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by the case of one of Lord Grosvenor's children, spread the disease and to increase the general who took the smallpox severely after having mortality, and in 1840 it was declared unlawful been vaccinated by Jenner himself ten years by act of Parliament. before. Great clamor against the practice had existed from the first, and this, especially re- 1. In how many languages are newsnewed on the occasion just mentioned, was papers printed ? 2. Where can I get the again widely renewed in 1818, when a severe names of these languages ? 3. The name epidemic of smallpox prevailed, in disregard, and place of publication of a paper in apparently, of the supposed efficacy of vaccina- any of those languages ? tion.
An earlier practice before Jenner's time was 1. Newspapers are printed in every language that of inoculating with smallpox matter from that is of any importance as a national speech. a mild case, in the belief that a mild form of 2. There are, perhaps, thirty leading or reprethe disease would follow, and would serve as sentative languages in which daily papers are protection against the worse form. This prac- printed. 3. You can get information as to the tice was in use in Turkey early in the eighteenth names, circulation, etc., of all classes of papers century, and became known and employed in in Sells' Dictionary of the World's Press. England through information given in the let. Also in Hubbard's Newspaper Directory, New ters of Lady Mary Mortley Montague. The Haven, Conn., a complete list of newspapers practice was thought well of for a time, but and periodicals of all kinds, published throughthe final conclusion was that it tended to out the entire world.
EVENTS OF THE MONTH
August 21.-A lamentable outbreak of small pox in London . . Collapse of the Chicago Colosseum . . State census of Massachusetts gives Boston a population of 494,205 and the proposed “Greater Boston” 971,512.
August 22.—Heavy fire loss at Milwaukee... The Maybrick case promised consideration by the British Home Secretary . . $1,500,000 Chicago City warrants sold at par . . Nebraska Democrats declare for free coinage of silver.
August 23. -Keir Hardie, English labor representative, arrives at New York . . Cardinal Gibbons returns from Rome . . The London Times pronounces for free Cuba . . President J. J. Hill of the Great Northern likely to obtain control of the Northern Pacific.
August 24.–Attempt upon the life of Baron Alphonse de Rothschild, in Paris, by an infernal machine . . Constant successes of Cuban insurgents reported.
August 25.-Poor's Railway Manual for 1895 shows total number of miles of railroads in the United States 179,279.
August 26.—The corn crop of America 1,000,000 bushels larger than in 1894 . . Report of execution of four Chinese ringleaders in recent massacre.
August 28.-Grand parade of Knights Templar in Boston-20,000 in line . . The Illinois Central and the City of Chicago settle the question of the occupancy of the lake front. . Senator Quay controls Republican organization in Pennsylvania . . Captain-General Campos
said to declare Spain's struggle in Cuba lopeless.
August 29.-Latin made an elective study in Chicago grammar-schools.
August 30. - Keir Hardie in Chicago .. Cholera in Hawaii . . “New Irish movement" proposed in Chicago . . Excavation for first eight miles of the Hennepin Canal completed. .. The Cincinnati Conference of Methodists votes to make women eligible as delegates.
August 31.-The Academy of Music, Buffalo, N. Y., destroyed by fire.
September 1.-Earthquake shocks at Philadelphia, and Brooklyn, N. Y. . . The Emperor William Memorial Church in Berlin consecrated. . . German-Americans of Chicago cele. brate German victory at Sedan twenty-five years ago.
September 3.-The Mississippi Valley Medical Association in session at Detroit.
September 5.-Chicago has 11,000 more pupils than her school-buildings will accommodate. . . A bomb thrown into the Rothschild bank in Paris.
September 6.-Chauncey M. Depew of the opinion that the Democrats will nominate Cleveland for a third term .. The price of steel tin-plate bar threatens to destroy the American tin-plate industry. . . Death of William Henry Hurlbert in Italy.
September 7.—The Defender wins the first yacht-race at New York by 8.49. . . Masonic Temple at Boston nearly destroyed by fire ..
Railway wreck near Monmouth, Kansas. . . September 18.-Dedication on the battle-field Nearly forty miners entombed in a burning of Chickamauga of monuments by the States of shast at Houghton, Mich... Adams Express Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Company robbed of about $40,000 at Terre Minnesota and Massachusetts. . . Meeting of Haute, Ind.
the Army of the Cumberland at Chattanooga. September 8.-Explosion of dynamite at .. The Cotton States and International ExpoSpecht's Ferry, Iowa, kills five and wrecks sition at Atlanta opened... Continuance of many buildings.
excessive heat throughout the West. September 9.-Cuban insurgents said to have September 19.-The Chickamauga-Chattacaptured Puerto Principe... Report of fresh nooga National Park dedicated. Great gatherTurkish outrages in Armenia.
ing of men from both armies, the Union and September 10.—New York yacht-race won on Confederate. a foul by Valkyrie III. . . Great Republican September 20.-Immense parade of ex-sol. rally to open campaign at Springfield, Ohio. diers at Chattanooga. . . Celebration of twen.. Grand gathering of G. A. R. men at Lou- ty-five years of United Italy. . . Unveiling of isville, Ky.
