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light, which so many men and women men, which are its crown and glory, was there had learned of their own minister, peculiar to the Pilgrims, and to them rare and remarkable John Robinson, in alone among religious parties in their day, Leyden, Holland, he acted as clergyman the Puritans in particular having taken to the Pilgrim Church for some time. the fear of God first, stern regard for

This contrast of Puritan and Separat duty second, and human sympathy only ist, as it began in England, the latter after these, within limitations unhappily making a conscience of coming entirely narrow, even if not fearfully inhuman. out of the Church, and separating re- Moreover, the great ideal which came ligion wholly from legal control, while out so clear and true in the Pilgrim mind, the Puritan even more rigorously madea and the degree of practice in the direction conscience of staying in the Church, with of education which was attempted, did certain purifyings of it, and above all of not at all constitute an innovation, but keeping religion under legal control, or simply showed the high line of the free dered, directed and enforced by the law, English mind, remarkable anticipations was not the whole, nor even the most of which had again and again appeared significant contrast marking the Puritan in the long period from Cædmon and as at one extreme and the Pilgrim as at Bede to Shakespeare and Bacon. All that the other extreme.

was finest in Puritan or in Pilgrim was In the case of all other existing “Sep- profoundly English, and had notably aratists,” this was the whole contrast. come forth in such great English types as But under wise, scholarly, sweet and King Alfred and John Wyckliffe, and in genial John Robinson, at Leyden, a other both earlier and later masters of man who could have sat by the side of English hope of culture and English deShakespeare for his broad love of all sire of elevation and development. things of human interest, and in whom Prof. Boone would have done more the Beatitudes of the Sermon on the wisely not to have too hastily trusted Mount again walked the earth as they such authorities even as Motley and had not done since Christ uttered them, Horace Mann; and, of course, he very the particular "Separatists" under Rob- naturally fails to discover the error which inson, at Leyden, had unlearned even so exceptionally competentan authority as their own rigor, so as not to judge un Prof. H. B. Adams falls into, in concludkindly those who kept back in the ing for a more or less Dutch origin of our Church, or even those who kept farther English schooling. English and Dutch back in the Roman Catholic mother are parallels, never dominant the one church; and laying aside all rigor and over the other, not even in closest conharsh judgment which other “Separat- nection; and in the matter of the English ists,” such as Roger Williams, even, origin of culture in America, and notably were disfigured and narrowed by, they the close connection of the Pilgrim had made a study of liberty, of liberality Church, at Leyden, with Dutch culture, and of charity, unexampled in that age the English pureness and power were abof the world, and only paralleled now in solutely without Dutch taint, not to say those who stand high up in the sunlight immeasurably superior to Dutch chaos of modern advance — the most enlight- and defect. ened and emancipated minds of the vari- Mr. Mann's references to the “nourishous churches and faiths of the world. ing” of the young under Puritan school

What Horace Mann says, in our quota- arrangements, were not so much from tion above, of “independent thought,” history as it was, as from history as he and of the best sense of nurturing youth, would have made it if he had been there, -in “all kindly sympathies toward men, with full power to carry out his very adall elevated thoughts respecting the duties vanced liberal views. The “costly" and the destiny of life, and a supreme means of the fathers, Pilgrim or Puritan, reverence for the character and attributes are a pure invention. Nothing could exof the Creator,”—could be said of the orig- ceed the miserable poverty of Harvard inal Pilgrim mind, as we have it in the College for its first hundred years. The teaching of Robinson and in the impres ideas of the time were large, and the ensions which he left on the best of the Pil deavors sometimes generous, but “costly grims of Plymouth; but a part of this grand means” belong exclusively to our time. ideal, the kindly sympathies toward all As to “barbarism," it was a terrific factor of Puritan church and state, in the education was not narrow and superficial hands of a dominant religious party has nothing whatever to go upon. In whose spirit has to this day obscured our many important respects English culture view of Puritanism, although it was long has never known anything so parrow and ago exorcised by steady advance of both superficial, so false to the natural depth, priest and politician out of the dens and and so infidel to the better breadth of the the caves of a theological backwoods, English mind, as the bad schooling and into the civilization of our own time. worse nurture of Puritanism, in its more The Latin Africa of a lately Catholic public and conspicuous form. England dominated Harvard, where Latin Pilgrim culture, indeed, adequately alone could be spoken, and English was understood and accepted by all the Purto be used under no pretext whatever, itans of New England, would have unless required in public exercises,”—a brought into such development as the fearful degeneracy from King Alfred and wilderness circumstances of founders of from John Wyckliffe ; gross infidelity to states permitted, the liberal ideals of a English culture and to an open English broad humanity; but no pureness of aspiBible.

