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of which many died.” Dr. Richardson without change their pilgrim garb, will remarks on the exhalation of sulphur become foul in person, and on this foulcompounds of ammonia in some diseases, ness will be concentrated the miasmatic and in all cases of "fætor of the breath,” poison which they may breed themselves and their effect of inducing symptoms of or may get from the air of places poisoned a disease resembling “ typhus." These by cholera-miasm. This miasm, howfacts show very plainly how typhus of the ever, belongs peculiarly to malignant worst type—the hunger-typhus, for ex- cholera, in places like parts of Asia — ample, of the Russian famine last year, certain parts of India and Mecca, in may originate, and may create the worst Arabia, for example, where the filthpossible infection where there has been sodden soil, under intense heat of the sun, no previous infection. It is all the more produces the worst exhalations of the satisfactory to know that, under proper poison which acts as by far the worst of conditions of abundance of good air, there all the causes of cholera. The authority need not be danger to those who have the to which we have referred for exact knowlcare of typhus patients, and still less to edge of the two kinds of cholera, simple those in the same house.
and malignant, tells us that they “are This is much more true of cholera. essentially different both as to their cau“The maxim for cholera is,” says Dr. sation and their pathological relationCreighton, “take care of the conditions, ships," while yet “these two diseases and the disease will take care of itself.” may, in individual cases, present many He says that in Great Britain “a case of symptoms of mutual resemblance.” In cholera is received into the country with regard to the simple cholera, compared much the same sort of assurance as a case with which malignant or Asiatic cholera of typhoid fever would be." He consid- is another and a different disease, our ers that in cases of typhoid, or in cases authority says, after stating what the of cholera, “the diffusion of both dis- chief symptoms are — purging and vomeases can be limited[so far as diffusion by iting, severe griping pain and painful infection is concerned] by disposing of the cramps: discharges of the sick in such a way that
“The effect upon the system is rapid and they shall neither taint the soil nor the
alarming, a few hours of such an attack sufficwater, nor ferment on unwashed linen or ing to reduce the strongest person to a state of bedding.” The overwhelmingly impor extreme prostration. The surface of the body tant thing to consider is that is wherever becomes cold, the pulse weak, the voice husky,
and the whole symptoms may resemble in a a filth-sodden soil receives the choleraic
striking manner those of malignant cholera. In matters, poisonous miasmata will arise unfavorable cases, particularly where the disfrom it; and such miasmata will also order is epidemic, death may result within arise, even in houses or on board ship, or
forty-eight hours. Generally, however, the
attack is arrested and recovery soon follows, from bundles and boxes of effects, if
although there may remain for a considerable cleanliness be thoroughly overpowered time a degree of irritability of the alimentary by the stress of events."
canal, rendering necessary the utmost care in Such overpowering of cleanliness took
regard to diet. Attacks of this kind are of fre
quent occurrence in summer and autumn in place not a little in Hamburg last autumn,
almost all countries. They appear specially soiled effects being thrown together in liable to occur when cold and damp alternate passage-ways and halls pending the hur with heat. Occasionally the disorder prevails ried removal of the sick or the dead,
so extensively as to constitute an epidemic.
The exciting causes of an attack are in many when even the dead or the sick, at their
cases errors in diet, particularly the use of unworst, involved less danger of infection, ripe fruit and new vegetables, and the excessive and the filthy effects fermenting in the drinking of cold liquids during perspiration. hot air were exhaling the worst form of Ou:breaks can sometimes be traced to the use cholera-poison. The danger from Rus
of impure water, or to noxious emanations from
the sewers.” sian or other suffering immigrants is not from any cholera they may have, but This statement of causes is meager and from their filthy persons and filthy be inaccurate. Fruit, meat, or fish that has longings. Effects which have been packed begun to decay is especially a cause with up after exposure to miasmatic poison those whose supplies and cooking are will give off the poison as a volatile virus what poverty and ignorance determine. of most dangerous intensity when they Such vegetables as cucumbers and sumcome to be opened. Pilgrims, who wear mer squash are doubtful for some persons; and melons the same, because in air and water contaminated by the excreta case of indigestion they act much as rot- of the sick, or by any fæcal filth, are exten fruit would. The danger, however, tremely dangerous. Dr. Maclean says: comes from causes which affect digestion and disturb the action of the bowels.
