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THE

LIFE OF FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS.

f. 1. The family from which I am derived is not ther; and I made nighty, proficiency in the im an ignoble one, but hath descended all along from provements of my learning, and appeared te the priests; and as nobility among several people have both a great memory and understanding is of a different origin, so, with us, to be of the Morec;'er, when I was a child, and about four. sacerdotal dignity, is an indication of the splen- teen years of age, I was commended by all for dor of a family. Now, I am not only sprung the love I had to learning; on which account the from a sacerdotal family in general, but from the high priests and principal men of the city came first of the twenty-four courses; and as among then frequently to me together, in order to know us there is not only a considerable difference be my opinion about the accurate understanding of tween one family of each course and another, I points of the law. And when I was about sixam of the chief family of that first course also; teen years old, I had a mind to make trial of the nay, farther, by my mother I am of the royal several sects that were among us. These sects blood; for the children of Asamoneus, from whom are three; the first is that of the Pharisees, the that family was derived, had both the office of the second that of the Sadducees, and the third that high priesthood, and the dignity of a king, for a of the Essens, as we have frequently told you, long time together. I will accordingly set down for I thought that by this means I might choose my progenitors in order. My grandfather's father the best, if I were once acquainted with them was named Simon, with the addition of Psellus: all; so I contented myself with hard fare, and he lived at the saine time with that son of Simon underwent great difficulties, and went through the high priest, who, first of all the high priests, them all. Nor did I content myself with these was named Hyrcanus. This Simon Psellus had trials only; but when I was informed that one nine sons, one of whom was Matthias, called whose name was Banus, lived in the desert, who Ephlias; he married the daughter of Jonathan used no other clothing than grew upon trees, and the high priest, which Jonathan was the first of had no other food than what grew of its own acthe sons of Asamoneus, who was high priest, and cord, and bathed himself in cold water frequent. was the brother of Simon the high priest also. ly, both by night and by day, in order to preserve This Matthias had a son called Matthias Curtus, his chastity, I imitatea' him in those things, and and that in the first year of the government of continued with him for three years. [ So when I Hyrcanus; his son's name was Joseph, born in had accomplished my desires, I returned back to the ninth year of the reign of Alexandra; his son the city, being now nineteen years old, and began Matthias was born in the tenth year of the reign to conduct myself according to the rules of the of Archelaus; as was I born to Matthias on the sect of the Pharisees, which is of kin to the seet first year of the reign or Caius Cæsar. I have of the Stoics, as the Greeks call them. three sons: Hyrcanus, the eldest, was born on 3. But when I was in the twenty-sixth year of the fourth year of the reign of Vespasian; as was my age, it happened that I took a voyage to Justus born on the seventh, and Agrippa on the Rome, and this on the occasion which I shall ninth. Thus have I set down the genealogy of now describe. At the time when Felix was promy family, as I have found it described t in the curator of Judea, there were certain priests of public records, and so bid adieu to those who ny acquaintance, and very excellent persons calumniate me, (as of a lower original.]

they were whom on a small and trilling occa. 2. Now my father Matthias was not only emision he had put into bonds, and sent to Rome to nent on account of his nobility, but had a higher plead their cause before Cæsar. These I was comniendation on account of his righteousness, desirous to procure deliverar.ce for, and that es. and was in great reputation in Jerusalem, the pecially because I was informed that they were greatest city we have. I was myself brought up not unnindful of piety towards God even under with my brother, whose name was Matthias, for their afllictions, but supported themselves with he was ray own brother, by both father and mo. figs and nuts. Accordingly I came to Ronie

