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plary Bishop of Melanesia, had re- of the labourers; but they are peatedly denounced these practices, evaded, and the evasion is winked and predicted that this system of at, and the the new governor, the buccaneering would end in some Marquis of Normanby, palliates great catastrophe, and he has him these transactions by describing self fallen a victim to the hostile them as a system of “ Polynesian feelings of the islanders. On his emigration.” It is necessary, there. last missionary tour he and his chap- fore, to call for the most stringent lain were inhumanly butchered. imperial interference; and we are Most devoutly is it to be hoped that happy to hear it announced that this tragic event will rouse the Lord Kimberley has intimated his nation and the Ministry to immediate, intention to bring in a Bill which resolute and successful action. There shall attach the crime and penalty are colonial laws for the protection of felony to these acts,

Correspondence.

NATIVE PREACHERS IN INDIA.
To the Editor of the BAPTIST MAGAZINE.

MY DEAR SIR,—The “Missionary Heralds” for July and August contain a paper from Mr. George Pearce, of Alipore, Calcutta, on the preparation of Native Christians for the ministry. Unwilling as I am to oppose a man of so much experience, yet I feel, with my strong convictions on the subject, that silence would be criminal. I therefore, with all deference, beg to offer the following remarks :

As to the desirableness of a properly qualified native ministry, there can be no two opinions. The point of difference is, as to the best means for procuring such a ministry. Nor can any valid objection be raised against the missionary putting within the reach of his converts instruction to any extent, provided that this instruction is imparted in such a manner as to save the independence and manliness of the converts. It has been proved by past experience that nothing is easier, and certainly nothing more mischievous, than the pauperizing

system, as carried on (unintentionally
of course) by our educational plans in
India. I do not think Mr. Pearce has
fully placed his scheme before the pub.
lic. I will endeavour, as fairly as I can,
to do so. The institution at " Alipur"
is called “The Vernacular Theological
Institution." Young men are here
received from different sources. Some-
times inquirers become students, and
are, I suppose, baptized by the tutor ;
and sometimes missionaries send young
men from their churches. I believe I
am strictly within the limits of truth
in saying that the students generally,
as to mature Christian character and
motive, cannot be at all compared
with students received into our Eng-
lish Theological Colleges. And here
is a danger against which I would
warn the friends of Missions. It is
that of judging Indian matters from
an English stand-point. Young men
thus received into the Training Col.
lege at once come on the funds of the
Mission to be fed, clothed, instructed,
controlled, until death relieves them

from the connexion. Mr. Pearce states There is another matter intimately that fifty-four young men have been connected with this subject, and that received as students during the past six is the poverty, or supposed poverty, years; twenty-nine, having finished of the natives, and hence their inability their studies, are employed by the to pay their pastors. The fact is, that Mission, and all receive pay, of course, such payment of monthly wages to from England; fourteen are pursuing religious teachers is unknown among their studies; five have been dismissed the natives of India. In their own for incompetency or immoral conduct; way they are as liberal as any nation, fire have returned to secular call. I have sat hundreds of times in the ings; and four are deceased. Now little enclosures of the poor people, in vain you look for one settled pastor and soon fakhirs, one after another, sustained by his church, or one evan- enter with their bags, and all receive gelist, except so far as he continues the little handful of meal. In Delhi to draw his pay from the Missionary there are hundreds of small mosques, Society; and pay is not enough, for each with its muallim or priest, and these eyangelists will not travel ten not one ever receives wages, but all miles without travelling allowance. are supported by their worshippers. Let it be remembered that, in a We are carrying on our Anglicising yorldly point of view, the advan- processes to such an extent, in almost tages of Native Preachers are great every department, as to produce hinUnlike the inspired Apostles whom drances rather than secure progress. Mr. Pearce quotes, who had to bear llad we boen satisfied with doing the the loss of all things, these young work of evangelists, leaving the people mea, mostly from lower castes and to form their own plans, in accordance poverty, really gain all things-- with their own peculiar national haregular wages, easy work, and a bits, guided only by inspired writings, pension at last. They are not called the probability is that ere this India opon to exercise faith or self-denial in would have been studded over by inthe smallest degree, and hence they digenous, and hence independent, become, to a large extent, speaking churches, each church forming a centre machines, going when they are sent, from which light would radiate around and remaining when they are desired as surely as it does when the sun to remain; their only ambition being rises. to get the highest pay they can, since Our present system, instead of dethat is the standard by which their veloping apostolic spirit and enterrespectability is judged by their coun- prise, only developes covetousness and trymen. Is it at all surprising that dependence. I have no hesitation under such circumstances, almost all in saying that had Paul himself or converts should desire to become been passed through the manufacpreachers-not in order to spread turing process at Alipore, the world the Gospel, but for the sake of would never have heard his name realising a good living on the easiest again. I have sought in vain in possible terms? Far more than it is the New Testament for anything, possible for our young men to gain in either example or command, that in Mr. Pearce's class, they lose in can be compared with the modern manly independence and self-sustain practice of Missionary Societies taking ing power, and every step taken by their converts into their pay, that they our Society or others in this direction may help in spreading the Gospel; will have to be retraced. As the late and my experience in India has forced Dr. Ogilvy said, “The number of me to the conclusion that so long as Native Preachers need only be limited we seek literally to pay the “ labourer to the extent of your money.” As his hire," he will look for no higher things are at present, I will guarantee reward, and hence Christian heroism as many Native Preachers of Mr. of apostolic character becomes imposPearce's stamp as you will find money sible. Every native of India, taken to pay, and men who shall go on for out of his natural position, separated thirty or forty years, or for evor, if from his trade or means of support, you like.