“Diarrhea is often the means by which in
jurious matters, solid or gaseous, that have been Extreme heat begins it, by promoting
taken into the system are quickly thrown out. fermentation in excess of natural condi Two friends of mine, driving in an open car. tions, especially in the bowels. This riage, pulled up for a few minutes near a livery may for most persons pass off, or may
stable in a country town ; close to the carriage
was a grating for ventilating the main sewer; a cause a moderate attack of cholera mor
quantity of boiling water was poured into the bus, or in children cholera infantum. sewer from a neighboring stable ; in a moment “Under the stimulus of unwonted heat,". the carriage and its inmates were enveloped in says Dr. Maclean, “the biliary secretion a cloud of watery vapor, carrying with it a is increased to such a degree as to pro
putrid and intolerable stench. To this my
friends were exposed only a few seconds, as the voke bilious diarrhæa.” Some persons, coachman instantly drove quickly away. All says Dr. Maclean, are disposed to relaxa three were soon attacked by nausea, had to tion of the bowels from slight causes, and
hasten home, and were smartly purged, the such are among the first to suffer from
evacuations having the same offensive odor as
the sewer air that so quickly affected them.” choleraic hot weather. For such persons especially care of the diet is of the utmost The lesson here of violent diarrhea importance. Lobster not perfectly fresh, caused by exhalations of poison taken and oysters, may prove very dangerous with the breath, is extremely important. food. Dr. Maclean says that rock oys- It shows what volatile poison so taken ters supplied at certain seasons in the will do, without reference to any microbe, market of Madras are a cause of choleraic and it makes plain the extreme absurdity disease there, “hardly to be distinguished of saying that the cleanly and wholesome from cholera.” “Out of every hundred are not exposed to attack. In many ciran uncertain number of them are distinct- cumstances any person may suffer attack, ively poisonous, whether from decompo- although some are far more susceptible sition or some other cause,” is Dr. Mac than others to violent attack. If the lean's statement, and he relates the case Chicago river, under the windows of the of a gentleman known to be prone to great wholesale houses along Market diarrhæa who indulged in the oysters, street, were made boiling hot, not a perwhen in season, contrary to medical ad- son within reach of the exhalations would vice, and upon an attack following de escape a sudden and violent attack of layed calling in his doctor, from shame at choleraic disease, the fatality from which having indulged foolishly, until it was would be frightful if the victims had to too late to save him.