ration, no elevation of purpose, no breadth And the use made of culture under of human sympathies, could have listed extreme Puritan auspices, at Salem and off from the first generations of AmeriBoston and New Haven, was the worst cans the repressive weight of their strugbarbarism ever seen under the Christian gle for existence, which made the forest name. The Bible was read by the thick and the furrow more familiar to them est darkness that ever fell upon English than any places whatever of intellectual eyes or held under restraint pure Christ- culture. ian hearts. Mr. Mann's claim that the

THE SUN AND THE AIR

A CHAPTER OF “STUDIES IN DISCOVERY OF THE NATURE AND PROPERTIES OF THE ATMOSPHERE”

The Studies, the first chapter of which we give below, were submitted to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution upon the offer by that body of certain prizes for essays or treatises in any way carrying out the purposes of a trust established in 1891 with a gift of $100,000, by Thomas G. Hodgkins. The language of the Hodgkins trust devoted this large fund “to the increase and diffusion of more exact knowledge in regard to the nature and properties of atmospheric air in connection with the welfare of man.

In response to the offer of prizes just mentioned, 218 papers were submitted. The committee of award consisted of Dr. S. P. Langley, Dr. G. Brown Goode, John S. Billings, M. D., and Prof. M. W. Harrington. Dr. Langley has been, since 1887, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Dr. Goode, appointed on the committee by Dr. Langley, is Dr. Langley's official assistant. Dr. Billings is assistant Surgeon-General. Prof. Harrington was, during his time of service on the committee, the head of the weather bureau of the United States.

With a committee of four, two of whom were Dr. Langley and his assistant, with Dr. Billings and Prof. Harrington necessarily occupied with professional engagements, it would almost seem as if the disposal made of the 218 papers submitted must have rested with Secretary Langley's assistant, who is an ichthyologist, with a knowledge of fisheries, and whose subordinate position would permit him to give time to the examination of the competing papers.

of the three prizes offered, the great one of $10,000 was awarded to Lord Rayleigh and Prof. Ramsay, of London, “for the discovery of argon, a new element of the atmosphere.” A second prize of $2,000 was not awarded. A third prize of $1,000 for the best popular treatise upon atmospheric air, its properties and relationships, was awarded to Dr. Henry de Varigny, of Paris. These awards were made August 9, 1895.

In addition to this award of prizes, the committee arranged with the Smithsonian institution to bestow upon the authors of three of the papers, “Honorable Mention with Silver Medal" ; upon the authors of six of the papers, “Honorable Mention with Bronze Medal”; and upon

twelve others, “Honorable Mention.” One of the bronze medals was bestowed upon Mr. Maxim, the English inventor, for a paper on “Natural and Artificial Flight.”

“ The Studies in Discovery of the Nature and Properties of the Atmosphere," submitted by the present writer, have been returned to him without any appearance of having been read, without any word of explanation, and, as the full published statement shows, without mention in the verdict passed upon twenty-three of the 218 papers. These studies cover the whole ground of the nature and properties of the air, on lines of scholarship in every field of science, and of original thought, not likely to have passed without notice unless deliberately excluded from consideration on the ground of certain new views, which center in the writer's theory of the electrical function of the oxygen of the atmosphere, i. e., the oxygen of combustion and the oxygen of respiration.

When Benjamin Franklin sent his first studies in electricity to the Royal Society, in London, they were refused recognition as of no account, until the plaudits of Europe brought that body to their senses.

When Lavoisier brought out the true view of oxygen in chemistry, the great chemists who came just before him in the study of oxygen-Priestley, Cavendish and Scheele-stupidly refused recognition of what was soon universally accepted as the exact truth, while the physicists of Berlin burned him in effigy; and even in his own Paris, the Journal de Physique fiercely contested his teaching

The doctrine of the electrical function of oxygen combines the lines represented in Franklin and in Lavoisier, and it will win in the end.

The award of $10,000 to the discoverers of argon merits challenge in the courts and before Congress, to which the management of the Smithsonian Institution is responsible. Be the interest and honor of the discovery what they may, not the slightest connection with the welfare of man can be shown, or even suspected. The papers of Lord Rayleigh and Prof. Ramsay were not prepared for, or in any way aimed to meet the conditions of, the competition ; and the award of the grand prize to them is not only in contravention of the trust, but is perfectly gratuitous. The $10,000 is disposed of without accomplishing anything more than would have come about if no prizes had been offered ; and not even a slight excuse can be found in some connection of argon with the welfare of man.

