, and which were in sight which his word of honour as the King's Mi• , a few hours ago. There remain at Lisbon 4 | nister Plenipotentiary, united with that of a ships of the line, and the same number of British Admiral, could not fail to inspire tofrigates, but only one of each sort is service. | wards inducing H.R. H. to throw himself able.-I have thought it expedient to lose no and his flew into the arms of G. Britain, in time in communicating to his Majesty's go perfect reliance on the King's overlooking a vernment the important intelligence con- | forced act of apparent hostility against his tained in this dispatch. I have therefore to Aag and subjects, and establishing H. R. H's apologise for the hasty and imperfect man- government in his ultra-marine possessions ner in which it is written. have the as originally promised. I have now the honour to be, &c.--STRANGFORD.

heartfelt satisfaction of announcing to you, · His Majesty's Ship Hibernia, 22 Leagues | that our hopes and expectations have been

West of the Togus, Dec. 1, 1807. I realised to the utmost extent. On the morn. Sir,--In a former Dispatch, dated the 22d ing of the 29th, the Portuguese fleet (as per Nov. with a postscript of the 26th, I convey- list annexed) came out of the Tagus with ed to you, for the information of my Lords H. R. H. the Prince of Brazil and the whole Commissioners of the Admiralty, the proofs of the Royal Family of Braganza on board, contained in various documents of the Portu- | together with many of his faithful counselguese government being so much influenced | lors and adherents, as well as other persons by terror of the French arms, as to have ac- | attached to bis present fortunes. This fleet quiesced to certain demands of France ope- of 8 sail of the line, 4 frigates, 2 brigs, and rating against G. Britain. The distribution i schoouer, with a croud of large armed of the Portuguese force was made wholly on merchant ships, arranged itself under the the coast, while the land side was left totally protection of that of his Majesty, while the unguarded. British subjeets of all descrip- | firing of a reciprocal salute of 21 guns antions were detained'; and it therefore be. nounced the friendly meeting of those wbo came necessary to inform the Portuguese go- | but the day before were on terms of hostilia yernment, that the case had arisen) which re- | ty ; the scene impressing every Weholder quired, in obedience to my instructions, that (except the French army on the hills) with I should declare the Tagus in a state of the most lively emotions of gratitude to Problockade; and Lord Strangford agreeing i vidence, that there yet existed a power in with me that hostility should be met with the world able, as well as willing, to protect hostility, the blockade was instituted, and the oppressed I have the honour to be, the instructions we had received were acted &C.-W.SIDNEY SMITH. upon to their full extent; still, however, List of the Portuguese Fleel that came out of bearing in recollection the first object adopt I the Tagus on the 29th Nov. 1807. ed by his Majesty's government of opening Principe Real, 84; Rainha de Portugal, a refuge for the head of the Portuguese go- ! 74; Comte Henrique, 74; Meduza, 74; vernment, menaced as it was by the power- | Alfonso d'Albuquerque, 64 ; D'Joao de Casi ful arm, and bareful influence of the ene- tro, 64 ; Principe de Brazil, 74 ; Martino my, I thought it my duty to adopt the means de Freitos, 64.- Frigates -Minerva, 44 ; open to us, of endeavouring to induce the | Golfinho, 36; Urania, 32; and one other, Prince Regent of Portugal to reconsider his name not as yet known.- Brigs.Vondecision to unite himself with the Conti dor, 22; Vinganea, 20; Lebre, 22.Dent of Europe,” and to recollect that he Schooner.--Curioza, 12.

Printed by Cox and Baylis, No. 73. Great Queen Street, and published by R. Bagshaw, Brydwes Street, Corent-Garden, where former Numbers maybe had ; sold also by J, Budd, Crown and Migre, Pan-Mall.

Vol. XIII. No. 2.] LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 9, 1808.

