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plary Bishop of Melanesia, bad re- of the labourers; but they are peatedly denounced these practices, evaded, and the evasion is winked and predicted that this system of at, and the the new governor, the buccaneering would end in some Marquis of Normanby, palliates great catastrophe, and he has him- these transactions by describing self fallen a victim to the hostile them as a system of “ Polynesian feelings of the islanders. On his emigration." It is necessary, there. last missionary tour he and his chap- fore, to call for the most stringent lain were inhumanly butchered. imperial interference; and we are Most devoutly is it to be hoped that happy to hear it announced that this tragic event will rouse the Lord Kimberley has intimated his nation and the Ministry to immediate, intention to bring in a Bill which resolute and successful action. There shall attach the crime and penalty are colonial laws for the protection of felony to these acts.

Correspondence.

NATIVE PREACHERS IN INDIA.

To the Editor of the BAPTIST MAGAZINE. MY DEAR SIR,—The “ Missionary system, as carried on (unintentionally Heralds” for July and August con- of course) by our educational plans in tain a paper from Mr. George Pearce, India. I do not think Mr. Pearce has of Alipore, Calcutta, on the prepara- fully placed his scheme before the pubtion of Native Christians for the mi- lic. I will endeavour, as fairly as I can, nistry. Unwilling as I am to oppose to do so. The institution at “ Alipur a man of so much experience, yet I is called “The Vernacular Theological feel, with my strong convictions on Institution.” Young men are here the subject, that silence would be received from different sources. Somecriminal. I therefore, with all defer- times inquirers become students, and ence, beg to offer the following re- are, I suppose, baptized by the tutor; marks:

and sometimes missionaries send young As to the desirableness of a properly men from their churches. I believe I qualified native ministry, there can am strictly within the limits of truth be no two opinions. The point of in saying that the students generally, difference is, as to the best means for as to mature Christian character and procuring such a ministry. Nor can motive, cannot be at all compared any valid objection be raised against with students received into our Engthe missionary putting within the lish Theological Colleges. And here reach of his converts instruction to is a danger against which I would any extent, provided that this instruc- warn the friends of Missions. It is tion is imparted in such a manner that of judging Indian matters from as to save the independence and man- an English stand-point. Young men liness of the converts. It has been thus received into the Training Colproved by past experience that nothing lege at once come on the funds of the is easier, and certainly nothing more Mission to be fed, clothed, instructed, mischievous, than the pauperizing controlled, until death relieves them

of course,

from the connexion. Mr. Pearce states There is another matter intimately that fifty-four young men have been connected with this subject, and that received as students during the past six is the poverty, or supposed poverty, years; twenty-nine, having finished of the natives, and hence their inability their studies, are employed by the to pay their pastors. The fact is, that Mission, and all receive pay,

such payment of monthly wages to from England; fourteen are pursuing religious teachers is unknown among their studies; fiye have been dismissed the natives of India. In their own for incompetency or immoral conduct; way they are as liberal as any nation. five have returned to secular call- I have sat hundreds of times in the ings; and four are deceased. Now little enclosures of the poor people, in vain you look for one settled pastor and seen fakhirs, one after another, sustained by his church, or one evan- enter with their bags, and all receive gelist, except so far as he continues the little handful of meal. In Delhi to draw his pay from the Missionary there are hundreds of small mosques, Society; and pay is not enough, for each with its muallim or priest, and these evangelists will not travel ten not one ever receives wages, but all miles without travelling allowance. are supported by their worshippers. Let it be remembered that, in a We are carrying on our Anglicising worldly point of view, the advan- processes to such an extent, in almost tagos of Native Preachers are great. every department, as to produce hinUnlike the inspired Apostles whom dranccs rather than secure progress. Mr. Pearce quotes, who had to bear IIad we been satisfied with doing the the loss of all things, these young work of evangelists, leaving the people men, mostly from lower castes and to form their own plans, in accordance poverty, really gain all things- with their own peculiar national haregular wages, easy work, and a bits, guided only by inspired writings, pension at last. They are not called the probability is that ere this India upon to exercise faith or self-denial in would have been studded over by inthe smallest degree, and hence they digenous, and hence independent, become, to a large extent, speaking churches, each church forming a centre machines, going when they are sent, from which light would radiate around and remaining when they are desired as surely as it does when the sun to remain; their only ambition being rises. to get the highest pay they can, since Our present system, instead of dethat is the standard by which their veloping apostolic spirit and enterrespectability is judged by their coun- prise, only developes covetousness and trymen. Is it at all surprising that, dependence. I have no hesitation under such circumstances, almost all in saying that had Paul himself our converts should desire to become been passed through the manufacpreachers-not in order to spread turing process at Alipore, the world the Gospel, but for the sake of would never have heard his name realising a good living on the easiest again. I have sought in vain in possible terms ? Far more than it is the New Testament for anything, possible for our young men to gain in either example or command, that in Mr. Pearce's class, they lose in can be compared with the modern manly independence and self-sustain. practice of Missionary Societies taking ing power, and every step taken by their converts into their pay, that they our Society or others in this direction may help in spreading the Gospel"; will have to be retraced. As the late and my experience in India has forced Dr. Ogilvy said, “The number of me to the conclusion that so long as Native Preachers need only be limited we seek literally to pay the “ labourer to the extent of your money.” As his hire," he will look for no higher things are at present, I will guarantee reward, and hence Christian heroism as many Native Preachers of Mr. of apostolic character becomes imposPearce's stamp as you will find money sible. Every native of India, taken to pay, and men who shall go on for out of his natural position, separated thirty or forty years, or for ever, if from his trade or means of support, you like.

