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States when it shall be understood that if but full, elaborate and marvelously ima man is a success in the presidency- pressive tales of things seen and heard such, for example, as John Bright was in in the world of departed spirits. For her Parliament, in England, or as Mr. Glad- experience of death, the savage, accusstone was as prime minister, the more we tomed to deliberately seek by exhauscan have of him the better, even if it be 'tion in the forest, by starvation and by to five or six terms instead of one or two. other means, the state of complete inWhat this nation wants is to be admin- sensibility, could give her thousands of istered in quietness and peace, and if men records going much farther into the truth arise who promise in the presidency ef- of the matter, whatever that truth may ective administration on that basis, the be. only question should be how long they But anything like a proper study of the can be kept on duty.
facts brings out one supreme certainty; and that is that the mind, the soul, the
spirit, the land of the spirit, the kingEXPERIENCE OF DEATH.—The well dom of the divine, as Christ said, do not known writer, Gail Hamilton, has made come with observation, and give no sign. the illness almost to death through which In the sense commonly understood there she passed at Washington not long since, is no such thing as death. Assuming the occasion of a chapter on “The Expe- the truth of faith in continued existence, rience of Death." It is easily made im- the continuously existing, living soul, simpressive, not only by the recital of the ply leaves behind the conditions of mornearly total failure of her vital energy tality. It does so on its own part with and the condition of insensibility in which experience of life only; life more abundshe lay for some time, but by the state- antly than was known in the body; life vicment that, while in this state, she had torious, happy, eternal. It is supremely easy converse with the spirits of relatives absurd for any thoughtful mind to make who had long since passed out of the up a story of the soul swamped in the present life,
morasses of bodily insensibility and bodily It is to be expected that individual ex- decay. There is nothing of the kind; periences, such as Gail Hamilton passed there can be nothing of the kind. The through, will find expression in literature experiences which Gail Hamilton notes as long as ignorance of the history of are the very commonest possibilities, not primitive culture and of the revelations of death, but of the present bodily life. of physiological psychology remain what Had Gail Hamilton reached the gates they are. The history of primitive culture which our ignorance conceives as the makes abundantly evident that of all hu- gates of death, it must have been by passman experiences at the lowest level of ing entirely beyond all such experiences thought and faith, the commonest and as those of which she has made a record. most universal, and the most widely sig- One general fact of our animal existnificant, is that which Gail Hamilton ence depending on the physical character thinks worthy of putting on record here of the brain can be especially brought in the dawn of the full light of modern out as throwing light upon this subject. science. The savage, with his habits of There is every reason to believe that excessive exertion, excessive gorging of whatever impressions have ever been animal food at certain times, excessive made upon the brain, have their recstarvation at other times, and deliberate ord in it as long as even the faintest use of drugs and stimulants found to be life continues; and that, under excepof service in this direction, has never had tional circumstances, the consciousness of any difficulty in passing almost at will these impressions may return, and may over the boundary of ordinary experience return not merely as mere impressions, into a great variety of most marvelous but as initiating extended experiences; experiences of spirit-land.
that is, extensive action of the brain. It is probably an exact statement that The general impression, for instance, left for one such slight and meagre tale as Gail by a long-since-departed friend, may, if Hamilton has thought worth telling, one is in a state of greatly depressed vievery tribe of savages that has ever ex- tality, with greatly heightened nervous isted could in perfect good faith supply sensitiveness, set in motion endless acus with 10,000; not slight and meagre, tivity of the now flighty brain, with the result of what appears to be veritably of knowledge. Thirty-five chapters take prolonged intercourse with the departed; up matters of interest to as many differbut what is, in fact, an endless play of ent characters of the "busy world,'' such the states of the brain, which may be as the manufacturer, the merchant, the compared with the play of electrical man- banker, the teacher, the railroad-man, the ifestation which we watch hour after home-maker, the musician, the journalhour on the face of an evening summer- ist, etc. cloud.
Dr. Baldwin has executed a difficult Immortality, it cannot be too strongly task with remarkable knowledge and said, does not thus rest in mortality. All judgment. His lucid and learned paraexperiences of the class spoken of by graphs, fortified with full and exact refGail Hamilton are purely mortal expe- erences to both articles and particular riences. The immortal live to tell their passages of importance, will afford the tale elsewhere, but not here.
