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his soul-one, too, of which it was not fit sumption even that we owe our America to speak; a state of things impossible in to Columbus; that his work was unique; the case of a wedded wife—the wife of a and that he gave continental gifts, vastly viceroy entitled to figure as vice-queen in beneficent, to mankind, is wholly withthe Indies, as later Diego's wife did out foundation.
4. The pains taken by Columbus to The Portuguese discovery of the condescribe Beatrice as “the mother of Don tinental lands afterward embraced in BraFerdinand, my son," and as “a person zil came in the year 1500, wholly apart for whom I have so much regard,” and from anything attempted or effected by about whom his conscience had troubled Columbus, and in sequel to Portuguese him greatly, shows that he was saying successes filling the whole period from and doing all that he could on her behalf 1418 to the end of the century; and not and in recognition of her, and that the only was European knowledge of a "New facts alone, in this hour of long-delayed World," and the naming of it “Ameratonement for a great wrong, prevented ica,” due to this Portuguese success, and his avowing her to have been his wife. not at all due to the discoveries of islands
5. The Historie, commonly accepted as by Columbus, which he falsely pretended wholly or in part the work of the son, to identify with India “beyond the GanDon Ferdinand, specially mentions the ges,” but for every interest of humanity, marriage of which his older brother was and most of all for the new world, Mr. the fruit, but has no mention of any mar- Adams justly said that Columbus did not riage of his mother,-a failure impossible, make a desirable success. The attempt not only to such a son, but in a work to put upon scholars like Winsor, and which is the chief source of personal de- Poole, and Kendall Adams, the stigma of tails and circumstances in the life of Co- raging iconoclasm, is pure sputter. lumbus. 6. Beatrice Enriquez was still alive, in
111-Advised A lady of some distinc
Columbus-Worship tion as a lecturer to la1523, when Diego Columbus made his will, and recognized her claim to certain
dies, Miss Jane Meade Welch, in an adpayments, yet she had never stood forth dress several times repeated, announced, as a wife of the discoverer, nor did the in the interest of feminine Columbuswill of Diego, the latest attempt of the worship, her approval of Irving's Columfamily to give her her due, so recognize bus, and her adverse judgment upon the her. Unless all the evidence of history is more scholarly, more honest, and more disregarded, Columbus made her a mother, truthful work of Justin Winsor. The but not a wife.
extravagance of the Columbus cult found But whatever may be the error of his voice in Miss Welch to this effect: tory, as it now clearly stands, in the mat
“Columbus was the man of a time more moter of the mother of Ferdinand, feminine mentous than any since the star shone over flutter among the facts of what Columbus Bethlehem. It was an age of discovery in was and what he did cannot remake his
his scientific thinking. A new continent was open
ing in the mental world as vast as that discovtory. There is no reason whatever for
ered by Columbus. He did what any man imagining that we could see Columbus could have done, but which no man would have more favorably if we had more light. done had not Columbus done it. For centuries There is but too much light for those
the Orient had been the dream of the philoso
pher and the goal of adventurers. Until 1492 that have eyes to see, and in the not yet
nave eyes to see, and in the not yet Europe stood with her back to the Atlantic. translated parts of Las Casas, there is Stronger grew the hopes that clustered about enough more to put a brand of eternal the East. The idea of sailing due west to the infamy on the Italian adventurer, who
Indies took possession of Columbus. As he
walked the streets of Córdova and Seville, enslaved and slaughtered the natives of
his countenance aglow with hope or clouded the islands discovered by him as reck with despair, there was a look of indefinable lessly, and exterminated them in vast authority that marks genius. There has been numbers as ruthlessly, as if they had
no movement in the history of the universe
more momentous than that when Columbus been so many field-vermin.