*W'z may heno correct the error of the Latin copy teen, or for three years, he made trial of the three of the second book against Apion, sect. 7, 8. (for the Jewish sects, the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Es. Greek is there lost) which says there were then only sens, and ye says presently, in all our copies, that he four tribes or courses of the priests, instend of twenty stayed lesia-s with one particular axretic, called Banus, four.-Nor is this testimony to be disregarded, as if Jo- 728 ZUT", with him, and this still before he was nie. sephus there contradicted wbat he had affirmed here, teen, there is little room left for his trial of three other because even the account there given, better agrees to sects I suppose, therefore, that for * *P UTW, roith him, twenty-four than to four courses, while he says that the old reading might be *P *UTONG with them, whiela each of these courses contained above 5000 men, which is a very small emendation, and takes away the difficui. biultiplied by only four, will make not more than 20,000 ty before us. Nor is Dr. Hudson's conjecture, hinted at spriests; whereas the number 120,000, as multiplied hy by Mr. Hall in his preface to the doctor's edition of Jo. 24, seems much the most probable, they being about sephus, at all improbable, that this Banus, by this his one lentb or the whole people, even after the captivity. description, might well be a follower of John the Bap. See Ezra ii. 36-39. Neh. vii.39—42. 1 Esd. v. 24, 25. tist, and 'hat from him Josephus might easily inbile witu Ezra ii. 64. Neb. vii. 66. 1. Esd. v. 41. Nor will such noti ins, as afterward prepared him to have a fatbis common reading or notion of but four courses of vorable opinion about Jesus Christ himself, who was priests, agree with Josephus's own farther assertion attested to by John the Baptist. elsew bere. Antiq. b. vij. ch. xiv. sect. 7. that David's We may note here, that religious men among the partition of the priests into twenty-four courses had Jews, or at least those that were priests were sometimes continued to that day.

ascetics also, and, like Daniel and his companions in An eminent example of the care of the Jews ahout Babylon, Dan. i. 8-16. ate no flesh, but figs and nuta, their genealogies, especially as to the priests. See Cont. &c. only. This was like the zipo say in, or rusli :: Ap. b. i. ch. 7.

diets, of the Christian ascetics in Passion week i When Jorephus here says, that from sixteen to nine- stit. v. 18.

1

Thougn 11 were through a great number of ha- the Syrians. But what was done by the inliabi. cards by sea; for, as our ship was drowned in tants of Scythopolis was the most impious and the Adriatic sea, we that were in it, being about highly criminal of all; t for, when the Jews, their six hundred in number, * swam for our lives al enemies, came upon them from without, they .he night; when, upon the first appearance of the forced the Jews that were among them to bear day, and upon our sight of a ship of Cyrene, I arms against their own countrymen, which it is and some others, eighty in all, by God's provi. unlawful for us to do: 1 and when by their assistdence prevented the rest, and were taken up into ance they had joined battle with those that at.

ne other ship. And when I had thus escaped, tacked them, and had beaten them, after that and wits conie to Dicearchia, which the Italians victory they forgot the assurances they had given çalı Puteoli, I became acquainted with Aliturius, these their fellow-citizens and confederates, and an actor of plays, and much beloved by Nero, slew them all, being in number many ten thon but a Jew by birth; through his interest became sands [13,000.) The like miseries were unde:: known to Poppea, Cæsar's wife, and took care as gone by those Jews that were the inhabitants of noon as possible to entreat her to procure, that Damascus: But we have given a more accurate the priests might be set at liberty. And when, account of these things in the books of the Jewe besides this favor, I had obtained many presents ish war. I only mention them now, because I Iron Poppea, I returned home again.

would demonstrate to my readers, that the Jews 4. And now I perceived innovations were al war with the Romans was not voluntary, but ready begun, and that there were a great many that, for the main, they were forced by necessity very inuch elevated, in hopes of a revolt from the to enter into it. Romans. I therefore endeavored to put a stop 7. So when Gessius had been beaten, as we to these tumultuous persons, and persuaded them have said already; the principal men of Jerusato change their minds; and laid before their eyes lem, seeing that the robbers and innovators had against whom it was that they were going to fight, arms in great plenty, and fearing lest they, while and told them that they were inferior to the Ro- they were unprovided with arms, should be in mans not only in martial skill, but also in good subjection to their enemies, which also came to iortune; and desired them not rashly, and after be the case afterward; and, being informed that the most foolish manner, to bring on the dangers all Galilee had not yet revolted from the Romans, of the most terrible mischiefs upon their country, but that some part of it was still quiet, they sent upon their families, and upon themselves. And me and two others of the priests, who were me a this I said with vehement exhortation, because I of excellent characters, Joazar and Judas, in orforesaw that the end of such a war would be most der to persuade the ill men there to lay down their unfortunate to us. But I could not persuade arnis, and to teach then this lesson, that it were them, for the madness of desperate men was better to have those arms reserved for the most quite too hard for me.

