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States when it shall be understood that if but full, elaborate and marvelously ima man is a success in the presidency- pressive tales of things seen and heard such, for example, as John Bright was in in the world of departed spirits. For her Parliament, in England, or as Mr. Glad- experience of death, the savage, accusstone was as prime minister, the more we tomed to deliberately seek by exhauscan have of him the better, even if it be tion in the forest, by starvation and by to five or six terms instead of one or two. other means, the state of complete inWhat this nation wants is to be admin- sensibility, could give her thousands of istered in quietness and peace, and if men records going much farther into the truth arise who promise in the presidency ef- of the matter, whatever that truth may ective administration on that basis, the be. only question should be how long they But anything like a proper study of the can be kept on duty.
facts brings out one supreme certainty; and that is that the mind, the soul, the
spirit, the land of the spirit, the kingEXPERIENCE OF DEATH.—The well- dom of the divine, as Christ said, do not known writer, Gail Hamilton, has made come with observation, and give no sign. the illness almost to death through which In the sense commonly understood there she passed at Washington not long since, is no such thing as death. Assuming the occasion of a chapter on “The Expe- the truth of faith in continued existence, rience of Death.” It is easily made im the continuously existing, living soul, simpressive, not only by the recital of the ply leaves behind the conditions of mornearly total failure of her vital energy tality. It does so on its own part with and the condition of insensibility in which experience of life only; life more abundshe lay for some time, but by the state- antly than was known in the body; life vicment that, while in this state, she had torious, happy, eternal. It is supremely easy converse with the spirits of relatives absurd for any thoughtful mind to make who had long since passed out of the up a story of the soul swamped in the present life.
morasses of bodily insensibility and bodily It is to be expected that individual ex- decay. There is nothing of the kind; periences, such as Gail Hamilton passed there can be nothing of the kind. The through, will find expression in literature experiences which Gail Hamilton notes as long as ignorance of the history of are the very commonest possibilities, not primitive culture and of the revelations of death, but of the present bodily life. of physiological psychology remain what Had Gail Hamilton reached the gates they are. The history of primitive culture which our ignorance conceives as the makes abundantly evident that of all hu- gates of death, it must have been by passman experiences at the lowest level of ing entirely beyond all such experiences thought and faith, the commonest and as those of which she has made a record. most universal, and the most widely sig. One general fact of our animal existnificant, is that which Gail Hamilton ence depending on the physical character thinks worthy of putting on record here of the brain can be especially brought in the dawn of the full light of modern out as throwing light upon this subject. science. The savage, with his habits of There is every reason to believe that excessive exertion, excessive gorging of whatever impressions have ever been animal food at certain times, excessive made upon the brain, have their recstarvation at other times, and deliberate ord in it as long as even the faintest use of drugs and stimulants found to be life continues; and that, under excepof service in this direction, has never had tional circumstances, the consciousness of any difficulty in passing almost at will these impressions may return, and may over the boundary of ordinary experience return not merely as mere impressions, into a great variety of most marvelous but as initiating extended experiences; experiences of spirit-land.
that is, extensive action of the brain. It is probably an exact statement that The general impression, for instance, left for one such slight and meagre tale as Gail by a long-since-departed friend, may, if Hamilton has thought worth telling, one is in a state of greatly depressed vievery tribe of savages that has ever ex- tality, with greatly heightened nervous isted could in perfect good faith supply sensitiveness, set in motion endless acus with 10,000; not slight and meagre, tivity of the now flighty brain, with the result of what appears to be veritably of knowledge. Thirty-five chapters take prolonged intercourse with the departed; up matters of interest to as many differbut what is, in fact, an endless play of ent characters of the “busy world," such the states of the brain, which may be as the manufacturer, the merchant, the compared with the play of electrical man- banker, the teacher, the railroad-man, the ifestation which we watch hour after home-maker, the musician, the journalhour on the face of an evening summer ist, etc. cloud.