most valuable assistance to every one desiring to investigate any matter of
knowledge in the pages of the Britannica. GUIDE TO THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRIT- The mere reading of these chapters will ANNICA.—A help to study of knowledge of itself convey a great deal of interesting which will be appreciated by readers of information. The botanist, for example, every class is the “Guide to Systematic will find an outline of biographical hisReadings in the Encyclopædia Britan- tory of botany and the general view of nica,” prepared by James Baldwin, botanical topics. No branch of study Ph. D., and published by The Werner or of practical interest has been neglected. Company. It is a volume of over 300 The volume is one which no owner of pages designed to tell inquirers of every the Britannica can afford to miss. It is class where to find information in the one also which will easily induce very Britannica under the principal heads of many who do not own this great knowledge. There are five chapters espe- work to become possessors of it and to cially devoted to matters of interest to give themselves to intelligent use of it. young people. Fourteen chapters cover It will be sent postpaid by The Werner readings which will especially attract Company, Chicago, upon receipt of $2.00. “the student' in any of the great branches
I desire full information in regard to the made it available in the application of electric new electrical developments at Niagara. energy. The idea came to him that the power practicable, whether to supply a city with elec- walls are pierced at intervals with ten inlets for tric light, or to run electro-magnetic engines, delivering water to a wheel-pit in a power-house or to be used in the separation of metals from at the side of the canal. This wheel-pit was their ores.
of the falls might be tapped for operating a The story of brilliant engineering at Niagara, colossal series of dynamos, whose conducting designed to turn the most magnificent and im- wires should transmit its energy to places miles pressive of terrestrial natural objects into a away. He took occasion, in the spring of the source of power, transformed from the force of next year, to present his idea in an address defalling water into that of electricity, and trans- livered by him as president of the Iron and mitted to a distance for either electric lighting Steel Institute. or manufacturers employing electric motors, Estimating the amount of water passing over has already become one of the most marvelous the falls as 100,000,000 tons per hour, with a in the history of applied science.
perpendicular descent of 150 feet, and a further Nearly twenty years ago, one of the most fall of another 150 in the rapids, giving a total eminent of German engineers, Sir William of 300 feet in the descent of the stream from the Siemens, while on a visit to the Centennial Ex lake above to the lake below, Siemens calcuhibition of 1876, took occasion to see the Falls lated roughly that there was going to waste of Niagara, and with the natural impulse of a more than 16,000,000 horse-power; power which scientific mind he was especially struck with could be produced through the agency of steam the inexhaustible manifestation of mechanical by the expenditure of not less than 266,000,000 energy which the stupendous rush of waters tons of coal per annum, or one might say, all presented. The dynamo electrical-machine had the coal mined in the whole world. Siemens just then reached, partly through his genius declared that electrical transmission of availaapplied to the problem, the perfection which ble parts of this immense energy was perfectly
planned for a depth of 178 feet, with a width of Not a little incredulity met the prophetic 18 feet and a length of 140 feet, and from the suggestions of the great German engineer, but bottom of the pit there was provided an underwithin less than twenty years the progress of ground tunnel for conducting away the water applied science has overtaken Siemens's mag- to a point in the bank of the Niagara river benificent prophecies. The present exact esti- low the falls. This underground tunnel is 7,000 mates of energies assigned to the falls is a the feet in length, with an average slope of 6 feet oretical power of not less than 7,000,000 horse- in 1,000. Its maximum height is 21 feet and power, and for practical use, without disturbing width 18 feet 10 inches. A chip thrown into the grand rush of waters, or materially impair the water of the wheel-pit travels through the ing their magnificent display, there can be tunnel to its mouth in three and a half minutes, taken from the current several hundreds of showing that the water runs at a little less than thousands of horse-power.
twenty miles an hour. The tunnel was con. Something was done nearly fifty years ago to structed by the labor of over 1,000 men, engaged obtain a considerable supply of power from the continuously for more than three years. It inriver by means of a canal 35 feet wide, 8 feet volved the removal of over 300,000 tons of rock, deep, and 4,400 feet in length, by which the and the use of more than 16,000,000 bricks for water of the upper Niagara was brought to a lining it. The construction of the canal and basin at the high bluff of the lower river, while the wheel-pit meant the removal of another upon the margin of this basin mills were con- 300,000 tons of material. There were at times structed with a supply of water from the canal. employed on the work as many as 2,500 men; There was thus in use, ten years ago, about 60,000 cubic yards of stone were used ; 55,000 10,000 horse-power.
barrels of Giant American Portland cement; In 1886 plans were made for diverting, from 12,000 barrels of natural cement; 26,000 cubic a point more than a mile above the falls, some. yards of sand; and 19,000,000 feet of timber thing less than 4 per cent. of the total flow of and lumber. The wheel-pit, a long slot cut in the river, with the expectation of obtaining not the rock, 18 feet in length and 140 feet long, it less than 120,000 horse-power. A charter was is the intention to lengthen at some future time obtained, March 21, 1886, from the Legislature to 400 feet. of the State of New York, with a view to the The conditions at Niagara would not permit carrying out of the scheme by the Niagara Falls the use of the turbine-wheel familiar in the Power Company. Mr. Edward Atkinson and United States. It was found necessary to prosome others strenuously objected to the pro- cure from Swiss and other European wheel. posal as neither practicable nor likely to be builders designs for a wheel quite unlike anyprofitable. In the face of such objections it thing ever made, or that could be made in the required three years to convince capitalists that United States-turbines with vertical shafts of the scheme was worthy of support. The con- 5,000 horse-power on about 144 feet of fall, and viction, however, came at last, and in the year delivering the power at the top of the shaft. 1889 a new corporation was formed, called the For the central power-station of the Niagara Cataract Construction Company, and represent. Falls Power Company, such wheels or rows of ing not only abundant capital, but the best en such wheels, set in a continuous slot directly gineering ability of the country.