remain within reach of the poisoned air. It is very important to note here how Even with only more moderate causes at a sudden change from heat to cold, from work, such as will reach every one, the hot and muggy to chilly and damp, may contents of the bowels are at all times precipitate attacks in great number. and in all persons a possible basis of atThese are due to taking cold; very slight tack, either from the effect of extreme as cold, but, going to the bowels, enough heat, or from chill after heat, or from for great harm. Many persons will thus inhalation of poison with the breath, or take cold, during hot weather, by sitting from some effect of food not proper at the out in the night coolness, conscious only moment, or from specific poison taken in of a pleasant effect, which yet is slightly food or drink. chilling and, under the circumstances, Nor does this exhaust the list of possidangerous. The night air always has a ble causes of choleraic disturbance. This possibility of more or less malaria, and disturbance is a fact of the chemistry this may play a part in causing choleraic of the system, the chemistry especially disease. It is, however, in any case, the of the intestines and their contents, taking cold which does the mischief. Dr. and of the blood. Not a few things, Maclean says that “dysentery in hot separately or together, may promote it, climates can often be traced to exposure or some one thing may suddenly precipto relatively cold air," taken as a relief itate it. Cases are called “sporadic" from the heat. Both bad water and foul where the cause or causes act separately air, especially a privy atmosphere or sewer in each case, and the cases are more or
Cp is howevere whollyhala
less scattered. If the cause or causes act mucous membrane or muscular coat of upon a body of people together the term the intestine, by impressions conveyed “ epidemic" applies [epi, upon ; demos, through the nervous system,” and he people). If the causes originate on the instances the number of men attacked spot and are peculiar to the place, the “under the influence of emotions excited term “endemic” is applied. The usual by the near prospect of battle,”-tempouse of this term, however, is far from rary attacks only, because the emotions accurate, Cholera may be wholly en- “quickly pass away under the fierce exdemic, say in Bengal, from the exhala- citement of combat.” It is almost betions of poison in the air. These exhala- yond doubt that purely mental action, tions may be carried through the air to whether in sudden shock or protracted another region of India, and cholera re- strain, may cause almost any variety of sult in certain filthy places, but not in choleraic complaint. As we write this one other places which are not filthy. The of our leading journals says, under the imported poison works in and through head, “Sensational Newspaper Reports the local poison, and the cholera is thus may Do more Harm than the Disease") :partly endemic. There is much more “It is agreed by medical authorities that wholly endemic cholera than is commonly the virulence of an epidemic may be inrecognized; many spots develop the dis- creased by the element of fear in the pubease from causes almost or quite wholly lic mind. Dr. D. B. St. John Roosa, local ; and however clearly and remarka- president of the New York Academy of bly the infection may travel, it finds Medicine, writing on the cholera prospect, stopping-places amid local causes. It is says: “During an epidemic of any kind entirely a mistake, however, to assume each individual should endeavor to mainthat a pestilence of cholera cannot orig- tain his mental equilibrium-in other inate without the aid of infection coming words, to keep cool. It is very difficult from elsewhere. In Persia; at Mecca in our time to accomplish this, for the and other places in Arabia ; in Russia, simple reason that some of the daily jourafter famine and the hunger-typhus; in nals think it their duty to print sensaHamburg, when its many canals, which tional headlines, and sometimes sensaserve as sewers, are left dry of water un- tional paragraphs, which have very little der an excessively hot sun ; and in Chi- actual foundation, but which excite and cago, if the river should be bad enough, terrify the timid and sometimes even the with protracted extreme heat, there may be brave-hearted.'” The method of the cholera ; not probably of the same pesti mental cause is more simple and sure from lential severity as in the seats of it in the fact that other causes are at work, India, and not of the same severity in bringing a large number of persons very any two situations; but thoroughly en near to the danger-point, so that a shock demic, of wholly local origin, and a se- of alarm or the strain of fear may cause verely raging epidemic, more or less an explosion when the contrary influence approaching the worst malignant cholera, would no less certainly ward off the danger. according as the conditions are more or The New York scare in 1892 on less bad in their range and in their vio- the trifling basis of a few cases of mostly lence. But where these endemic condi- mild choleraic trouble, was not an imtions, giving an air charged with the mense tragedy only because the only worst cholera-virus, are not present, as causes at work looking in the direction of they are not in most cases and places, it cholera were the newspapers, the wild is hardly too much to say that in some despots of quarantine, the deadly but instances, at least, where local causes are miserably deluded bacteriologists, tumbbrought into action by climatic condi- ling over one another in the maddest tions, the only imported element is the chase after the comma bacillus in the deidea, the expectation - a mental element, jecta of an extremely sporadic case of too acting through the nervous states of the much watermelon, and the worthy but susceptible.
badly misinformed and needlessly scared A very large place belongs to purely president, medical authorities, and other nervous causes. Among the causes of dignitaries, of the United States. Hardiarrhea, with which cholera of any per's Weekly scored the newspapers after kind always begins, Dr. Maclean men- the scare for the part they played. Thus, tions“ mental emotion, acting on the with much more, it said :
“ An attack of cramps became the subject of ing one case—a green servant-girl, inexterrorizing headline and panic-breeding text.