Dr. Baldwin has executed a difficult Immortality, it cannot be too strongly task with remarkable knowledge and said, does not thus rest in mortality. All judgment. His lucid and learned paraexperiences of the class spoken of by graphs, fortified with full and exact refGail Hamilton are purely mortal expe- erences to both articles and particular riences. The immortal live to tell their passages of importance, will afford the tale elsewhere, but not here.
most valuable assistance to every one desiring to investigate any matter of
knowledge in the pages of the Britannica. GUIDE TO THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRIT- The mere reading of these chapters will ANNICA.—A help to study of knowledge of itself convey a great deal of interesting which will be appreciated by readers of information. The botanist, for example, every class is the “Guide to Systematic will find an outline of biographical hisReadings in the Encyclopædia Britan- tory of botany and the general view of nica,” prepared by James Baldwin, botanical topics. No branch of study Ph. D., and published by The Werner or of practical interest has been neglected. Company. It is a volume of over 300 The volume is one which no owner of pages designed to tell inquirers of every the Britannica can afford to miss. It is class where to find information in the one also which will easily induce very Britannica under the principal heads of many who do not own this great knowledge. There are five chapters espe- work to become possessors of it and to cially devoted to matters of interest to give themselves to intelligent use of it. young people. Fourteen chapters cover It will be sent postpaid by The Werner readings which will especially attract Company, Chicago, upon receipt of $2.00. "the student’’in any of the great branches
I desire full information in regard to the new electrical developments at Niagara.
The story of brilliant engineering at Niagara, designed to turn the most magnificent and impressive of terrestrial natural objects into a source of power, transformed from the force of falling water into that of electricity, and transmitted to a distance for either electric lighting or manufacturers employing electric motors, has already become one of the most marvelous in the history of applied science.
Nearly twenty years ago, one of the most eminent of German engineers, Sir William Siemens, while on a visit to the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, took occasion to see the Falls of Niagara, and with the natural impulse of a scientific mind he was especially struck with the inexhaustible manifestation of mechanical energy which the stupendous rush of waters presented. The dynamo electrical-machine had just then reached, partly through his genius applied to the problem, the perfection which
made it available in the application of electric energy. The idea came to him that the power of the falls might be tapped for operating a colossal series of dynamos, whose conducting wires should transmit its energy to places miles away. He took occasion, in the spring of the next year, to present his idea in an address' delivered by him as president of the Iron and Steel Institute.
Estimating the amount of water passing over the falls as 100,000,000 tons per hour, with a perpendicular descent of 150 feet, and a further fall of another 150 in the rapids, giving a total of 300 feet in the descent of the stream from the lake above to the lake below, Siemens calculated roughly that there was going to waste more than 16,000,000 horse-power; power which could be produced through the agency of steam by the expenditure of not less than 266,000,000 tons of coal per annum, or one might say, all the coal mined in the whole world. Siemens declared that electrical transmission of available parts of this immense energy was perfectly
practicable, whether to supply a city with elec- walls are pierced at intervals with ten inlets for tric light, or to run electro-magnetic engines, delivering water to a wheel-pit in a power-house or to be used in the separation of metals from at the side of the canal. This wheel-pit was their ores.
planned for a depth of 178 feet, with a width of Not a little incredulity met the prophetic 18 feet and a length of 140 feet, and from the suggestions of the great German engineer, but bottom of the pit there was provided an underwithin less than twenty years the progress of ground tunnel for conducting away the water applied science has overtaken Siemens's mag- to a point in the bank of the Niagara river benificent prophecies. The present exact esti- low the falls. This underground tunnel is 7,000 mates of energies assigned to the falls is a the feet in length, with an average slope of 6 feet oretical power of not less than 7,000,000 horse- in 1,000. Its maximum height is 21 feet and power, and for practical use, without disturbing width 18 feet 10 inches. A chip thrown into the grand rush of waters, or materially impair the water of the wheel-pit travels through the ing their magnificent display, there can be tunnel to its mouth in three and a half minutes, taken from the current several hundreds of showing that the water runs at a little less than thousands of horse-power.