over the tail-race, were adopted; and for the The plans adopted by this company involved Niagara Falls Paper Company a group of such a surface canal, beginning a mile and a quarter wheels, but of 1,100 horse-power each, in a. above the falls, 250 feet wide at its mouth, on square pit. the margin of the Niagara river, and extending The paper company's wheels are of the Jonaway from the river a distance of 1,700 feet, val type, designed and built by R. D. Wood & with an average depth of 12 feet, and carrying Co., of Philadelphia. The Niagara Falls Power water enongh to develop about 100,000 horse. Company's three wheels, set and completed, power. The mouth of the canal is 600 feet out were designed by Faesch & Piccard, of Geneva, in the stream from the shore line, its side-walls Switzerland, and were built by the I. P. Morris and embankments having been carried out to Co., of Philadelphia. These wheels, acting that distance to give the canal a proper begin under 136 feet of fall, make 250 revolutions per ning in deep water. The side-walls of the canal minute, and at 75 per cent. efficiency, give are of solid masonry, 8 feet thick at the base, 3 5,000 horse power. feet thick at the top, and 17 feet high. These comparing the development of such manu
facturing centers as Lowell, Lawrence and Hol- packed the carborundum ore. An alternating yoke, in Massachusetts, it is estimated that the electric current is then passed through the core possibilities of power at Niagara Falls should from end to end, bringing the core gradually to make, within half a century, a city of a million an intense white heat. By keeping up this heat inhabitants. The beginnings of this city have for about twelve hours, the carborundum is been made in an admirably planned village on gradually reduced from the ore in crystaline a block of about eighty-four acres of the ex- form, which is then ground to a powder and tensive tract of land owned by the Niagara Falls pressed and molded in suitable forms for use as Power Company. And between Niagara Falls emery. The carborundum plant employs a and Tonawanda, a distance of about ten miles, 1,000-horse-power static transformer, by which the open farming country is already being the voltage or pressure is reduced from 2,000 to bought up for the purpose of cutting it up for 100 and 200 volts. A special regulator of about manufacturing sites, while Tonawanda itself is the same size varies the voltage at the core of near enough to come within the range of spe- the furnace according as the resistance of the cial changes tending to the development of an core changes with change of temperature. immense manufacturing center.
Special devices are adopted in each of these The electric power which comes from the plants for cooling the interior of the apparatus. Niagara electric generators is that known as an A blast of air accomplishes this in the Pittsalternating two phase current of twenty-five burgh reduction transformers, and oil forced cycles per second, or 3,000 alternations per through in the carborundum transformer. minute, the electric motive force or electrical pressure being about 2,000 volts.
I am desirous of taking up the French Two manufacturing establishments have al- language as a study. Will you kindly ready established their plants under contracts recommend the best course to pursue for for a supply of power. One is the Pittsburg one who cannot have access to a teacher? Reduction Company, manufacturers of alum. What books are necessary, etc.? inium, requiring 2,000-horse power. The other You cannot make any very great success of is the Carborundum Company, manufacturers studying the French language, as a language, of carborundum, a variety of emery. This re- without resorting to a good teacher at some quires 1,000-horse power.
stage of your study. It is better, if you can The Reduction Company uses the electricity manage it, to get the help of a teacher almost in smelting alumina, an oxide of aluminium. at the beginning, and get a good start in learnThis is done in carbon-lined retorts, or crucibles, ing to pronounce French. The work with the the mass being liquefied and the aluminium teacher will amount to most if you take a good reduced by an electric current which passes example of French writing and learn how to from a series of carbon rods suspended over the pronounce and translate, with the teacher telltop of the crucible to the carbon lining at the ing you both the pronunciation and the meanbottom, the rods and the living forming the ing of the words and plirases. two poles of the circuit. About sixty retorts Suppose, for example, that you take a French are placed around the room in series with one text-book in science, choosing some subject of another and the current carried through the interest to you; or such a work as Ernest Reentire series. It is a direct current, the pressure nan's biography of his sister, Henriette. You of which at the terminals in the reducing-room start at once to read a page or two, with the aid is maintained constant at 160 volts. To get of the teacher, who must act as your grammar this current, the two-phase current, alternativg and dictionary, as well as instructor in pronunat 2,000 volts pressure, is reduced to 115 byciation. After going through with a page or passing through large "static transformers' two, you turn back and go through it again. built on the principle of the Rhumkorff coil. Then take the lesson for private study with the The current thus reduced is passed through a dictionary, and see if you cannot thoroughly "rotary converter" which changes it from a make out the translation. You can turn to the two-phase alternating current at 115 volts to a grammar for help toward finding such points direct, or continuous current at 160 volts. The as are needed to enable you to see the meaning plant has a capacity on the direct-current side of words, such as different forms of verbs, etc. of about 2,000 electrical horse-power.