courageous men that the nation had. (than to be 5. I was then afraid, lest by inculcating these kept there;] for that it had been resolved, that things so often, I should incur their hatred and those our best men should always have their arms their suspicions, as if I were of our enemies' par. ready against futurity, but still so, that they ty, and should run into the danger of being seized should wait to see what the Romans would do. by them, and slain; since they were already 8. When I had therefore received these in. possessed of Antonia, which was the citadel; să structions, I came into Galilee, and found the I retired into the inner court of the temple. Yet people of Sepphoris in no small agony about their did I go out of the temple again, after Manahem country, by reason that the Galileans had resoland the principal of the band of robbers were ved to plunder it, on account of the friendship put to death, when I abode among the high they had with the Romans, and because they priests and the chief of the Pharisees. But no had given their right hand, and made a league small fear seized upon us when we saw the peo- with Cestius Gallus, the president of Syria.ple in arms, while we ourselves knew not what But I delivered them all out of the fear they we should do, and were not able to restrain their were in, and persuaded the multitude to deal seditions. However, as the danger was directly kindly with them, and permitted them to send to upon us, we pretended that we were of the same those that were their own hostages with Gessius opinion with them, but only advised them to be to Dora, which is a city of Phenicia, as often as quiet for the present, and to let the eneniy go they.pleased; though I still found the inhabitants away, still hoping that Gessius [Florus] would of Tiberias ready to take arms, and that on the not be long ere he came, and that with great for- occasion following: ces and so put an end to these seditious proceed 9. There were three factions in this city. The ings.

first was composed of men of worth and gravity; 6. But, upon his coning and fighting, he was of these Julius Capellus was the head. Now he, beaten, and a great many of those that were as well as all his companions, Herod the son of with him fell. And this disgrace (which Gessius Miarus, and Herod the son of Gamalus, and Compwith Cestius) received, became the calaniity of sus the son of Compsus, (for as to Compsus' bro. our whole nation; for those that were fond of the ther Crispus, who had once been governor of the war were so far elevated with this success, that city under the great king, [Agrippa,] be was bethey had hopes of finally conquering the Royond Jordan in his own possessions;) all these

Of which war another occasion was min. persons before named gave their advice, that the istered, which was this: Those that dwelt in city should then continue in their allegiance to the neighboring cities of Syria seized upon such the Romans, and to the king. But Pistus, who Jews as dwelt among them, with their wives was guided by his son Justus, vlid not acquiesce and children, and slew them, when they had not in that resolution; otherwise he was himself nathe least occasion of complaint against them: turally of a good and virtuous character. But the for they did neither attempt any innovation or second faction was composed of the most ignoble revolt from the Romans, nor had they given any persons, and was determined for war. But as marks of hatred or treacherous design towards for Justus, the son of l'istus, who was the head

*It hath been thought the number of Paui and his neighbor;" and that, ver. 17. "Thion shall not avenge, companions on ship hoard, Acts. xxvii. 38. which are nor hear any grudge against the children of thy people 276 in our copies, are too many; whereas we find here but thou shall love thy neighbor as thyself;" as well as that Josephus and his companions, a very few years af. from many other places in the Pentateuch and Pro ter the other, were about 600.

poets. See Antiq. b. viii. ch. viii, sert.3. | Sec of the War b. ii. ch. xviii. sort. 3.