and brought into dependence on a

Missionary Society, becomes according whom they expect any temporal ad. to my judgment, and that is founded vantage, they at the same time look on no mean experience) not a helper upon the advantage bestowed as a in the Gospel, but a hindrance. In inere trap by which the giver hopes due time the Churches will want men in the end to secure some gain to himable to elaborate thoughtful sermons; self; and are thereby prejudiced against now we want men hot from God's any instructions he may give. anvil to shake and destroy old sys- 1. When the kind-hearted missiontems of error, and plant the germ of ary, instead of teaching his converts churches. Let us, then, give up anti- the grace of Christian liberality, and cipating history and growth, and give calling upon them from the first to ourselves to the propagation of the give of their substance to Christ, pracgreat principles of Gospel truth, as- tically treats them as paupers, not only sured that apostolic results will follow. giving them the Gospel free, but adding,

I commend with all my heart the in one form or another, pecuniary help, following extract from Wheeler's “ Ten and thereby increasing the universal Years on the Euphrates,” as worthy Oriental greed for Bakshish,' he not of the utmost attention of all Mission- only harms the man, but inflicts a aries and Missionary Societies :- greater wrong on the church of which

“ Two things need to be remembered he is to be a member, by teaching it by the missionary, at least, in Oriental also to sit and beg." lands. (1) That he is in danger of over- Let the money now spent on orphanrating the poverty of the people. To ages, native preachers and schools, be one fresh from the thrift, tidiness and gathered up, and there will be no comfort of the humblest English homes difficulty in doubling our direct the best of those in Oriental lands European evangelising power, and appear poor and wretched enough. far more than doubling the real utility (2)

While Orientals are generally ready of our noble Missionary Society. to make almost any profession to

JAMES SMITH, ure the goodwill of those from Delhi, 25th October, 1871,

HOW IS “ CHURCH” TO BE TRANSLATED ?

To the Editor of the BAPTIST MAGAZINE. MY DEAR SIR, -I am glad Dr. been proposed at different times. “AsLillie is discussing the renderings of sembly

was a favourite word in the ecclesiastical words in the New Tes- last century. “Congregation ” is used tament. The subject is one of great by Tyndale, and in part by Alford. importance; and the proposed Revision Neither is satisfactory. "Congregaof the existing translation makes the tion” seems specially objectionable, bediscussion very timely and helpful. cause, in modern usage, the “ Congre

In fairness to the Revisors, nothing gation" is not the "Church.” A meetshould be taken as granted as to the ing-a member-of the congregation is renderings they may adopt. No one one thing: a meeting-a membercan tell, for a long time to come, what of the Church is another. their final renderings will be. Any Nor is this difference accidental. announcements to the contrary are Congregation is, etymologically, an premature; and the imputation of aggregation of men, a meeting; a motives is specially needless and Church is a selection of men, a meetwrong

ing of specially qualified members. The particular question of the ren- This idea is in the word takingia, and lering of the Greek word for“ Church” is favoured by the law of the “coneserves consideration; "Church,” gregation" under the Ancient DisAssembly," "Congregation," have all pensation. “ Convocation” is etymo,

[graphic]

as

logically nearer the truth than “ sembly," and its selectness for usage is obvious. But I suppose none of your readers will prefer that name.

It is a mistake to say that “Church” comes from Rome. “L'Eglise” may. But the word “ Church

» existed in Anglo-Saxon before ecclesiastical words were incorporated into our language through the Latin. Our AngloŠaxon forefathers had, in fact, a complete set of religious terms of their own, showing at once the independent source of their religious teaching and the richness of their tongue. The word really comes from the Gothic.

The old Saxon version reads: “ Thu eart Petrus : and over this stan(e) I(C) getimbrige (will betimber, i.e., build) mine Cyricean (kirk).” Matt. xyi. 18.

Our American brethren, I see, translate “Church," and as yet I have not seen a better word. I should be sorry, however, to foreclose discussion; and any contributions of thought and scholarship will be welcome to most of your readers.

How should you like the new style, "Overseer Lewis, Bayswater ” ?

Yours very sincerely,

A.

Reviews.