twenty miles an hour. The tunnel was con. Something was done nearly fifty years ago to structed by the labor of over 1,000 men, engaged obtain a considerable supply of power from the continuously for more than three years. It inriver by means of a canal 35 feet wide, 8 feet volved the removal of over 300,000 tons of rock, deep, and 4,400 feet in length, by which the and the use of more than 16,000,000 bricks for water of the upper Niagara was brought to a lining it. The construction of the canal and basin at the high bluff of the lower river, while the wheel-pit meant the removal of another upon the margin of this basin mills were con- 300,000 tons of material. There were at times structed with a supply of water from the canal. employed on the work as many as 2,500 men; There was thus in use, ten years ago, about 60,000 cubic yards of stone were used ; 55,000 10,000 horse-power.
barrels of Giant American Portland cement; In 1886 plans were made for diverting, from 12,000 barrels of natural cement; 26,000 cubic a point more than a mile above the falls, some. yards of sand; and 19,000,000 feet of timber thing less than 4 per cent. of the total flow of and lumber. The wheel-pit, a long slot cut in the river, with the expectation of obtaining not the rock, 18 feet in length and 140 feet long, it less than 120,000 horse-power. A charter was is the intention to lengthen at some future time obtained, March 21, 1886, from the Legislature to 400 feet. of the State of New York, with a view to the The conditions at Niagara would not permit carrying out of the scheme by the Niagara Falls the use of the turbine-wheel familiar in the Power Company. Mr. Edward Atkinson and United States. It was found necessary to prosome others strenuously objected to the pro- cure from Swiss and other European wheel. posal as neither practicable nor likely to be builders designs for a wheel quite unlike anyprofitable. In the face of such objections it thing ever made, or that could be made in the required three years to convince capitalists that United States-turbines with vertical shafts of the scheme was worthy of support. The con- 5,000 horse-power on about 144 feet of fall, and viction, however, came at last, and in the year delivering the power at the top of the shaft. 1889 a new corporation was formed, called the For the central power-station of the Niagara Cataract Construction Company, and represent. Falls Power Company, such wheels or rows of ing not only abundant capital, but the best en such wheels, set in a continuous slot directly gineering ability of the country.
over the tail-race, were adopted; and for the The plans adopted by this company involved Niagara Falls Paper Company a group of such a surface canal, beginning a mile and a quarter wheels, but of 1,100 horse-power each, in a. above the falls, 250 feet wide at its mouth, on square pit. the margin of the Niagara river, and extending The paper company's wheels are of the Jonaway from the river a distance of 1,700 feet, val type, designed and built by R. D. Wood & with an average depth of 12 feet, and carrying Co., of Philadelphia. The Niagara Falls Power water enongh to develop about 100,000 horse. Company's three wheels, set and completed, power. The mouth of the canal is 600 feet out were designed by Faesch & Piccard, of Geneva, in the stream from the shore line, its side-walls Switzerland, and were built by the I. P. Morris and embankments having been carried out to Co., of Philadelphia. These wheels, acting that distance to give the canal a proper begin under 136 feet of fall, make 250 revolutions per ning in deep water. The side-walls of the canal minute, and at 75 per cent. efficiency, give are of solid masonry, 8 feet thick at the base, 3 5,000 horse power. feet thick at the top, and 17 feet high. These comparing the development of such manu
facturing centers as Lowell, Lawrence and Hol- packed the carborundum ore. An alternating yoke, in Massachusetts, it is estimated that the electric current is then passed through the core possibilities of power at Niagara Falls should from end to end, bringing the core gradually to make, within half a century, a city of a million an intense white heat. By keeping up this heat inhabitants. The beginnings of this city have for about twelve hours, the carborundum is been made in an admirably planned village on gradually reduced from the ore in crystaline a block of about eighty-four acres of the ex- form, which is then ground to a powder and tensive tract of land owned by the Niagara Falls pressed and molded in suitable forms for use as Power Company. And between Niagara Falls emery. The carborundum plant employs a and Tonawanda, a distance of about ten miles, 1,000-horse-power static transformer, by which the open farming country is already being the voltage or pressure is reduced from 2,000 to bought up for the purpose of cutting it up for 100 and 200 volts. A special regulator of about manufacturing sites, while Tonawanda itself is the same size varies the voltage at the core of near enough to come within the range of spe- the furnace according as the resistance of the cial changes tending to the development of an core changes with change of temperature. immense manufacturing center.