That this Herod Agrippa, the father, was of old calle The Jews mighi collect this unlawsuiness of fight. ed a Great King as here, appears liviu roins still re ing against their brethren from that law of Moses, Lev. maining: whichi Havereamp releis us Tix. 16 “ Thou shall not stand against the blood of thy

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or the third faction, although he pretended to be staid there four days, and Aled away on the fifth doubtrul about going to war, yet was he really having disguised himself with fictitious bair, that desirous of innovation, as supposing that he should he might not be discovered; and when he was gain power to himself by the change of affairs. come to one of the villages' to him belonging, He therefore came into the midst of them, and but one that was situated at the borders of the en Jeavored to inform the multitude, That "the citadel of Gamala, he sent to some of those that w city of Tiberias had ever been a city of Gali- were under him, and commanded them to come " lee, and that in the days of Herod the tetrarch, to him. But God himself hindered that his in* *ho had built it, it had obtained the principal tentiou, and this for his own advantage also; for * place, and that he had ordered that the city had it not so happened, he had certainly perish

Sepphoris should be subordinate to the city ed. For a fever having seized upon him imnie. ** Tiberias; that they had not lost this pre-emídiately, he wrote to Agrippa and Bernice, and * nence even under Agrippa the father, but had gave them to one of his freed men to carry them

retained it, until Felix was procurator of Judea. to Varus, who at this time was procurator of ths "But he told them, that now they had been so kingdom, which the king and his sister had in. "unfortunate as to be made a present by Nero trusted him withal, while they were gone to Be"13 Agrippa junior; and that upon Sepphoris' | rytos with an intention of meeting Gessius."submission of itself to the Romans, that was When Varus had received these letters of Philip, " become the capital city of Galilee, and that the and had learned that he was preserved, he was * rural treasury and the archives were now re- very uneasy at it, as supposing that he should moved from them.” When he had spoken appear useless to the king and his sister, now these things, and a great many more against | Philip was come. He therefore produced the Agrippa, in order to provoke the people to a re- carrier of the letters before the multitude, and rolt, he added, That this was the time for them accused him of forging the same; and said, that " to take arms, and join with the Galileans as he spake falsely, when he related that Philip was * their confederates, (whom they might com at Jerusalem, fighting among the Jews against "mand, and who would now willingly assist the Romans. So le slew him. And when the them, out of the hatred they bare to the peo- freed man of Philip did not return again, Philip ple of Sepphoris, because they preserved their was doubtful what should be the occasion of his tidelity to the Romans,) and to gather a great stay, and sent a second messenger with letters, * number of forces in order to punish them." that he might, upon his return, inform him what And, as he said this, he exhorted the multitude had befallen the other that had been sent before, (to go to war;) for his abilities lay in making and why he tarried so long. Varus accused this harangues to the people, and in being too hard in messenger also, when he came, of telling a falsehis speeches for such as opposed him, though hood, and slew him. For he was pufied up by they adsised what was more to their advantage, the Syrians that were at Cesarea, and had great and thus by his craftiness and his fallacies, for expectations; for they said that Agrippa would he was not unskilful in the learning of the Greeks, be slain by the Romans for the crimes which the and in dependence on that skill it was, that he Jews had committed, and that he should himself undertook' to write a history of these affairs, as take the government, as derived from their king: ainting by this way of haranguing to disguise for Varus was, by the confession of all, of the he truth. But as to this man, and how ill were royal family, as being a descendant of Sohenus, his character and conduct in life, and how he who had enjoyed a tetrarchy about Libanus; for ind his brother were, in a great measure, the au- which reason it was that he was puffed up, and bers of our destruction, 1 shall give the reader kept the letters to himself. He contrived, also, da account in the progress of my narration. So that the king should not meet with those wrishea Justus had," by his persuasions, prevailed tings, by guarding all the passes, lest any one vith the citizens of Tiberias to take arms, nay, should escape, and inform the king what had ind had forced a great many so to do against been done. He moreover slew many of the their will, he went out, and set the villages that Jews, in order to gratify the Syrians of Cesarea. belonged to Gadara and Hippos on fire: which He had a mind also to join with the Trachonites villages were situated on the borders of Tiberias, in Batanea, and to take up arms and make an asaad of the region of Scythopolis.

sault upon the Babylonian Jews that were at Ec10. And this was the staie Tiberias was now batana; for that was the name they went by.-io. Bat as for Gischala, its affairs were thus: He therefore called to him twelve of the Jews When John, the son of Levi, saw some of his of Cesarea of the best character, and ordered citizens much elevated upon their revolt from them to go to Ecbatana, and inform their coun. the Romans, be labored to restrain them, and trymen who dwelt there, that Varus hath heard, entreated them that they would keep their alle that "you intend to march against the king; but, giance to them. But he could not gain his pur" not believing that report, he hath sent us to pose, although he did his endeavors to the ut.