monument to Garibaldi on the Janiculan Hill. September 11.—Pennsylvania DemocraticCon- .. Frightful ravages of cholera in China. . . vention. . . Defender awarded Tuesday's race. Plans for a great Chicago demonstration in .. Excessive heat-92° in Chicago. . . The favor of Cuban freedom. . . Intense heat after New York Central Railroad breaks the world's a week not yet broken... Roman Catholics record (634 miles in an hour-540 miles in 512 pray for the independence of the pope. minutes) by making 436% miles in 414 minutes and 57 seconds, or 64%miles an hour. . . Parade of the G.A.R.veterans at Louisville—30,000 THE HALF-BUSHEL OF 1895 in line. . . The British Association for the Advancement of Science opens its sixty-fifth an.
IT IS FULL TO OVERFLOWING WITH CORN, QATS, nual meeting at Ipswich, England. . . Rail
AND WHEAT, AND PROMISES TO BRING way wreck and five killed at Melby, on the
PEACE, PROSPERITY AND PLENTY TO US Great Northern.
ALL. September 12.-Defender a victor in third The editor of SELF CULTURE, who began race at New York. . . Cholera increasing at with the farm as his first practical school, and Honolulu... Cardinal Gibbons announces who still knows of no situation more attractive the desire of the pope for prayers on behalf of than that of close acquaintance with the field his independence in Rome.
and the forest, congratulates the University September 13.-Banquet in Chicago to repre- of Self-Culture readers upon Mr. Prime's consentative men from Atlanta, Ga. . . Crop ex tribution this month to studies of extreme inpectations in America — wheat, 403,000,000 terest, and upon the prospect that agriculture bushels; oats, 725,000,000; corn, 3,325,000,000. will receive regular attention from him with .. The Detroit Methodist Conference allows each recurring month. In Self CULTURE for eleven women delegates to take their seats as November Mr. Prime will take occasion, by members.
the State Fair at Springfield, to tell the story September 14.-Prof. E. V. Riley, ento. of Agriculture in Illinois. mologist at Washington, killed by fall from his bicycle.
LL we can do is to move someSeptember 15.-Dr. F. W. Reilly issues for
thing," was said many years
ago by a French political econthe Board of Health of Chicago a circular in
omist. Yes, that is all very true, favor of the anti-toxine treatment for diphthe
but we must grow something ria. . . Beloit College opens all its opportuni
first. At the same time, proties to women.
duction and movement are one and insepara
ble. Every man who is a producer not only September 16.—The National Irrigation Con benefits himself, but mankind. gress meets at Albuquerque, New Mexico. .. We are on the eve of another great crop Opening of the Mexican Congress, and message
windup, the like of which we, as a people, of President Diaz. . . Phenomenal locomotive
probably never witnessed before. The whole
country seems fairly thrilled to its very center a single driver engine for fast work, turned out
at the prospects of the good times coming, and from the Baldwin works, at Philadelphia. which seem to be almost within our grasp. ReSeptember 17.—Cholera spreading in the
ports are now coming from all over the country Sandwich Islands. . . Republican Convention
as to general trade expansion, which are build
ing a firm foundation in commercial and finanin New York nominates state ticket... Death cal circles for our future prosperity. of Dr. V. C. McClure.
It is true that every crop-season sees more or less of local crop-failures. This year is not an every year, while in the Dakotas, on the conexception to the rule, but, after we strike the trary, it increases. It is an idea we often hear half-bushel off, we have enough and plenty to expressed, “When wheat is so low, why do the spare for everyone, both at home and abroad. farmers continue to grow it?" I simply an
Theorists, agitators, and cranks try, and in a swer that question by asking, “What else great measure have succeeded in sowing tares would you expect a class of farmers to do who among the honest, hard-working people of have been induced to gointo a region eminently our country, which bear fruit in discontent, adapted in every way for the growing of this strife, and riots. The great mass of our pro crop?” They simply are forced to do it, or ducers never have had in this country so much quit. to eat, drink, and wear as they are enjoying at The greatest efforts ever made to settle any the present time.
region of this country and greatest inducements Practically the growing season for 1895 has offered to emigrants, were made to thousands come to a close. In the main it has proved to and tens of thousands of foreigners to come be a very successful one. This is not the time over and lielp us break up our vast unoccupied or place to discuss the question which is best- lands and compete with "American industry.”I bounteous crops at low prices, or average crops think they have successfully accomplished their at high prices. It is a great satisfaction to job. know, no matter what the price may be, be it The spring-wheat crop of 1895 has been vari. either greator small, that there is an abundance ously estimated by statisticians at a very wide of nearly everything, and plenty to spare. As range of figures. The consensus of opinion is the nation develops and the country grows, it that in volume it is a large one; in qualdoes not seem to be any trouble to make crops, ity, very badly mixed; and a very unsatisfacas science and inachinery have put it within tory crop to handle. The nature of things is our power to increase our yields, and a crop- such that the producers are shipping it very failure of the whole country is almost an im freely. Growers of spring wheat, as a class, are possibility.
