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That first year in the White House Mr. Lincoln's two boys, Willie and "Tad," used to run in and out through the rooms and the offices bringing sunshine with them, going everywhere and doing everything, as boys have a way of doing. There is a story how one day all the bells in the White House rang the whole day long and nobody could make out what was the matter -until, at last, little Tad was discovered in the garret at work on the centre pin from which all the wires started. Willie's tricks were no less amusing. Often, one, or perhaps both boys would come and stand by their father's knee when he was talking to grave statesmen or selfimportant generals. And if they did receive a rebuke from the President, it was most mildly given and did not much resemble "army discipline"; for no man ever loved his children better than Mr. Lincoln did.

But these happy moments to the burdened President came suddenly to an end. For in the February of 1862, when all his strength was needed to try to start a vigorous campaign in Virginia, both boys were taken ill; and the elder of the two, Willie, a child full of promise, died. The broken-hearted father could spare but little time for mourning; even then his duties filled his days, and he well understood that noble saying that grief for those who have died should not interfere with our duties to the living. But his sorrow lived with him the rest of his days.

And so, saddened by his personal loss in the midst of the disasters and dangers of his country, he went forward to meet her foes who were marshalled before in battle array; but he often turned about, to drive back the foes and traitors behind him at the North who were striking at the nation's life. At the South in the bad days of the war, no man dared for his life to say a word in favor of the Union. But at the North men said what they pleased, until some interfered with the raising of men for the army and the carrying on of the war. Then how did Mr. Lincoln punish the worst of these Northern traitors? He sent him down South among the secessionists and ordered him to stay there until the war was over!

All the North laughed. But the traitors trem

bled. To be sent as prisoners to a Northern fortress might make them pitied; and they could perhaps get away. But times were hard at the South; people there had not too much to eat, even then. Besides, there men thought a great deal of going with one's State and might despise them. They felt like the Southern wife of a naval officer who had been true to his flag; after he died in the service of his country, she lived among his relatives and railed against the North. But when they asked her why she did not go South among her own relations, she said she was much safer and more comfortable at the North. So, after Mr. Lincoln had sent the Copperhead, Vallandingham, down South, the other Copperheads kept more quiet.

But so many of the best patriots were in the army, away from their States, that the fall elections went badly; and this might mean shortness of men and money for the war. The President must keep the North united. He must make Europe perceive that the government would be successful in this war. He must make the emancipation policy a fact. And to do these things he needed victories. No wonder that he turned his sad eyes to the army where General Ambrose E. Burnside, brave and loyal, but not a great commander, was leading the army of the Potomac. But in Burnside as a leader there was

bitter disappointment. For, so far from bringing victory, it was under him that was fought and lost the battle of Fredericksburg in the December of 1862, a battle which, as has already been said, cost thousands of brave men. That defeat made the confederates jubilant, discouraged the loyal people, but did not break their spirit, and gave fresh opportunity to those at the North who opposed the war.

The year 1862 ended in the gloom of this defeat. It was understood also that the next year, 1863, the confederates would put forth their utmost military strength. There must be new strength in the armies to conquer this. But of all the war measures during Lincoln's administration none was so unpopular as the "Draft Act" which he requested of Congress. This would enroll the militia of all the States and make them subject to the call of the President at need. Instead of taking only those who were willing, as the volunteers had been, it would take also the cowards and those who did not care for their country. But men must be had; for terrible battles were coming, as Lincoln knew.

Early in April came the victories of Shiloh and Corinth, which will be more fully spoken of later. Mr. Lincoln in a proclamation asked the people to "render thanks to our Heavenly Father for these inestimable blessings."

In the May of 1863, however, the army of the Potomac under General Hooker, who had taken General Burnside's place, was terribly defeated by General Lee at Chancellorsville in Virginia. The fighting was long and obstinate and the losses on both sides very great. The people did not know then, as Mr. Lincoln did, that the battle had cost the South very much, so that a few such battles would have left the confederates but a small army. Lincoln kept urging that another battle should be fought immediately, before Lee could rest from this one. But he could not get it done. The right man had not come to Virginia yet.

There was more and more hatred of the draft; and, a little later, a great riot in New York City, on account of it. At no time in the whole war had things looked darker for the Union than after Chancellorsville.

But the Emancipation Proclamation of January first, 1863, had been made. Slavery was gone, although there were still acts to be passed to wipe it from our records. And the South was in trouble also; it realized its failing strength, and resolved that something desperate must be done.

General Lee did it. For the South had heard all the Copperhead talk at the North and believed that it meant a great party to rise to its

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