"persuade you to lay down your arms, and that nost: for the neighboring people of Gadara, this compliance will be a sign that he did well Gabara, and Sogana, with the Tyrians, got to. “not to give credit to those that raised the regether a great army, and fell upon Gischala, and “port concerning you." He also enjoined them took Gischala by force, and set it on fire; and to send seventy of their principal men to make a when they had entirely demolished it, they re- defence for them as to the accusation laid against turned home. Upon which John was so enraged, then. So when the twelve messengers came to that he arn.ed all his men, ant joined battle with their countrymen at Ecbatana, and found that the people forementioned, and rebuilt Gischala they had no designs of innovation at all, they efter a manner better than before and fortified persuaded them to send the seventy men also; it with walls for its future security:

who not at all suspecting what would come, seni 11. But Gamala persevered in its allegianors theni accordingly. So these seventy* went down the Romans, for the reason following: Philip the to Cesarea, together with the twelve ambassa100 of Jacimus, who was their governor under dors, where Varus met them with the king's for ting Agrippa, had been unexpectedly preserved ces, and slew them all, together with the (twelve] when the royal palace at Jerusalem had been ambassadors, and made an expedition against the Jesieged; but as he fled away, had fallen into Jews of Ecbatana. But there was one of the another danger, and that was, of being killed by seventy who escaped, and made haste to inform Manahem, and the robbers that were with him; the Jews of their coming; upon which they look but certain Babylonians, who were of his kindred, and were then in Jerusalem, hindered the

The famous Jewish numhers or Twelve and Seven rubbers from executing their design. So Philip ty are here remarkable.

their arms with their wives and children, and for ten of the principal men of the senate, and retired to the citadel at Gamala, leaving their for Capellus the son of Antyllus, and committed own villages full of all sorts of good things, and the furniture to them, with this charge, that they having many ten thousands of cattle therein.-should part with it to nobody else but to myself

. When Philip was informed of these things, he From thence I and my fellow-legates went to also canie to the citadel of Gamala; and when he Gischala to John, as desirous to know his intenwas cone, the inultitude cried aloud, and desired tions, and soon saw that he was for innovations, him to resume the government, and to make an and had a mind to the principality; for he desiexpedition against Varns, and the Syrians of Ce red me to give him authority to carry off the sarea; for it was reported that they had slain the corn which belonged to Cæsar, and lay in ne king. But Philip restrained their zeal, and put villages of Upper Galilee; and be pretended them in mind of the benefits the king had be that he would expend what it came to in build. stowed upon them; and told them how powerful | ing the walls of his own city. But when I per: the Romans were, and said it was not for their ceived what he endeavored at, and what he had advantage to make war with them; and at length in his mind, I said I would not permit him so to de prevailed with them. But now, when the do; for that I thought either to keep it for the

ing'was acquainted with Varus's design, which Romans, or for myself, now I was intrusted with was to cut off the Jews of Cesarea, being many the public affairs there by the people of Jerusa. ten thousands with their wives and children, and lem. But when he was not able to prevail with all in one day, he called to him Equiculus Modius, me, he betook himself to my fellow-legates; for and sent him to be Varus's successor, as we have they had no sagacity in providing for futurity, elsewhere related. But still Philip kept posses, and were very ready to take bribes. So he corsion of the citadel of Gamala, and of the country rupted them with money, to decree that all that adjoining to it, which thereby continued in their corn which was within his province should be allegiance to the Romans.