paced his decks." The presumption that Columbus "must have been a great and good man,” and The facts do not justify these touches that those who see otherwise are detract- of oratorical imagination. Not only was ors, has nothing whatever to go upon, Columbus not the man of the time, but save emotion and ignorance. The as the time would have been better without him. The star of opposition to Bethle- severest regard for truth permits. When hem rose over his life of greed, falsehood, he says on his title-page, “Christopher crime and failure. He had no part what Columbus, and How He Received and ever in the scientific thinking of the time. Imparted the Spirit of Discovery,” the The vast mental world opening to purer concession is most generous. The eyes than his, he never so much as sus “Cristóval Colon,” who took so much pected the existence of. He did not dis- pains to get made thoroughly Spanish, cover, and never pretended to have did not receive, much less impart, the discovered, a new continent. That dis- true Spirit of Discovery then aflame in covery was made apart from him, and the world; and what he did receive he would have been better made without misused. him. It is not true that until 1492 It is more than just to recognize CoEurope had stood with her back to the lumbus as “the conspicuous developer of Atlantic. The Orient had not been a a great world movement,” and “the emmere dream. The idea of sailing to it bodiment of the ripened aspirations of his due west was a crazy mistake compared time.” This honor belongs elsewhere. with the ideas which carried abler navi- Columbus embodied only a corrupt and gators and better men to the real India. degraded form of the aspirations which
We have given already (SELF CULT were the glory of the age of discovery, URE for Angust, pp. 243-245) proof of and the world-movement was conspicthe fact that to Prince Henry of Portu- uously marred, damaged, and demoralized gal belongs the honor commonly given by the hand which he put upon it. to Columbus.
Numerous expressions naturally used Of genius for any high task Columbus by Mr. Winsor imply the conscious view had none. The most sadly definable in Columbus of a “New World,” of thing in him was the air, not of authority, “America”; when he no more had this but of pretension, which savored more of than earlier discoverers of islands in the the crank than the scientist, and for Atlantic had had it. And while Mr. great parts of his conduct and utterances Winsor sufficiently indicates all the unfasuggests a mind almost or quite off its vorable facts, he forbears express effort balance. The movement in hand when to press the case against Columbus and he“ paced his decks” would have ended leaves this important feature of adequate far better if he had gone down with his treatment of the subject to the judgment "crazy little ships,” and his crazy scheme of the reader; a task by no means easy of westward greed, which was a seed of to even the intelligent reader. sin and shame without a parallel, through more than three centuries of Spanish lust
The scandalous excess for gain from the new world. The name
Unworthy of Honor of Columbus - worship of Christ was never taken with worse into which emotion and ignorance swept fraud in the intent, and wickedness more press and pulpit and platform, in 1892–3, damning in the result, than in the move- renders peculiarly necessary an adequate ment” which the vivacity of feminine statement of the real case of Columbus in oratory can compare with the coming of relation to America, and this necessarily Christ in good will to men.
becomes a statement against Columbus,
who was a curse to America rather than Justin Winsor's Mr. Winsor's admirable a benefactor, and a miserable fraud, a
sent Lenient “Life of Columbus” left wretched failure as a discoverer. but one thing to be desired-a more exact These are terribly hard words, to be sentence upon the criminal on trial in his true of the man who first sailed across honest and learned pages. One would the Atlantic in such a way as to insure a think he made the path so plain that the connection of transatlantic lands with wayfaring man, though a fool, need not Europe. But they are true words. It err, as Scripture hath it; but Scripture would have been incalculably better for even had no foresight of feminine brooms America and for Europe, for civilization sweeping back the sea for a "man-deity." and for Christianity, if no more had come
The truth is that Mr. Winsor notably of the sailing of Columbus than came of spares Columbus, and puts into the the far earlier voyages and landings picture touches which concede to the pop- which make the Norse story of the real, ular conception somewhat more than the original finding of the new world. That
people of English, of German, of Dutch, At the final overthrow of Moorish of French, of Italian stock, representing power in Spain, by the conquest of Granthat America which means the United ada in 1492, great liberties were conceded States, should, even for an hour of com to the conquered for a short time. Then memorative enthusiasm, make a demi- severe measures to convert them provoked god of Spanish “Cristóval Colon,” who a revolt in 1500 A. D., which was very got himself made Spanish, and who harshly crushed out in 1502, and followed stands in history for the worst Spanish by most cruel oppression for more than a spirit and ideas, affords a most deplor- hundred years; Philip II., in 1566–70, able example of misguided emotion. taking measures to entirely suppress their Italy, even, might prefer her Cabots in habits, customs, and language, as well England and her Vespucius in Portugal as their faith; and Philip III., in 1609, to her Colon in Spain, if due account is completing his father's work by an edict taken of all the facts, from the first start banishing all “Moriscos," as they were of discovery to the end of four hundred now called. The sequel to this is thus years of America.