and brought into dependence on a

Missionary Society, becomes(according to my judgment, and that is founded on no mean experience) not a helper in the Gospel, but a hindrance. In due time the Churches will want men able to elaborate thoughtful sermons; now we want men hot from God's anvil to shake and destroy old systems of error, and plant the germ of churches. Let us, then, give up anticipating history and growth, and give ourselves to the propagation of the great principles of Gospel truth, as. sured that apostolic results will follow.

I commend with all my heart the following extract from Wheeler's “Ten Years on the Euphrates," as worthy of the utmost attention of all Missionaries and Missionary Societies :

“Two things need to be remembered by the missionary, at least, in Oriental lands. (1) That he is in danger of over rating the poverty of the people. To one fresh from the thrift, tidiness and comfort of the humblest English homes the best of those in Oriental lands appear poor and wretched enough. (2) While Orientals are generally ready to make almost any profession to secure the goodwill of those from

whom they expect any temporal ad. vantage, they at the same time look upon the advantage bestowed as a mere trap by which the giver hopes in the end to secure some gain to himself; and are thereby prejudiced against any instructions he may give.

When the kind-hearted missionary, instead of teaching his converts the grace of Christian liberality, and calling upon them from the first to give of their substance to Christ, practically treats them as paupers, not only giving them the Gospel free, but adding, in one form or another, pecuniary help, and thereby increasing the universal Oriental greed for Bakshish,' he not only harms the man, but inflicts a greater wrong on the church of which he is to be a member, by teaching it also to sit and beg."

Let the money now spent on orphanages, native preachers and schools, be gathered up, and there will be no difficulty in doubling our direct European evangelising power, and far more than doubling the real utility of our noble Missionary Society.

JAMES SMITH, Delhi, 25th October, 1871,

HOW IS “ CHURCH” TO BE TRANSLATED ?

To the Editor of the Baptist MAGAZINE.

MY DEAR SIR, -I am glad Dr. been proposed at different times. “ AsLillie is discussing the renderings of sembly" was a favourite word in the ecclesiastical words in the New Tes- last century. “ Congregation” is used tament. The subject is one of great by Tyndale, and in part by Alford. importance; and the proposed Revision Neither is satisfactory. "Congregaof the existing translation makes the tion” seems specially objectionable, bediscussion very timely and helpful. cause, in modern usage, the “ Congre

In fairness to the Revisors, nothing gation” is not the “Church.” A meetshould be taken as granted as to the ing—a member-of the congregation is renderings they may adopt. No one one thing: a meeting-a membercan tell, for a long time to come, what of the Church is another. their final renderings will be. Any Nor is this difference accidental. announcements to the contrary are Congregation is, etymologically, an premature; and the imputation of aggregation of men, a meeting; a motives is specially needless and Church is a selection of men, a meetwrong.

ing of specially qualified members. The particular question of the ren This idea is in the word éxkanoia, and lering of the Greek word for“ Church” is favoured by the law of the “con. eserves consideration; “ Church," gregation" under the Ancient DisAssembly," "Congregation," have all pensation. “Conyocation” is etymo,

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logically nearer the truth than “assembly," and its selectness for usage is obvious. But I suppose none of your readers will prefer that name.

It is a mistake to say that “ Church” comes from Rome. “L'Eglise ” may. But the word “ Church" existed in Anglo-Saxon before ecclesiastical words were incorporated into our language through the Latin. Our AngloSaxon forefathers had, in fact, a complete set of religious terms of their own, showing at once the independent source of their religious teaching and the richness of their tongue. The word really comes from the Gothic.

The old Saxon version reads: “Thu eart Petrus : and over this stan(e) I(c) getimbrige (will betimber, i.e., build) mine Cyricean (kirk).” Matt. xyi. 18.