perienced in watermelon, who got well in The 'news feature' of the threatened calanity was made use of for all that it was worth to the spite of a floating hospital, a staff of counting-room. An unreasoning terror was health officers, a medical faculty, the spread abroad in the land by what was at least special police, and the bacteriological a lack of forethought on the part of some of the
squad victorious over the dejecta, and daily newspapers. Finally the business men of the city began to fear for their fall trade. The bearing proudly on their spears the “Asilargest advertisers at last appealed to the busi- atic” microbe of Irish diarrhea. The ness offices of the hysterical newspapers, and success which the hysterical press might demonstrated to them that trade was in jeop
have had in stampeding the costive, even, ardy. The expected result followed. The cholera news disappeared from the front pages,
into cholera, or into dejecta of some kind while the staring headlines dwindled to propor
sufficient to give the bacteriologists a tions more in harmony with the truth of the good “Asiatic" inning, was arrested by situation."
the jeopardy of trade interest, which very The circus of looseness and lies was promptly “stamped out the plague" by led by the World, with the Herald at its putting its foot down hard on the newsheels, the Tribune and Sun only less hys- papers. The incident was a disgrace to terical, and not even the Evening Post all concerned far beyond the witch un(before Mr. Godkin escaped from the pleasantness of ancient Salem. There great Jenkins detention side-show) quite was no serious cholera anyway, much keeping its head. Mr. Pulitzer's Hes- less any imported Hamburg cholera, nor sians did the Light Brigade business into even the faintest possibility of anything the valley of death in a style that called "Asiatic.” It was a scare, pure and for ten thousand obituaries on the roll of simple.” the plague, and only succeeded in corral
COLUMBUS—AN HISTORICAL ESTIMATE
THE special purpose of the name of Justin Winsor was twice given
chapters which follow is to “Windsor," and the fictitious letters and supply an effective correction facts of a novel were treated as historical. of the Columbian views of Of Columbus it was said to start with :
history into which very natural “Clubs have formed to read, mark, and circumstances carried the public at large inwardly digest every crumb of informain connection with the World's Fair of tion concerning the man-deity." Upon 1892–1893, and to present America in its this frank avowal of Columbus-worship true relations to the Norse, Portuguese, followed such statements as these: English, German, French, and Italian “Detractors are busy, of course. . . As if a interests, not to mention any other, which gap of four hundred years might not swallow should have been recognized as more im
up virtues as well as faults.”
• To Columbus has certainly been allotted portant in the history than the Spanish, the full credit of his great gift to us—a counand far more important in any proper try.” celebration of four hundred years of “He must have been a great and good man, America.
let the detractors say what they may.”
“There are raging iconoclasts pulling every1.
thing about one's ears, destroying faiths which
were adamant and eternal, one had thought. The “Man-Deity" A leading Chicago Let us cling to this one-for it costs nothing to View of Christo- : journal of October 30,
do so—until the last fibre breaks, and then-go pher Columbus
with it.” 1892, after an announcement of something of value in the Dr. Parkhurst's This somewhat hysterical
Denunciation way of opinions on Columbus, published
cry refers to the view of an article devoted to books on the navi- Columbus presented in the novel, which gator, over the signature of a special lady the lady writer took as better than hiscontributor. The hurried and sketchy tory. In contrast with this “manstyle of the article was not calculated to deity" view, Dr. Charles Parkhurst, who inspire confidence, and many of its state- has achieved distinction by his unflinchments were alarmingly off the mark of ing pulpit-work, scored the navigator in truth, or even of accurate recital. The this wise:
“ I think him the most consummate liar that that of the dealings by which he strove to I have ever found in the history of the country. effent his purposes reegls
effect his purposes reveals a lust of the
12st of the de made lying a fine art and practiced it all his life. I do not say this because he was a Roman
flesh and of base desire at once brutal and Catholic, but because he professed to be so pro shameless. foundly religious, when, as a matter of fact, he
Dr. Poole Speaks Dr. Poole, the eminent was very far from a saint. You can study his
for Scholars whole life, and you will find that it was
scholar-librarian of Chione of fabrication and greed for gold. He not cago, in two or three important articles, only lied himself to Ferdinand and Isabella, but
made clear that learning cannot accord he compelled his crew to lie also. Lying was not his worst trait either, for he was the first to
Columbus the praise of either remarkable establish slavery in America, which cursed the greatness, or what would now be considnew country for centuries. He was not a bene
ered respectable goodness. It seems, factor, for all that he did was for gold. He
therefore, not amiss to get carefully into would not sail on his voyage until he was made an admiral by the king and received a promise
shape for student-readers the evidence on of fabulous remuneration.”