delivered to him; while I, who was but one, was 12. Now, as soon as I was come into Galilee, outvoted by two, and held my tongue. Then and had learned this state of things by the infor- did John introduce another cunning contrivance mation of such as told me of them, I wrote to of his; for he said, that those Jews who inhabitthe Sanhedrim, at Jerusalem about them, and ed Cesarea Philippi, and were shut up by the orrequired their direction what I should do. Their der of the king's deputy there, had sent to him to direction was, that I should continue there, and desire him, that, since they had no oil that was that. if my fellow-legates were willing, I should pure for their use, he would provide a sufficient join with them in the care of Galilee. But those quantity of such oil for them, lest they should be my feljow-legates, having gotten great riches forced to make use of oil that came from the from those tithes which as priests were their Greeks, and thereby transgress their own laws dues, cad were given to them, determined to re- Now this was said by John, not out of his regard turn to their own country. Yet when I desired to religion, but out of his most flagrant desire them to stay, so long, that we might first settle of gain; for he knew that two sextaries were the public affairs, they complied with me. So I sold with them of Cesarea for one drachma, but remo.ed, together with them, from the city of that at Gischala fourscore sextaries were sold Sepphoris, and came to a certain village called for four drachma. So he gave order, that all Bethmaus, four furlongs distant from Tiberias; the oil which was there should be carried away. and thence I sent messengers to the senate of as having my permission for so doing; which Tiberias, and desired that the principal men of yet I did not grant him voluntarily, but only out the city would come to me; and when they were of fear of the multitude, since, if I had forbid. come, Justus himself being also with them, I told den him, I should have been stoned by them.them, that I was sent to them by the people of When I had therefore permitted this to be done Jerusalem as a legate, together with these other by John, he gained vast sums of money by this priests, in order to persuade them to demolish his knavery. ihat house which Herod the tetrarch bad built 14. But when I had dismissed my fellow-lethere, and which had the figures of living crea. gates, and sent them back to Jerusalem, I took tures in it, although our laws had forbidden us care to have arms provided, and the cities fortito make any such figures; and I desired, that fied. And, when I had sent for the most hardy they would give us leave to do so immediately; among he robbers, I saw that it was not in my But for a good while Capellus and the principal power to take their arms from them; but I permen belonging to the city would not give us suaded the multitude to allow them money as leave, but were at length entirely overcome by pay, and told them it was better for them to give ys, and were induced to be of our opinion. So them a little wittingly, rather than to [be forced Jesus the son of Sapphias, one of those whom to] overlook them when they plundered their we have already mentioned as the leader of a goods from them. And when I had obliged them seditious tumult of mariners and poor people, to take an oath not to come into that country, prevented us, and took with him certain Galile- unless they were invited to come, or else when ans, and set the entire palace on fire, and thought they had not their pay given them, I dismissed he should get a great deal of money thereby; them, and charged them neither to make an es. because he saw some of the roofs gilt with gold. pedition against the Romans, nor against those They also plundered a great deal of the furniture, their neighbors that lay round about them; for which was done without our approbation; for, my first care was to keep Galilee in peace. So after we had discoursed Capellus and the princi- I was willing to have the principal of the Gali. pal men of the city, we departed from Bethmaus, leans, in all seventy, as hóstages for their fidel. and went into the Upper Galilee. But Jesus and ity, but still under the notion of friendship. his party slew all the Greeks that were inhabi- Accordingly, ! made them my friends and conitants of Tiberias, and as many others as were panions as I journeyed, and set them to judge their enemies before the war began.

causes: and with their approbation it was that i 13. When I understood this state of things, ! gave my sentences, while I endeavored not to was greatly provoked, and went down to l'ibe mistake what justice required, and to keep my rias, and took all the care I could of the royal hands clear of all bribery in those determinafurniture, to recover all that could be recovered tions. fron such as had plundered it. They consisted 15. I was now about the thirtieth year of my of candlesticks made of Corinthian brass; and age; in which time of life it is a hard thing for of royal tables, and of a great quantity of un- any one to escape the calumnies of the envious, coined silver; and I resolved to preserve what. although he restrain himself from fulfilling any wever came to my hand for the king. So I sent unlawful desires especially where a person in

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