FOREWORDS

“ If, in strivings either to discover new regions of science, or to map out and develop those which are known into one harmonious whole, we see but imperfectly, still we should endeavor to see; for even an obscure and distorted vision is better than none. Let us, if we can, discover a new thing in any shape; the true appearance and character will be easily developed afterward.”

All physical science is within our reach. Discoveries as large or larger than any yet made may be anticipated.”

“ The great difficulty is to remove the mists which dim the dawn of a subject.”

“Nothing is more difficult and requires more care than philosophical deduction, nor is there anything more adverse to its accuracy than fixity of opinion. The philosopher should be a man willing to listen to every suggestion. He should be of no school, and in doctrine have no master. Truth should be his primary object.”

“The oxygen which makes up more than half the weight of the world—what a wonderful thing it is! and yet I think we are only at the beginning of the knowledge of its wonders.”— Faraday.

WHAT THE SUN IS: HOW SUN-SPOTS ARE EXPLAINED

HE relations of the sun to the our atmosphere. It is a globe, supposed earth are of extreme impor- to be perfectly spherical, about 852,900 tance for anything like a miles in diameter, its volume 1,252,700 proper comprehension of the times that of the earth, its mean density

nature and functions of the almost exactly one-fourth that of the earth's atmosphere. In the article, “ As- earth, and the solar mass exceeding the tronomy," in the Encyclopædia Britan- earth's about 316,000 times. To the nica, Mr. R. A. Proctor has given the naked eye the sun appears only as a lugeneral facts, which are of importance to minous mass of intense and uniform be understood, of the sun as the ruler of brightness; but, examined with the telescope, dark spots are seen, constantly conclusion was that the sun has a very varying in appearance, situation, and extensive atmosphere, consisting of elasmagnitude; at times their number being tic fluids that are more or less lucid and so great as to occupy a considerable por- transparent, and of which the lucid ones tion of the solar surface; and occasionally furnish us with light. This atmosphere, a single spot of immense size,-one ob- he thought, cannot be less than 1,843 miles served by Sir W. Herschel having had a in height, nor more than 2,765 miles; diameter of more than 50,000 miles, or and he supposed that the density of the over six times the diameter of the earth. luminous solar clouds needs not be much Most of the spots have a deep-black nu- more than that of our aurora borealis, in cleus, with a surrounding umbra of lighter order to produce the effects with which shade, the inner edge of which is clearly we are acquainted. If this hypothesis defined and is brighter than the farther be admitted, the sun is similar to the part, and beyond which is a rim or en- other globes of the solar system with recircling stripe of light more vivid than gard to its solidity, its atmosphere, its the average light of the solar surface. surface diversified with mountains and The spots have enabled astronomers to valleys, its rotation on its axis, and the observe the rotation of the sun on its axis fall of heavy bodies on its surface; therein something less than a month, and emi- fore, a very eminent, large and lucid nent observers have sought by means of planet, primate in our system, disseminatthem to penetrate the secrets of the shin ing its light and heat to all the bodies with ing surface pouring into space so immense which it is connected.” The hypothesis a supply of light and heat. Among opin- of Herschel was that there are two reions as to the significance of the spots, gions or strata of solar clouds; that the those of Dr. Alexander Wilson and Sir lower or inner stratum is opaque, and Wm. Herschel merit consideration as hy probably not unlike our own atmosphere, potheses enabling us to frame conceptions while the upper and outer is the lightof the relations between the sun and the bearing, which it pours forth on a vast earth.

scale into space. The lower clouds act Dr. Wilson supposed the sun to con- as a curtain to screen the body of the sun sist of a dark nucleus, covered only to a from the intense heat and brilliancy of certain depth by a luminous matter, not the upper regions; and they also serve fluid, through which openings are occa- by their outer surface to reflect the light sionally made by volcanic or other ener- of the luminous clouds back into space. gies, permitting the solid nucleus of the The solid globe of the sun is shut off sun to be seen ; and that the umbra from our sight by the luminous clouds which surrounds the spot is occasioned surrounding it, except when they are by a partial admission of the light upon broken by openings through which spots the shelving sides of the boundary oppo- of the solar surface become visible. That site to the observer. Lalande combated these openings last for a length of time this view as founded on a uniformity of argues against thinking that the luminappearances which does not in reality ex- ous cloud-matter is either gaseous or ist, and his suggestion was that the spots liquid, as, if it were either, it would are scoriæ, which have settled on the sum- speedily flow back and close the openmits of the solar mountains.

ings.

