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the king is not insensible to the advantages / ed the reciprocal and formal engagement 16 of the pacification of the Baltic, It is possible maintain the principle, that the Baliic is á that England mighi consent to the neutrali. close sea, and to guarantee that sea and its ty of that sea; that she migiit promise yot to sendthitherany ships of war, if the measure bitrarily toʻthe englements of his two preadopted against British commerce, through decessors, tacitiv invalidating those wliich out ainiost all the coasts of the Baltic, did he has contracted hiinself. The state of war not provoke her armanrens, or if new bosa | in which his imperial nosiesty tinds himself tilities, dių not call on her to act as an auxilia with England, naturally brought with it the ary. This is a point of view, at least, abolition of any existing contention with which appears to unite the commercial in that pou'er, Sweden way not al all con. terests of the whole Norih ; and which the cerned in this wur, that which was stipulated court of St. Petersburgh will, perhaps, tind! in 1801, between her and Russia on the sufficiently important to merit iis particular one side, and between bes and England on attention. It is in these terips that the uno | the other, night and oughi equally subsist su dersigned ambassador extraordinary of his long as the king was ai pence with both majesty the king of Sweden has received | powers.--By a simple decision, Russia night orders to reply to the note which his excel. renounce the convention of 1801 with lency count Romanzoit has addressed, of Sweden, for leir very marisine contention the caie 10-25 of November, ant which he w abolished, and things natur:!ls returned hastened to transmit to his court. He pro- | tolhe state in which income ore, previous to fits by this opportunity to renew to count 1780, every one composiog his syster of Romanzott the assurances of his high cona neutrality according to his vin principles of sideration.--St. Petersburgh, 9-21 Jan. i308. the law of nation's -Dy a double decision, * No. III.-The emperor, justly indigoint at present Hussia suppresses th:o convention when he learned the violence which Eing. | lasi conclured, and re-establishes il:e two fois land had committed against the king of De:- | mer, which ::e diametrically opposite tuis, mark, faithful to his own cboracier, and in and finds a cause for var in the refused of the spirit of that constant solicitude which the king of Sweden to yield to this despohe feels for the preservation of the interests | tism. Lut let us see in what manner Russia of his empire, informed the king of Great wishes to re-establish the aimed neutrality, Britain that lie could not remain insensible Pretending that Sweden ought to exclude to this outrage, this unexampled spoliation, from the Balticeren English merchant ships, which England has permitied herselt against 1 she reproaches her with baving wished 14:26 a hing, his relative, his friend, and the the parts of Germany should be opeo 10 ancient aily of Russia (e).-His imperial | English com nerce. The following is the majesty communicated this determination to ' sisarate afticle L. of his famous convention, the king of Sweden by a bote, which was and let any one judge whether count Rot transmitted to his ambassador on the 24!i manzoff had read it :-" als his imperial of Sept , 1807.-A positive treaiy, contract. | " majesty of all the Russias, and bis majes-, ed in 1780, by the empress Casherine and !" ty the king of Sweder, are always equula the late king, Gustavus III,, a second con- i " lv interested in watching over the trana cluded in isoo by the late emperor Paul and " quillity und safely of the Bullic sea, and the king who reigns at present 0), contaise « protectiog it from the troubles of war,
1" and che cruisings of privateers ; a system, () These sentiments of his imperial ma-'" the more just and natural, as all the powjesty towards relatives, friends, and allies, 1.“ers, the dominions of which surround it, : seem for a moment cacouraging, as they " enjoy a profound peace; they have inu- , are all titles applicable to the king only a trally agreed to continue to maintain, : few months ago, and which he has ngt since " that it is a close sea, incontestbly such by : done any thing to forfeit..