The Old Catholic Church, or, The and its primitive worship shorn of its History, Doctrine, Worship, and simple glory, by the meretricious Polity of the Christians, traced

adornments of pagan ceremonial. from the Apostolic Age to the

The development of the_original Establishment of the Pope as a

apostolic polity into the Episcopal

and Papal systems is also carefully Temporal Sovereign in A.D. 755. traced, and the progress of the latter By W. KILLEN, D.D. Edinburgh: system narrated as far down as A.D. T. and T. Clark. 1871.

757, when the temporal sovereignty of

his holiness” was fully established, THE study of ecclesiastical history has, in the person of Stephen III. The of late years, risen to an importance in chapter on the “Donatist ControEngland which it has never possessed versy" is worthy of especial attention, at any previous time- e-a fact for which as it frees these ancient Nonconwe are probably indebted to the Trac- formists from the gross and unwartarian movement more than to any rantable imputations which have been other cause. Dr. Killen's work is a so freely lavished upon them. In the valuable contribution to the subject, chapter on Ireland, it is also concluand, in common with his former sively shown that the evangelistic volume on "The Ancient Church," labours of Patrick preceded by many gives the results of extensive, pains- years the mission of Palladius, the taking and original investigation. emissary of the Pope, who was only “ The Ancient Church” illustrates the sent to turn the success of the great history of the first three centuries ; evangelist to the aggrandizement “The Old Catholic Church” (after of the Papal See. The Irish people summarizing briefly the substance of refused to receive Palladius as their its predecessor), discusses the periods bishop, and were the last in Western in which the great doctrines of Chris- Christendom to submit to the dominatianity relative to the Godhead, the tion of Rome. Patrick, the evangelist, Incarnation, and the Fall of Man has been confused with Patrick, the were defined and formulated by monk of Armagh, as well as with PalCouncils; in which also the Church ladius, and the confusion has been was taken uuder imperial patronage, singularly helpful to the l'apists.

measures.

Dr. Killen is a Presbyterian, and Intuitive Calculations. By DANIEL some of his assertions have a decidedly O'GORMAN. London : Lockwcod Presbyterian bias, but, on the whole, & Co. he writes with great candour, and we know of no other volume which occu- A BOOK of practical mental arithmetic. pies precisely the same ground as this. Nothing is more common in schools It ought to be widely known.

than the neglect of this important

branch of elementary education, and The Communion of Saints. By R.

this work is likely to rouse up

schoolW. DALE, M.A. London: Hod- masters to a sense of their duty, and der and Stoughton, 27, Paternoster

assist the youngsters in following the Row.

uninviting path. A valuable com

panion to the black-board, and a MR. DALE always rewards the atten- useful class-book, from its copious tion of his reader. We think, how- tables of weights and ever, that, notwithstanding his great Every rule is briefly stated, and political influence, he is happier and abundantly illustrated, and suggestive far more useful in efforts such as this. examples appended to each. EmphaThis address was received at the meet- tically we can call the volume a useful ing of the Congregational Union at one for schools of every grade. Swansea with great approbation, and

An advanced form of this work, it will well repay thoughtful perusal distinguishable in title only as edited in its published form.

by Professor Young, demands extra

notice. The principle of simple exThe Biblical Museum : Matthew and planation is herein applied to more

difficult branches Mark. A Collection of Notes,

of arithmetical

science, and decimal computation beExplanatory, Homiletic, and Illus

comes, under Mr. O'Gorman's treattrative. By J. COMPER GRAY. ment, much less formidable than it London : Elliot Stock, 62, Pater- was in our days of Walkinghame and noster Row.

Bonnycastle. A melancholy interest

attaches to this work on account of THIS is a most valuable aid to the

the fact that its promising author Sunday-school teacher. It abounds perished in the “London.” with critical and analytical remarks. The criticism is not too profound for A History of Greece. By the Rev. the ordinary reader, and the divisions will be found valuable by the village

FREDERICK ARNOLD, B.A., Oxon. preacher. Many appropriate anec

London : Religious Tract Society. dotes and illustrations are scattered

An elementary history of Greece is throughout the volume.

rather a novelty in an age when

scholarship is doing its utmost in fresh Flints, Fancies, and Facts; A Re- research of much learned abstruse

view of Sir C. Lyell's " Antiquity This history is quite fit for an of Man,and similar Works. By introductory book, and as such we W. Robinson, of Cambridge. Naturally such a work must be much London : Longmans, Green, & Co.,

indebted to the labours of Grote and Paternoster Row.

others, but there is much original Tuis admirable critique on the wild matter, and that admirable in taste, speculations of MM. Lyell, Lubbock, and adapted to its object. In the De Perthes, & Co., appeared recently simplifying process our author has not in the London Quarterly Review, but in omitted the literary critiques, which this separate form is increased in value he has selected to our mind with great by the pictorial illustration of some judgment. This little history has its kelts. Mr. Robinson has thoroughly type agreeably

relieved by illustration, exposed the Abbeville frauds, and is thoroughly readable, and suitable entered a caveat against the crude for school use, and still more noticefancies of the palæolithists.

ably for private study or tuition.

ness.

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