Special devices are adopted in each of these The electric power which comes from the plants for cooling the interior of the apparatus. Niagara electric generators is that known as an A blast of air accomplishes this in the Pittsalternating two phase current of twenty-five burgh reduction transformers, and oil forced cycles per second, or 3,000 alternations per through in the carborundum transformer. minute, the electric motive force or electrical pressure being about 2,000 volts.
I am desirous of taking up the French Two manufacturing establishments have al- language as a study. Will you kindly ready established their plants under contracts recommend the best course to pursue for for a supply of power. One is the Pittsburg one who cannot have access to a teacher? Reduction Company, manufacturers of alum. What books are necessary, etc.? inium, requiring 2,000-horse power. The other You cannot make any very great success of is the Carborundum Company, manufacturers studying the French language, as a language, of carborundum, a variety of emery. This re- without resorting to a good teacher at some quires 1,000-horse power.
stage of your study. It is better, if you can The Reduction Company uses the electricity manage it, to get the help of a teacher almost in smelting alumina, an oxide of aluminium. at the beginning, and get a good start in learnThis is done in carbon-lined retorts, or crucibles, ing to pronounce French. The work with the the mass being liquefied and the aluminium teacher will amount to most if you take a good reduced by an electric current which passes example of French writing and learn how to from a series of carbon rods suspended over the pronounce and translate, with the teacher telltop of the crucible to the carbon lining at the ing you both the pronunciation and the meanbottom, the rods and the living forming the ing of the words and plirases. two poles of the circuit. About sixty retorts Suppose, for example, that you take a French are placed around the room in series with one text-book in science, choosing some subject of another and the current carried through the interest to you; or such a work as Ernest Reentire series. It is a direct current, the pressure nan's biography of his sister, Henriette. You of which at the terminals in the reducing-room start at once to read a page or two, with the aid is maintained constant at 160 volts. To get of the teacher, who must act as your grammar this current, the two-phase current, alternativg and dictionary, as well as instructor in pronunat 2,000 volts pressure, is reduced to 115 byciation. After going through with a page or passing through large "static transformers' two, you turn back and go through it again. built on the principle of the Rhumkorff coil. Then take the lesson for private study with the The current thus reduced is passed through a dictionary, and see if you cannot thoroughly "rotary converter" which changes it from a make out the translation. You can turn to the two-phase alternating current at 115 volts to a grammar for help toward finding such points direct, or continuous current at 160 volts. The as are needed to enable you to see the meaning plant has a capacity on the direct-current side of words, such as different forms of verbs, etc. of about 2,000 electrical horse-power.
Never mind about grammar any further than For the Carborundum Company the electric- this. You may next return in a week to your ity is taken in a different way. A large core teacher and review the lesson already gone of carbon about eight feet high and a square over. Then go on for two or three pages more. foot in cross-section is placed vertically in a Repeat with this lesson the course taken with the large smelting-furnace, and around this core is first; and so on indefinitely from week to week.
practicable, whether to supply a city with electric light, or to run electro-magnetic engines, or to be used in the separation of metals from their ores.
Not a little incredulity met the prophetic suggestions of the great German engineer, but within less than twenty years the progress of applied science has overtaken Siemens's magnificent prophecies. The present exact esti. mates of energies assigned to the falls is a the oretical power of not less than 7,000,000 horse. power, and for practical use, without disturbing the grand rush of waters, or materially impairing their magnificent display, there can be taken from the current several hundreds of thousands of horse-power.