" its local situation, in which all nations, To The sense of an article of a treaty has " may and ought to pavigate in peace, and, often been disputed, and its application cois 5. enjoy all the advantages of a perfeci calon; tested; but never has a recent convention, "and to take for that purpose all such mea- ; foraially concluded and ratified, been passed " stilės as may be proper io guarantee that ; over in silence, to cite anterior engagements, " sea and its coasts, from 31 hostilities, evidently annulled by it; the cabinet of “ piracies, and acts of violence. They will Petersburgh refers to the convention of 1780 1 4 likewise maintain the inquillity of their and 1800, concluded against Englaod, and North Sea, on their coasts, as far as cires is silent with respect to that of 1801, con 4 cuinstances and the interest of their stales cluded with her. The emperor returns ar. “ shall rer.der it necessary."
coasts from all hostility, violence, and vexa- | suprenie law, not to leave any longer the tion, emploving for this purpose all the co-operation of Sweden with Russia and means which might be in their power. His | Denmark against England an'undecided quesa imperial majesty, considering these two treation. The emperor being informed that the ties, not only conceived himself entitled, but cabinet of St. James's, endeavouring to rethought he had a right, to claim the co-ope- attach Denmark to its system by fear, had ration of Sweden against England. The threatened that the king of Sweden should king did not depy the engagements which send troops into Zealand, in return for have been referred to, but he refused all co- which the possession of Norway should be operation so long as the French armies secured to him (m); the emperor learning, should not be removed from the coasts of their like manner, that when the king left him Baltic, and the German ports be shut against | without an answer, he was secretly treating British commerce. The object was to exo for an alliance at London (n); his majesty press the violence committed by England, found, that the interest of his empire would and which had irritated all Europe. The be very ill secured, if, when the struggle emperor demanded of the king his co-opera- should commence between England and tion, founded on these treaties, and that mo Russia, the king of Sweden, šo ñear to his narch proposed to him, id answer, to defer states, should veil for a time, under the apthe execution of treaties to another period, pearance of a pretended neutrality, the sense and to employ himself at, present in procu | timents of a known attachment to England. ring to England the commerce of all the His imperial majesty could not leave in un ports in Germany; in one word, to serve certainty the positions of Sweden with red that same England, against whom the ques gard to Russia. He could not, by conse** tion was to take measures of defence. (g) quence, admit his neutrality. The disposic It is consequently difficult to prove more tions of the king being ascertained, nothing fully the , partiality of the king of Sweden remained for his imperial majesty but to have for the king of Great Britain ihan he has recourse, without delay, to all the means bimself established it. -His imperial ma- | which Providence had confided to him (o) jesty caused a second note to be transmitted for the security of his empire ; and of this on the 16th of November, by which, stat- | he informs () the king, and all Europe, ing to the king that he was about to break | Acquitting himself thus of what the safety with England, he again claimed his co-ope- of his empire requires of him, the emperor ration. (h) - This note remained nearly is ready to convert the measures which he is two months without an answer, and that about to take into a measure of prudence, it which was given, and transmitted to the the king will join Russia and Denmark, in ministers of his imperial majesty, on the order to shut the Baltic against England till gth of this month, was similar to the pre a maritime peace. He invites, for the last veding. (it- The emperor, far from time, the king his brother-in-law, and with repenting of his moderation, reflects all the warmth of true friendship (9), no with pleasure, that he had hitherto em- longer to hesitate to fulfil his engagements, ployed at the means in his power in., and to adopt the only system which is adapt endeavours to recal bis Swedish majesty to ! the only system which is suited to his states Cabinet of St. Petersburgli as warding off (k); but, in tine, he owes to his people, to from the ports of Russia all danger from the the safety of bis empirc (1), which is his | English feet, that it is not unreasonable to
suppose that it was some other fear by which (9) This question does not regard Swe. it was impciled, perlaps that of the entrance dem, which was at peace wiih England.is of a French arniy into Russia..
(h) The armed neutrality no louger bind. 1 (m) False, report of Mr. Rist; and Mr. ing her, there was no other treaty, conven Canping, who has a copy of the conference, tion, or promise, by which she was bonnd. will prove that it was Mr. Rist who asked
(i) This note, whicb is given entire above, / wliether Sweden was to co-operate, and who was, however, such, that count Rcmanzoff | tovk silence for an affirmative. did not continue to cite a word of it, fearing (11) The king had no other than defensive to bring to mind the convention of 1801, connections, and they were innocens, except and the conciliatory proposition of the king. I in the eyes of the aggressor. ,
(k) According to the principles generally (o) See the proclamations in Finland.'' received, it was for the king binselt to judge (p) After the aggression. with respect to this.