“The edict was obeyed, but it was the ruin of The Spanish Spirit It is of importance to
Spain. The Moriscos were the backbone of Before Colum- understand the Span
the industrial population, not only in trade and
manufactures, but also in agriculture. The ish spirit and ideas, to haughty and indolent Spaniards had willingly the service of which Columbus gave him left what they considered degrading employself. The Saracen conquest of Spain in 711
ments to their inferiors. The Moors had intro
duced into Spain the cultivation of sugar, cotA.D., introduced an alien and hated race
ton, rice, and silk. They had established a sysby the side of the Visigothic Christian tem of irrigation which had given fertility to conquerors of the earlier native popula the soil. The province of Valencia, in their tion. The Arab victors brought in the
hands, had become a model of agriculture to
the rest of Europe. In manufactures and comMoors from Africa, adding Moorish in
merce they had shown equal superiority to the dustry to Arab learning. Toward the Christian inhabitants, and many of the prod. middle of the eleventh century, 1035–37, ucts of Spain were eagerly sought for by other when the Moslem power in Spain was
countries. All these advantages were sacrificed
to an insane desire for religious unity. The rebroken up into several independent prin
sources of Spain, already exhausted, never recipalities, there sprang up the two Chris covered from this terrible blow.” (Encylopædia tian principalities of Aragon and Castile. Britannica, Vol. XXII. 330.) These put themselves in relation with the Papacy, and as time went on more The combined hatred of heresy and of and more overcame the Moslems, until, in labor, which had taken fatal root in a war unitedly waged by Castile and Spain at so early a period, was a curse to Aragon, from 1481 to 1492, the last hold Spanish culture and power, in Europe of the alien race was broken. This alien and in America. Even with her immense race, the Moors, had represented learn- activity and success in exploration and ing and industry to a most remarkable discovery in the new world, for seventy degree, at the same time that Spanish years of the sixteenth century, Spain unChristianity most haughtily looked down dertook, in 1570, a crusade against Euroupon them as at once aliens and heretics. pean Protestantism, and a conflict with
the Netherlands, which ended in Spanish Labor Degraded The fact that industry overthrow in every quarter of the globe. and Heresy Per
was in their hands put Although possession of Portugal from secuted
labor under a ban to 1580 to 1640 nearly doubled her power, Spanish feeling, and created a peculiar and the new world was her monopoly, Spanish type of haughty superiority to yet Spain lost on every hand. The Spanwork. In proportion as, from about 400 ish Armada of 1588 was a magnificent years before Columbus, the Moors were disaster. Queen Elizabeth's captains gradually subjected to Castile and Ara- swept the seas of both worlds. After war gon, they were more and more a working with England from 1585 to 1603, Philip class to Spanish masters, whose ideal was III. signed, June 15, 1605, in the city gain without labor. How far this went where Columbus died, the treaty of peace may be seen from the closing stage of the which made North America predomihistory.