Never mind about grammar any further than For the Carborundum Company the electric- this. You may next return in a week to your ity is taken in a different way. A large core teacher and review the lesson already gone of carbon about eight feet high and a square over. Then go on for two or three pages more. foot in cross-section is placed vertically in a Repeat with this lesson the course taken with the large smelting-furnace, and around this core is first; and so on indefinitely from week to week. It will not be long before you have read through In his desceut, therefore, and not less in his a small book like Renan's, or have fairly mas- personal character, Lee was the peer of any tered the knowledge contained in a considera- historical character which this country has proble text-book.
duced. There is no reason to doubt that he acted Don't on any account burden yourself with as conscientiously as Washington himself did in details of grammar and usage of words beyond leading the Revolution, or as Patrick Henry in what is necessary to get the meaning of what Virginia, and Samuel Adams in Massachusetts, you undertake to read. Students of language, and others of the first patriots of the Revoluas Greek, Latin, or French, are commonly re- tion did, in their doubts about, or their oppoquired to root out things which Demosthenes, sition to the adoption of, the National ConstiCicero, Montaigne could not have told about. tution, which made state rights subordinate, If you wish to study philology, let it come and which permitted the North in 1860 to insist much later. Your first object is to know the on the paramount authority of the Union. In literature, and so much of the language and stainless honor, therefore, it seems impossible its grammar as is involved in knowing the lit- not to award equal rank to both of the consumerature.
mate leaders on either side in the war of 1860 For a teacher, you can just as well have to 1865. almost any one who has a thorough knowledge For comparison of their military genius and of the language, and who has intelligence conduct the history hardly affords anything enough to explain the pronunciation and mean- decisive. One great fact overshadows the whole ing of words according to the methods which field, and that is the greater weight of the we have set forth. It is not at all necessary to legions of the Union, with unquestionably take the lessons which are commonly given by equally desperate leroism on both sides. We teachers of French. A course of such lessons, see not how any historian, at even the remotest however, may be very well worth while after distance of future time, can recall the colossal considerable progress has been made in learn- memories of Gettysburg without shrinking ing to read French.
from the task of disparaging the generalship In case you cannot have access to any one of Lee, pitted there against Meade instead of who can serve the purpose of a weekly teacher, Grant; and if we follow Lee and his beaten you must content yourself with learning to army to their last stand, face to face with Grant, read without the aid of a teacher. You can there seems to be no escape from the fact, that readily get a book designed to give a knowledge the awful frown of destiny ard not the failure of French without a teacher. With such a of Lee gave to Graut the final triumph of the book, with a good grammar for consultation Union. That both were giants in their places, and a good dictionary, you will, without much and the strength of each, or the weakness, aldifficulty, get under way with reading whatever most wholly the strength or weakness of his book, as we have explained above, you may cause, seems to be the conclusion to which hischoose for the purpose. There is nothing bet- torical study will be shut up the more the sub.. ter for a grammar than Dr. Emil Otto's French ject is investigated. Conversation-Grammar; the eleventh edition: published by Julius Groos. It is better to get
Can you give me directions how to one of the best dictionaries. You can get the study Greek without a teacher ? English-French part of Tibbins and Fleming's For satisfactory study of Greek without a thoroughly trustworthy dictionary for about teacher there can be no better plan than the $12, and it will be a much better investment following: Procure a copy of “The Beginner's than less money spent for an inferior work. Greek Book,” by Prof. J. W. White, of Harvard
University. It is published by Ginn & ComWhich was the greater general, Grant
pany, Boston and Chicago. It gives every posor Lee? Was Grant's success due to his
sible assistance to learn to read Greek. The superiority as a general ?
method and the knowledge of Greek which it We know of no reason for denying to either represents are recognized as standing at the Grant or Lee greatness of the first order. Both head of instruction in Greek for those whose were men of superlative quality. The father own language is English. The pages are made, of Lee was a favorite of President Washington. through the perfection of the present art of He was known as “Light-Horse Harry.” He printing, a delight to the eye. It is not worth commanded the little army of 15,000 men while to pay any attention to the exercises for which Washington ordered out for the sup- translation from English into Greek, Attend pression of an attempt in Western Pennsylvania only to reading the exercises in Greek; that is, to revolt against the authority of the Union. to translating them into English.