(9) Troops having already entered, and (1) It is so improbable ibat the invasion of proclamations been distributed in the coude Finland could be really considered by the try.
ed in the interests of the powers of the north. , duct you have hitherto observed'; but it is What, indeed, has Sweden gained since its , proper that, without affecting to prepare for monarch has açlhered to the interests of Eng- it, you should nevertheless hold yourself in laud (1)--Nothing could aillict the empe 1 readiness to depart the moment circumstan-' ror of Russia so much as to see Sweden and ļ ces require it. In regard to the 'precautions Russia disunited; and is still depends on his necessary to be taken respecuing your cym Swedish majesty to take, bue immediately, phers, and the archives of your mission, I such a pari as may preserve the two states cannot, without doubt, do better than trust in an intimate alliance, and in perfect har to your own prudence.' 'I shall not forward mony. (8)
to Baron de Stedingk till some days after the No. IV.--Sir; I bave punctually receiv. departure of this courier; and as I directed ed the different dispatches you have address you in my ostensible dispatch to communia ed to me, as 'well by the post as by the cate this declaration to the Swedish minister, Field-Jager Rattinsky, and latterly by the I think it necessary to warri you, Sir, not to chamberlain, Cont de Pahlen. Í render, 7 take this step before you have sent off your Sir, all justice to your great activity and courier to M. de Lisakerwitsch, with the zeal for,ibe service, and I shall do myself al packet inclosed, to his address; and I think real pleasure in appreciating them properly , it will be proper to tell this courier the to the einperor. The rescript which you time to quit the Swedish 'frontiers.will find inclosed, and the insignia of the or- | It is, then, that you are to place the deder of St. Vlodimir, which bis imperial ma- | claration in question in the hands of Bae' jesty bas deigned to confer upon you, will ron De Chreuheim, and insist with this prove to you, that he is perfectly satisfied minister, upon a definitive answer from the with the manner in which you have served king, in order to send it us by the return of him.- From the very sincere interest which the same courier which I expedite, and I take in your concerns, I will also confide which you will send back to me as soon ag to you, that however brilliant the testimony possible.--The experience of the past is a of his favour, which the emperor has this day certain security to me, that, in the imper given to you, may be, his munificence to you | farit commission with which you are at: will not be bounded by it. His majesty pro- present charged, you will spare no paiiis to poses also to add to your income, and I hare answer the confidence with which his mareason to believe, that as suon as you arrive jesty has so justly honoured you. I have here you will obtain the rent of an estate the honour to be, --Count NICHOLAS (Arunda). . The emperor has been verywell | DE ROMANZOUF.--To M. d'Alopeus, StockSatisfied with the lists of the Swedish fileets, holm.. which you have sent nie, and I expect, will No. V.--SIR-gome persons think that' impatience, the accounts which you have Baron Armteldt, little satisfied with the promised me respeciing the land forces and I manner in which he is treated by the King the interior of the country-At the present, of Sweden, may perhaps be dispose lot moment, information of this kind is more quit entirely the court of Stockliolin; is im necessary than ever, and you will yourself reality he is not a Suede, bor a native of feel, Sir, what an important service you will | Finland, he may perhaps be gained over, render to his imperial majesty, in procuring which, in the present situation of affairs,wonid the most exact accounts possible. If you | be of great importance to og. On this should want proper opportuổities for for- | account, before you quit Sweden, you will warding them, you will keep them by you, see the propriety of sounding the senand bring them yourself, in case of your at | timents of M. Armfeldt. If he should be airy time quilling Sweden,-To judge from inclined to be open with you, you will not all, appearances, it seems difficult to avoid a neglect 'to discuss matters in detail; and, most complete rupture with that power ; wi:hout entering into any positive obligation, bet till ibat takes place, you will remain at you' will contine yourself to the letting lim your post, and continue the same line of c01a see alt ihe advantages which may most flatter
I his ambition. · You will greatly obligé me, at that lias Russi? gained since its mo. Sir, by immediately apprising me what may narch has adhered to the interests of France? be the result of rour proveeding on this What have Germany, Spain, and Italy | subject (?). Knowing your experience in gained?