Spanish Auspices And it required no Hapsburg rule, Charles V., and Philip I.,
the Worst in Europe
prophet to foresee that built for evil and not for good, with the
what Columbus gave madness the gods are said to send on those Spain in South America carried in its they would destroy. worst form the fatal taint of the Spanish spirit. The degradation of labor, the
Columbus a Columbus, in fact, took
Low Type of Man on a citizenship which enslavement of man, the crushing out of free mind, were chief notes of Spanish was the worst in Europe, and accepted culture through ages of growing dark- the most evil fates under the banner of ness and disaster. The marriage of Isa- Spain. He did this in a kinship of his bella and Ferdinand in 1469, followed by own spirit to the Spanish spirit. Of fairly the unity of Spain in 1479, and the final large natural intelligence and quick perextinction of Moorish power in 1492, ception, he yet had emotion rather than brought in the greatest period of pros- intellect, imagination rather than judgperity in Spanish history. At the same ment and knowledge, and enthusiasms, time an excessive rigor of Catholic ortho- flaming and wandering, rather than condoxy inspired both king and queen. The victions well based, and principles firmly Inquisition, constituted for the dual king held. A confident and determined visdom under Torquemada, in 1483, and ionary, indefinitely capable of self-decepforced upon Aragon against a popular tion and delusion, of pious fraud and feeling for liberty, was the foremost mon- pious falsehood, he found his place with ument of their reign. In 1492 it carried Spain at her worst, and achieved a misout the most inhuman and impolitic ex- sion, perhaps the worst for failure in sucpulsion of the Jews. And after Isabella cess and shame amid glory, in all human and Ferdinand had laid the foundations, history.
EDUCATION IN EARLY NEW ENGLAND
IN Boone's history of “Educa- erally agreed upon, that our brother, Philemon tion in the United States." Purmont, shall be entreated to become school
master for the teaching and nurturing of chilwhich appeared in the “In
dren with us.' . . . If, as is supposed, this ternational Education Series,”
word [nurturing), now obsolete in this connecof which the sponsor is Dr. tion, implied the disposition, and the power on Wm. T. Harris, U. S. Commissioner of the part of the teacher, as far as such an object
can be accomplished by human instrumentality, Education, and one of our best educa
to warm into birth, to foster into strength and tional authorities, there are reproduced to advance into precedence and predominance, from a famous New England educator, all kindly sympathies toward men, all elevated Horace Mann, a number of errors strik thoughts respecting the duties and the destiny
of life, and a supreme reverence for the characingly illustrative of the imperfect state
ter and attributes of the Creator, then, how of historical knowledge when Mr. Mann
many teachers have since been employed who wrote, and not yet properly amended. have not nourished the children committed to In the chapter on “Early New England their care!, [The word is not nourishe
'tourtered,' the old spelling of nurtured, and Schools,” Prof. Boone refers to Mr.
it has not become obsolete.) Mann's Report on Education for 1846, a
“In 1642 the General Court of the colony, notably able document, in which, how- by a public act, enjoined upon the municipal ever, the failure of accurate historical authorities the duty of seeing that every child
within their respective jurisdictions should be light is conspicuous. In this report Mr.
educated. Nor was the education which they Mann said:
contemplated either narrow or superficial. By
the terms of the act, the selectmen of every “The Pilgrim Fathers who colonized Massa town were required to have a vigilant eye over chusetts Bay, made a bolder innovation upon their brethren and neighbors ; to see first that all pre-existing policy and usages than the none of them shall suffer so much barbarism world had ever known since the commence in any of their families, as not to endeavor to ment of the Christian era. They adopted spe teach, by themselves or others, their children cial and costly means to train up the whole and apprentices, so much learning as may en. body of the people to industry, to intelligence, able them perfectly to read the English tongue, to virtue and to independent thought. ... and [obtain a] knowledge of the capital laws; In the transactions of a Boston public meeting, upon penalty of twenty shillings for each nege held on the 13th day of April, 1635, the follow lect therein. Such was the idea of 'barbaing entry is found:"Likewise it was then gen- rism' entertained by the colonists of Massachu.
setts Bay more than two centuries ago. Tried ord in works or the first importance, in by this standard, even at the present day, the utterly mistaken references to the Pil. regions of civilization become exceedingly nar. row; and many a man, who now blindly glories
grims of Plymouth, due to not discoverin the name and in the prerogatives of a repub- ing that they were not simply Puritans, lican citizen would, according to the better and yet were not rigid Separatists. The ideas of the Pilgrim Fathers, be known only Pilgrims looked out of the English as the 'barbarian' father of "barbarian children."