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The declaration of King Charles II., issued in the year 1670, contains the following passage: " the right of the fiag is so ancient, that it was one of the first prerogatives of our royal predecessors, 210 oughe to be the last from which this kinadom should divart. It was never questioned and it was expressly 30 knowledged in the treaty of Breda ; and yet, this last summer, it was not caly violated by the Dutch commanders at sea, and that violation afterwards justified at the Hague, but it was also represented by lcm 1L must courts of Caristendom, as ridiculous for us to demand. An uncratefl insolonce! That they should content with us about the dominion of the seas, who, even in the reign of our royal father in the years 1635, 1636, and 1637), thought it an obligation to be permitted to fist on them), by taking of licences, and for a tribute ; and who owe their being now in a condition to inake this dispute, to the protecticu of our ancestors and the valour and blood of their subiecis."

- [34 SUMMARY OF POLITICS, pounds a year, payable out of the taxes AMERICAN STATES. is the dispute raised upon the people of this kingdon.with America is now become a matter of | Having put these facts safely upon itcord, great public interest and importance, it may let us now turn our eyes towards the West, not be aniiss, before I proceed to my intend. and see a little what the Congress has been ed observations of this weck, to enable the , desing.- On the 17th of November, we reader to refer to the articles already pabo find a committee of the House of Repre. lished by ine relating thereunto. They will sentatives making a report upon the aftair of be found as follows : in the preceiling vo the Chesapeake, which report will, as an lume, at pages, 181, 236, 257, 523, 591, 1 " Official Document," be inserted either in 673, 641, 720, 902, 961, 099, and, in this sheet, or the next. The report cona the present volume, at page 1. The cludes ,with reconimending a resolution, whole of these articles will not cost above condemning the conduct of the Englisb coni. two hours in the reading, and the reading of 1 mander, as a flagrant violation of the sothem, will put any one in possession of vereignty of the American States ; and adds, most of the facts and argunients relating to that the continuation of the British squar the dispute. Thus prepared, he will enter dron in the waters of the States, after the upon the further progress of the discussion issuing of the President's Proclamation, was with much greater satisfaction to himself, | a further violation of that sovereiguty. In the and with much greater likelihood of form body of the report, the conniliee observe, ing a just opinion as to what ought now to that three of the seamen, taken 'out of be the line of conduct to be adopted by Eng. the Chesapeake, were, as they might say, land towards America. In the article, proved to be American citizens. They aiso last referred to notice was taken of the bbserve, that the act of taking them by fore: motion, made in the Congress respecting the was without a parallel in the history of cimonies of Baron Erskine of Clackmannan, vilized nations; that, if disavowed by the in the American funds, the son of that no. English government, it must be considered, ble lord, which son is also oor minister as “ a detestable aet of piracy ;" and, it plenipotentiary at the American States, hav- not disavowed, as a " premeditated act of ing, as it was declared in the Congress, just " hostility against the sovereignty and incletransferred large suis in stock, belonging " pendence of the American States." This to bis father. This was noticell, and very is a pretty aliernative. 'If our government well worthy of notice it was; it being only | do not choose to acknowledge itselfy uiliyot necessary to add bere, for the information of a flagrant act of violation of good faith, our some persons, that Baron Erskine of Clack- gallant oliicers, concerned in the affair in mannan is no other than the identical Mr. question, are to be considered as pirates : Thomas Erskine, who was so famed for his that is to say, as felous ; that is to say, as patriotism, during the opposition of Mr. men worthy of the gibbet. The Morning Fox; who, in February, 1900, became Lord Chronicle and its faction would hardly wish High Chancellor of Eugland, with an in- / us to go to this depth in ihe way of self-decume, from the public, of about 10,000 i basement.- -- Previous to the making of pounds a year, and who, upon being put this report in the Congress, there had been out of that office, in April, 1807, bada a report made, by a Court of Inquiry, upot pension settled on bim for life, of 4,000 the conduct of Commodore Barron, He

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