HYPOTHESIS OF SIR WM. HERSCHEL

HOW SUNLIGHT IS PRODUCED

Sir Wm. Herschel imagined the dark The results of spectroscopic analysis spots on the sun to be mountains, which, applied to study of the sun's constitution, in view of the mass and slow revolution show that the light of the sun comes from on its axis of the vast orb, he thought an orb glowing with intense white light might stand more than 300 miles high. -light of all refrangibilities; indicating In the observations made by him the dark that the sun is either liquid or solid, or if spots appeared as the opaque ground or vaporous, then so greatly compressed body of the sun, and the luminous part that the condition of its vapors is unlike seemed to be an atmosphere, through that of any gases with which we are fawhich, when openings are made in it, we miliar. The multitude of dark lines obtain a view of the sun itself. Herschel's crossing the rainbow-tinted streak constituting the solar spectrum, shows that Young to the conclusion that “there is the glowing mass of the sun must be sur surrounding the sun a mass of selfrounded by an envelope of many vapors luminous, gaseous matter, the precise exat a lower temperature; not, indeed, in tent of which it is hardly possible to conany sense cool, for they include vapors of sider as determined, but at least of great magnesium and sodium, of iron, copper, extent, many times the thickness of the and other metals, implying an excessive red hydrogen portion of the chromatointensity of heat. And other considera sphere, perhaps on an average 8' or tions lead to the belief that the solar at- 10', with occasional horns of twice that mosphere has vapors which are lumi- height; and perhaps even without upper nously hot while less intensely hot than limit, but extending indefinitely into the glowing mass of the sun. The spec- space.” What is known as the Zodiacal troscopic evidence appears to confirm the Light is thought to be the outermost of theory that the spots on the sun are due the series of solar appendages, next beto the existence of masses of relatively yond the outer corona, within which lies cool vapors at a lower level in the im- the inner corona, then the sierra, of which mensely deep solar atmosphere. Phe- the prominences are extensions; and nomena of eruption on a scale in keeping within this, the proper, real atmosphere of with the mass and condition of the sun, the sun. seem to be plainly indicated. The socalled red prominences appear to be

ELECTRICAL EMANATIONS FROM masses of glowing vapor, consisting in

THE SUN part of hydrogen. The great prominences are seen in the spot zone, lying Mr. Proctor quotes from Prof. Elias between the equatorial and the polar Loomis of Yale University a statement zones. Prominences have been seen ris- in regard to the possible connection of ing, generally in the form of rectilinear spots on the sun with the magnetic and jets, to a height of at least 80,000 miles, electrical phenomena of the surface and and at times more than twice that, then the atmosphere of the earth. It is to this bending back to fall in the fashion of effect: a fountain. What has been variously “We cannot suppose that a small named the sierra, chromosphere, or black spot on the sun exerts any influchromatosphere, shows a border of a ence on the earth's magnetism or elecred color around the solar disk, and tricity; but we must rather conclude that has the appearance of a continuous the black spot is a result of a disturbance red envelope surrounding the sun to a of the sun's surface, which is accompadepth of three or four thousand miles. nied by an emanation of some influence Among the prominences are distinguished from the sun, which is almost instantly those of a plume character, which show felt upon the earth in an unusual disturbno sign of an eruptive origin, last longer ance of the earth's magnetism, and a than the other variety, change in form flow of electricity, developing the auroral rapidly, and may appear anywhere on light in the upper regions of the earth's the sun's surface; and the jet-promi- atmosphere. The appearances favor the nences, of intense luminosity, showing idea that this emanation consists of a dithrough the clouds into which the sierra rect flow of electricity from the sun. If breaks up, appearing only in connection we maintain that light and heat are the with sun-spots, rarely lasting for an hour, result of vibrations of a rare ether which indicating eruptive origin, and on reach- fills all space, the analogy between these ing their height changing into exceed agents and electricity would lead us to ingly bright masses, which become at conclude that this agent also is the result length fleecy clouds. The eminent Amer- of vibrations in the same medium, or at ican observer, Young, has witnessed an least that it is a force capable of being undoubted solar eruption propelling mat propagated through the ether with a veter to more than 200,000 miles out from locity similar to that of light. While this the solar surface, and in this matter glow- influence is traveling through the void ing hydrogen thrown up, probably not celestial spaces it develops no light; but from the source of the eruption, but from as soon as it encounters the earth's atits place in the solar atmosphere. And mosphere, which appears to extend to a observations on the corona have led height of about 500 miles, it develops

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