Church, and conscientiously went out of
it. They were branded as “Separatists” Mr. Mann's statement went on to speak for doing this, and were by none more of what this alleged Massachusetts act of hotly branded and persecuted than by 1642 said about religious instruction, the Puritans. The two parties made about an honest calling and fit labor for terms with one another in America, and all children and apprentices, and about the little body of perhaps three hundred the steps the selectmen were to take to Pilgrim Fathers was soon lost to clear meet cases of neglect. But the actual view under the shadow of Puritanism act quoted is not one of 1642, and which fell from the great colony of Masis not a Massachusetts act at all, but sachusetts Bay, where 21,000 Puritan is the act of the Connecticut Colony, in Fathers set their standard, with its white the Connecticut code of 1650. At page ground crossed by heavy bars of black 47, Prof. Boone cites the Connecticut law against the all clear white of the standcorrectly, and at page 16 he cites the ard of the little Pilgrim band at PlyMassachusetts law of 1642 correctly, but mouth. on page 17 he borrows from Horace The original minister of the Pilgrims, Mann the errors which refer the “bar- at Leyden, in Holland, who had come barism," and other statements of the with them out of England, and was their 1650 law of Connecticut, to the 1642 law chief spirit, scholar, thinker, and statesof Massachusetts Bay.
man even, originally an ordained clerA greater error still, which Prof. Boone gyman of the Church of England, the repeats from Horace Mann, is that of re- Rev. John Robinson, destined to be comferring Massachusetts Bay action and memorated some day as of the kin of even Connecticut action, to the Pilgrim Shakespeare, and Wyckliffe, and ChauFathers. Not only do the only histori- cer, and King Alfred, and a precursor of cal Pilgrim Fathers belong to Plymouth Dean Stanley and John Bright, and all Colony alone, quite apart from the Puri- the modern“ sweetness and light,”— tan Fathers of Massachusetts Bay and of never came to America, but died in HolConnecticut, from Salem and Boston to land, vainly waiting and longing to folHartford and New Haven, but among all low his flock to America, but unable to the discriminations and the distinctions go because Puritan members of the Lonknown to the entire history of English- don company which found money to aid speaking culture, none can be traced the colony so bitterly opposed letting a more profound, more significant, more “Separatist” minister have a chance, prophetic of the ideal of human progress, even with the church which he had and notably of English culture in Eng- created, had commissioned and inspired land and in America, than that which to their great experiment, and had not raised the Pilgrim ideal above the Puri- originally accompanied only because a tan, and set the Pilgrim Fathers apart minority formed the first emigration, and from the Puritan Fathers.
the majority kept back their pastor. Failure to note the double fact that the “Separatist” minister of very little Pilgrim Fathers were “Separatists," as ability or standing got in with one of the contrasted with Puritans, and were “Lib- earliest Puritan companies for Massachueral” Separatists as contrasted with setts Bay, but when it was known what other Independents, such as Roger Will- he was, only the inhumanity of it preiams, has prevented writers otherwise of vented his being hustled off the vessel the highest character from making out with his baggage; and he was, even so, correctly the facts of the most interesting allowed to come, only under a bond not chapter in the history of English-Ameri- to exercise his objectionable "Separatist" can culture. Scholars of the standing of ministry within the limits of the Puritan Dr. George E. Ellis, Prof. Moses Coit settlement. He went to Plymouth, and, Tyler, and Mr. John Fiske, are on rec- though a feeble candle amid the Pilgrim