which what may be called THE CASE This is not detraction. It is exact his
AGAINST COLUMBUS rests, and will for
ever rest. tory, and it falls far short of the truththe whole truth of the case against Co
Columbus's Base In the will of Colum
Treatment of a bus. after charging his lumbus; but it stood alone as an expres
Woman sion of American opinion in New York
son, Don Diego, to Hon. C. F. Adams In Boston a similar ex
provide for the saying of masses every Brands the Dis
day “for the souls of all the faithful coverer a Fraud Cepuon to current utte
dead, and for my soul and that of my ances was furnished by
father and mother, and wife," he goes on Hon. Charles Francis Adams, who was one of the speakers at a meeting held in
to direct that Diego shall pay his debts, the old church of his native town of and then con
won of and then concludes with these words: Quincy, and whose views occasioned the 'And I direct him that he shall have special Boston Transcript to say:
care for Beatrice Enriquez, the mother of Don
Ferdinand, my son; that he shall provide for “ Mr. Adams attacked the theories of the pre her so that she may live comfortably, like a ceding speakers, who were all eulogistic of Co person should for whom I have so much regard. lumbus, and the glories of America as the result And this shall be done for the ease of my conof his discovery. Columbus, he said, brought science, because this has weighed heavily on with him the Inquisition, persecution and that iny soul. The reason therefor it is not proper to greed for gold that brought with it so many mention here." misfortunes. The vilest sins against humanity
Those who so ardently espoused the and God were widespread in the first twentyfive years of America's existence, and a more
man-deity view of Columbus in conneccorrupt country it would be hard to find. Co tion with celebration of the origins of lumbus was a bigot. Columbus was visionary. America, undertook to show that the I bow to the fact that as an individual he was a
woman referred to was a second wife. great man and entitled to what great results implied. But just so long as the crew that came
But they were compelled to close their with Columbus ruled America the outlook was eyes to the following indisputable facts: worse than pen could describe. He maintained
1. Las Casas, who wrote at the time, that America would have been discovered with
with the best means of knowing, and out him, and that it would have been better to have delayed that discovery one hundred years.
with the highest regard for, the truth, Better settlers, better rulers, he said, came later, states that the birth of Ferdinand was and to the Pilgrims who landed on Plymouth without marriage between the father and Kock America owes her standing to-day.”
mother. Even here credit was given Columbus 2. From the birth of this son, in 1488, beyond what the facts permit. He con about August 15, to May 20, 1506, when trived to cut a great figure, but he is Columbus died, no hint anywhere appears found, when the facts are properly con- that Columbus had ever had any other sidered, to have been a great man in no wife than the mother of Don Diego, whom real and true sense, and to have been a he refers to in his will as “my wife.” good man only after the fashion of pro- 3. During these eighteen years the fessions which were no restraint upon a mother of Ferdinand was left out of sight, full measure of the worst passions of tlie if not out of mind, by Columbus; not from human animal. The record of the terms lack of regard for her, if we may believe without which he refused to sail is a him, but for a reason which had burdened monumental exposure of his greed, and his conscience and weighed heavily on