Our American brethren, I see, translate “Church," and as yet I have not seen a better word. I should be sorry, however, to foreclose discussion; and any contributions of thought and scholarship will be welcome to most of your readers.

How should you like the new style, “Overseer Lewis, Bayswater "?

Yours very sincerely,

Rebiews.

The Old Catholic Church, or, The

History, Doctrine, Worship, and Polity of the Christians, traced from the Apostolic Age to the Establishment of the Pope as a Temporal Sovereign in A.D. 755. By W. KILLEN, D.D. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark. 1871.

THE study of ecclesiastical history has, of late years, risen to an importance in England which it has never possessed at any previous time-a fact for which we are probably indebted to the Tractarian movement more than to any other cause. Dr. Killen's work is a valuable contribution to the subject, and, in common with his former volume on "The Ancient Church," gives the results of extensive, painstaking and original investigation. “ The Ancient Church " illustrates the history of the first three centuries; “The Old Catholic Church” (after summarizing briefly the substance of its predecessor), discusses the periods in which the great doctrines of Christianity relative to the Godhead, the Incarnation, and the Fall of Man were defined and forviulated by Councils; in which also the Church was taken uuder imperial patronage,

and its primitive worship shorn of its simple glory, by the meretricious adornments of pagan ceremonial. The development of the original apostolic polity into the Episcopal and Papal systems is also carefully traced, and the progress of the latter system narrated as far down as A.D. 755, when the temporal sovereignty of his “ holiness” was fully established, in the person of Stephen III. The chapter on the “Donatist Controversy " is worthy of especial attention, as it frees these ancient Nonconformists from the gross and unwarrantable imputations which have been so freely lavished upon them. In the chapter on Ireland, it is also conclusively shown that the evangelistic labours of Patrick preceded by many years the mission of Palladius, the emissary of the Pope, who was only sent to turn the success of the great evangelist to the aggrandizement of the Papal See. Tho Irish people refused to receive Palladius as their bishop, and were the last in Western Christendom to submit to the domination of Rome. Patrick, the evangelist, has been confused with Patrick, the monk of Armagh, as well as with Palladius, and the confusion has been singularly helpful to the l'apists.

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Intuitive Calculations. By DANIEL

O'GORMAN. London : Lockwcod

& Co.' A BOOK of practical mental arithmetic. Nothing is more common in schools than the neglect of this important branch of elementary education, and this work is likely to rouse up schoolmasters to a sense of their duty, and assist the youngsters in following the uninviting path. A valuable companion to the black-board, and a useful class-book, from its copious tables of weights and measures. Every rule is briefly stated, and abundantly illustrated, and suggestive examples appended to each. Emphatically we can call the volume a useful one for schools of every grade.

An advanced form of this work, distinguishable in title only as edited by Professor Young, demands extra notice. The principle of simple explanation is herein applied to more difficult branches of arithmetical science, and decimal computation becomes, under Mr. O'Gorman's treatment, much less formidable than it was in our days of Walkinghame and Bonnycastle. A melancholy interest attaches to this work on account of the fact that its promising author perished in the “London."

The Biblical Museum : Matthew and

Mark. A Collection of Notes,
Explanatory, Homiletic, and Illus-
trative. By J. COMPER GRAY.
London : Elliot Stock, 62, Pater-

noster Row. This is a most valuable aid to the Sunday-school teacher. It abounds

:. It abounds with critical and analytical remarks. The criticism is not too profound for the ordinary reader, and the divisions will be found valuable by the village preacher. Many appropriate anecdotes and illustrations are scattered throughout the volume.

Flints, Fancies, and Facts; A Re

view of Sir C. Lyell's Antiquity of Man," and similar Works. By W. ROBINSON, of Cambridge. London : Longmans, Green, & Co.,

Paternoster Row. This admirable critique on the wild speculations of MM. Lyell, Lubbock, De Perthes, & Co., appeared recently in the London Quarterly Review, but in this separate form is increased in value by the pictorial illustration of some kelts. Mr. Robinson has thoroughly exposed the Abbeville frauds, and entered a caveat against the crude fancies of the palæolithists.

A History of Greece. By the Rev.

FREDERICK ARNOLD, B.A., Oxon.

London : Religious Tract Society. An elementary history of Greece is rather a novelty in an age when scholarship is doing its utmost in fresh research of much learned abstruseness. This history is quite fit for an introductory book, and as such we venture to say will be very popular. Naturally such a work must be much indebted to the labours of Grote and others, but there is much original matter, and that admirable in taste, and adapted to its object. In the simplifying process our author has not omitted the literary critiques, which he has selected to our mind with great judgment. This little history has its type agreeably relieved by illustration, is thoroughly readable, and suitable for school use, and still more noticeably for private study or tuition.

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