( What would then become of the li. () The wide of this is the excess if beily of the Fors and the diet of Abo, which insolence. Baron d'Armfeldt may bince been have been already promised in the name of inipatient of activity for a single moment, the emperor
at a crisis so 111erous to lus country le is
business, (w) I need not observe to you how | majesty, and also the last pole of the Swedish essentici it is that this kind of negociation ambassador. You will observe, on this should be carried on in such a manner that occasion, to M. Le Count de Berostorff, you do not coinmit yourself, and in this I that the emperor will take every measure in reckon entirely upon your prudence. I bis power eventually to defend Denmark have the honour to be, &c.-LE COMTE | and tu serve her cause. His imperial majesty NICOLAS DE ROMANZOFF.- St. Peters- | rests in the firm hope, that this monarch burg, Feb. 5, i Sos..
will, on bis part, press the king of Sweden • No. VI.--SIRI sent you, in due course, to unite will them, and if he will not, that copies of the two notes which I causej to be he will take part openly against him ; that transmitted on the 24th September, and 161h he will pursue, with activity, the preparaNovember, to the Swedish ambassador, astious for war, proceed without loss of time well as his reply to the first. Herewith Il in all the measures necessary relative to it, transmit to you the one which he addressed and that he will cordially join all his efforts in ne on the oth of January, also the second. | to those of Russia. (w)-I have the honour Toe will see, Sir, that the cootents of his to be, --The COUNT NICOLAS DE ROMAN21590 in no ways answers the immediate ZOFF.-St. Petersburg, F«b. 5, 1808.--To cloniedz wirich our master has made to Mr. De Lisakewitsch, Copenhagen. Cele the king of Sweden to take measures immon with the three other northern | LOCAL MILITIA.- Alstract of Lord I till's, tudetend the Balric (u) against the Castlereagle's Local Militia Bill. attants of Larind; his imperial majesty The 1st enaciing clause, empowers his ha increture, determined to make a decla- | Majesty to establish a local force for the derition, in order to assure himself of the fence of the realm. rent disposition of his neighbour, the king The 2d, enacis, that the number of men of Sweden ; you will receive, herewith, a enrolled under the act, shall not exceed such CODV et mis declaration ; I will not send it number as will, including the effective Yeoto iniz.on de Stedingk until some days after manrv and Volunteers amount. to the departure of this courier. In the mean times (six times was the amount suggested time I will confidentially make it kuown to by Lord Castlereagh,) the Militia quotas of 11. Le baron de Blome; you will also com- such counties. municate it to the minister of his Danish The 3d, that the deficiencies in the effec
tive Volunteers shall be supplied by the false that he has either been ill-treated or Militia under the act. discontented." He is no subject of the . The-th, that the counties may be divide king, since he is a native of Swedish Fin- ed into divisions, in any case in which more land.” What an inference, even before | than one regiment of Local Mvitia is orthe war! « To gain him over will be an dered to be raised. important acqnisition : flatter his ambition" The 5th, extends the powers of Militia
(such is the language). You, Springpor- Acts to this Act. ten, Knoring, Haseisirom-traitors of every 'The vih, that men to be raised under this description, now speak. Was it ever in Act, shall be ballotted from persons between the power of the emperor to alleviate your the ages of and , reiurned on the lists remorse by offices and emoluments? Could now existing, (from 18 to 35 years of age.) these protect you from the contempt and The lh, excuses persons of bodily inexecration of every honest man, even in / ability. . Russia itself?
The 8th, enacts, that no articled clerk, (v) It is this very experience that justifies / or apprentice, nor any poor man who has the neasures of the king with regard to more than one child born iv wedlock, nor Al. Alopeus.
any person under the height of sball, (u) in all these places the guarantee of by reason thereof, be exempt from being the Baltic has no sense, unless it ineans to ballotted and serving under this Act, thoughi secure Cronstadt and Revel from the fate of they may be exempt from serving in the Copenhagen. Russia, the ally of England, Militia. To be continued. is alone to have the privilege of summoning fleets into the Baltic, without a word being ! (w) All that has been done, the Danish said of closing the passage ; but no sooner monarchy has pressed, pronounced, &c. &c. does she quarrel with England, than she | There are few monarchies which possess 60 cries out for help to shut it.