Something was done nearly fifty years ago to obtain a considerable supply of power from the river by means of a canal 35 feet wide, 8 feet deep, and 4,400 feet in length, by which the water of the upper Niagara was brought to a basin at the high bluff of the lower river, while upon the margin of this basin mills were constructed with a supply of water from the canal. There was thus in use, ten years ago, about 10,000 horse-power.
In 1886 plans were made for diverting, from a point more than a mile above the falls, some. thing less than 4 per cent. of the total flow of the river, with the expectation of obtaining not less than 120,000 horse-power. A charter was obtained, March 21, 1886, from the Legislature of the State of New York, with a view to the carrying out of the scheme by the Niagara Falls Power Company. Mr. Edward Atkinson and some others strenuously objected to the proposal as neither practicable nor likely to be profitable. In the face of such objections it required three years to convince capitalists that the scheme was worthy of support. The conviction, however, came at last, and in the year 1889 a new corporation was formed, called the Cataract Construction Company, and represent. ing not only abundant capital, but the best engineering ability of the country.
The plans adopted by this company involved a surface canal, beginning a mile and a quarter above the falls, 250 feet wide at its mouth, on the margin of the Niagara river, and extending away from the river a distance of 1,700 feet, with an average depth of 12 feet, and carrying water enongh to develop about 100,000 horse power. The mouth of the canal is 600 feet out in the stream from the shore line, its side-walls and embankments having been carried out to that distance to give the canal a proper begin ning in deep water. The side-walls of the canal are of solid masonry, 8 feet thick at the base, 3 feet thick at the top, and 17 feet high. These
walls are pierced at intervals with ten inlets for delivering water to a wheel-pit in a power-house at the side of the canal. This wheel-pit was planned for a depth of 178 feet, with a width of 18 feet and a length of 140 feet, and from the bottom of the pit there was provided an underground tunnel for conducting away the water to a point in the bank of the Niagara river below the falls. This underground tunnel is 7,000 feet in length, with an average slope of 6 feet in 1,000. Its maximum height is 21 feet and width 18 feet 10 inches. A chip thrown into the water of the wheel-pit travels through the tunnel to its mouth in three and a half minutes, showing that the water runs at a little less than twenty miles an hour. The tunnel was con. structed by the labor of over 1,000 men, engaged continuously for more than three years. It involved the removal of over 300,000 tons of rock, and the use of more than 16,000,000 bricks for lining it. The construction of the canal and the wheel-pit meant the removal of another 300,000 tons of material. There were at times employed on the work as many as 2,500 men; 60,000 cubic yards of stone were used ; 55,000 barrels of Giant American Portland cement; 12,000 barrels of natural cement; 26,000 cubic yards of sand; and 19,000,000 feet of timber and lumber. The wheel-pit, a long slot cut in the rock, 18 feet in length and 140 feet long, it is the intention to lengthen at some future time to 400 feet.
The conditions at Niagara would not permit the use of the turbine-wheel familiar in the United States. It was found necessary to procure from Swiss and other European wheelbuilders desigus for a wheel quite unlike anything ever made, or that could be made in the United States—turbines with vertical shafts of 5,000 horse-power on about 144 feet of fall, and delivering the power at the top of the shaft. For the central power-station of the Niagara Falls Power Company, such wheels or rows of such wheels, set in a continuous slot directly over the tail-race, were adopted; and for the Niagara Falls Paper Company a group of such wheels, but of 1,100 horse-power each, in a square pit.
The paper company's wheels are of the Jonval type, designed and built by R. D. Wood & Co., of Philadelphia. The Niagara Falls Power Company's three wheels, set and completed, were designed by Faesch & Piccard, of Geneva, Switzerland, and were built by the I. P. Morris Co., of Philadelphia. These wheels, acting under 136 feet of fall, make 250 revolutions per minute, and at 75 per cent. efficiency, give 5,000 horse power.
comparing the development of such manu