Printed by Cox and Baylis, No. 75, Great Queen Street, and published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Street Corcoe Garden, where forines Numbers may be had; sold also by J. Budd, Crown and Miure, Páll M.J.
“ Were the countries, which hare usually supplied us, in a state of independence and security, the prospect ** would be far froin pleasing ; but when we cast an anxious eye to the Baltic, the view becomes dreary " indeed. Who can contemplate the consequences of a short crop, a mildew, or a wet harvest without os horror ?"-PolitiCAL REGISTER. .
--[674 SUMMARY OF POLITICS. , Baltic against us, at the same time that the CORN AGAINST SUGAR (continued from | unjust ind insolent demands of America page 048). When I wrote the article, | leave us no ground whereon to depend upon bere referred to, which was on Wednesday | a supply of corn from that country, it is evilast, I had not seen any of the advertise dent, that, unless we can, in some way or ments, which I have since seen, for meet- other, add to the quantity of corp produced ings in several of the counties lo agree upon at home, we must, in proportion to the petitions against the bill, which is about to quantity of corn now imposied, experience be brought into parliament for the purpose | addisional distress, if a year of scarcity should of causing Sugar to be used in the distilleries linhappily arrive. The truth of this concluinstead of Corn. It was not till after my | sion every man adinits, and the vation, with Register was gone to the press that I saw any voice unauinous, exclaini, Let us, as we love of these advertisements; and, as I could ea- our lives and hate the voke of a conqueror. sily perceive, chat, against the effect of pub- | add to the quantity of the corn produced at lications, flowing through so many chan- | home.--Now, gentlemen, one way of ada nels, and at a rate so rapid, the Register ding, in effect, to the quantity of any thing, would stand no chance of success, I thought is, to obtain some other thing capabie of bea it would be useful to write an address to the ing made use of in its stead. Thus, if a Freeholders of Hampshire upon the subject, nan's turnips run short, jie gives some cab)which I did on Friday, and which address, bages to his cattle, and does thereby, in fact. as it applie:l to every part of the country, I add to his quantity of turnips. Upon this caused to be inserted in as many newspapers | plain principle the king's ministers have the as I could, giving it a fair chance against the intention of bringing forward the bill above advertisements and paragraphs, which those described ; and, it must, I should thinks, bu newspapers were circulating upon the other evident to every man, that, if we bring sugar side of the question - This Address I shall from our colonies to supply the place of the now insert here, and shall then submit to corn now used in the distilleries, there will the reader such additional observations as ap be in the country so much more corn to be pear to me likely to assist in the removing of used in the way of food, which is the very that mist of error, whence the alarm of the effect that we are all so anxious to see pro. land-owners and tithe-owners, and fariners duced, and to produce which effect the situaseem to have proceeded.
tion of our colonies and our commerce is, at
this inoment, acknowledged, on all bands, i, TO THE TREEHOLDERS OF HAMPSHIRE. to be peculiarly firvourable. Evident,
however, as these tratbs.appear to mę, and, “ GENTLEMEN,- 4soce of yourselves, as I think they will appear to you, a great I take the liberty to address you upon the clamour has, by some of the land owners subject of a bill intended to be shortly and corn-dealers, been raised against the inbrought before parliament, the object of tended bill; the alarm of these.gentlemen which is, to cause SUGAR to be used in the having, all of a sudden, changed its nature; Distilleries of Eogland and Scotland, instead from a dread of a scarcity of corn, thsy bave, of the CORN which is now therein used. in the twinkling of an eye, fallen into a For many months past, gentlemen, there has dread of too great a plenty of corn; and some existed a general alarm at the shutting of the of them assert, that, if the intended bill foreign corn-ports. The argument has been should become a law, the farmers will bethis : we have long been in the habit of im come bankrupts, because, having lost one porting annually a large quantity of corn ; ; of the markets for their corn, their corn will this importation was necessary, otherwise it | fall in price, and they will not be able to pay wotild not have been gade ; and the enemy | their rents. Gentlemen, any thing more having succeeded in closing the ports of the groundless than this alarm, more unsound