men of moderate means and hand-to-mouth The gigantic strides in farm machinery and farmers, and their year's work centers upon the all the appliances connected with moving and success or the failure of a crop, and their cirhandling our vast crops has been reduced al cumstances are such that the price at harvest most to a science. Farming is no longer a cuts practically no figure with them. They drudgery, and I take the position that no class throw it upon the market just as fast as they of people who are obliged to earn their living can thresh it, procure teams to haul it and find by the sweat of their brow, accomplish it with cars to send it to the grain centers. This work so little friction or exertion of muscle, and it is is now going on; in fact, at its height. Withhardly fair any longer to denominate this class out pretending to have any foresight as to futof our people as “sons of toil.”
ure prices of wheat, with the situation which
exists in our wheat markets in this country at WINTER WHEAT.
the present time, the failure of the winter
wheat crop and the poor quality of the springWhat has the country done this season? The wheat crop must make a great demand and at first crop that comes to us every year is the win good prices for every bushel of spring wheat ter wheat, grown almost exclusively in the grown, at home, irrespective of foreign markets. states of Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri and Kansas. The crop this season
THE OAT CROP. has been a poor one both in quantity and quality. The causes which have brought about these The next crop which the country gathered results have been varied and can be attributed this season and made a great success of, so far in the main to a dry winter and spring, with as quantity is concerned, was the oat crop. The more or less development of insect life. Prob. magnitude of this crop exceeds in bushels that ably never, in the history of this crop, have of the spring and winter wheat combined, and final results been as disappointing as this sea an average yield is nearly fifty per cent. of that son. Yet every cloud has its silver lining. of an average corn crop. Agricultural maGrowers of winter wheat have been compensa chinery has enabled us to increase our acreage, ted this season by seeing the reserves of their put it in very cheaply, harvest it, and put it on old crops thoroughly cleaned up, and while the the market with very little manual labor or present is not reassuring, the future looks bright
re looks bright expense. for the winter-wheat growers as well as the In the older states, in acreage, it nearly millers.
equals that of corn, for the reason that it enaThe paucity of this crop is made apparent bles the farmer to rotate his crops, plow and from the fact that a large proportion of the prepare the ground for another season. It also winter-wheat mills of the country stand idle to brings ready money to the farmer at a time of day for the want of wheat to grind. This year when it is always acceptable. Probably strange situation would have been detrimentalno state in the nation grows more oats than the to the general interests iu the winter-wheat belt state of Illinois. While the crop this season is had it not been for the fact that the winter. a large one, it did not average per acre the yield wheat states do not depend exclusively upon of 1894, which was a phenomenal one. this crop for their sources of wealth and rev Iowa comes next in yield, and the state of enne.
Nebraska is a close third. These three states SPRING WHEAT.
are not only large consuming states, but every
season have very large 'surpluses of oats to The spring-wheat crop is grown almost ex- throw upon the market. The Dakotas and clusively in the Dakotas and in Minnesota, Minnesota also, next to wheat and barley, give the acreage in the latter state growing smaller large acreages every year to this crop. As they
grow but little corn, the oat crop in these states is nearly all consumed at home. The introduc. tion of electricity and the bicycle threatens very seriously to interfere in the near future, if it does not even now, with the general consumption of the oat crop. The movement of oats since harvest has not been very large, when we take into consideration the magnitude of the crop. It is generally conceded that the low price now ruling is the one great factor which prevents farmers from throwing their oats on The market at the present time.
CORN IS KING.
Now we come to the crop of crops. Corn is king. While we hear always a great deal of talk in the speculative world, and, in fact, the world at large, about the wheat crop, a failure of the wheat crop never begins to bring to us such universal distress and bad years of business as the failure of a crop of corn.
This has been preëminently a corn year. While it has had several very close calls, yet at ever crisis something has turned up which has bridged the chasm and we have finally landed, safe on the golden shore. The season has been such a remarkable one, and at the same time one of such great extremes, that I do not think it out of place to attempt to diagnose some of the causes which have brought us, through wind and weather, such happy results.
The winter of 1893 and '94 was a dry one. The ground froze very deep. There had also been prepared a much larger area of fall plowing than usual, incidental upon the large acreage of oats which had been grown, the previous season, enabling the farmer to take advantage of this situation. The spring of 1895 was an early and a very dry one, and the universal reports while the crops of the country were going into the ground, were that “the ground was never in better condition.” “It breaks up like an ash-heap.” “Crops have been put into the ground in excellent shape.”
We had just rain enough to give the corn a good start. Everything either sown or planted in the spring, made phenomenalgrowth until the 13th and 20th of May, when the crops received a sudden and severe set-back by killing frosts. After the crops recovered they made rapid strides, notwitbstanding we had a dry summer, and the oat crop never matured with as little rain as it did this season.
The gist of the whole matter is this, that the pulverization of the soil by a dry and freezing winter, accompanied by the dry season, germinated every seed that was sown and put life and vigor into the grain; hence the crops seemed to be able to withstand all the extremes and hardships they were called to encounter during the time of their growth, and have brought themselves to a successfultermination.
To say that the corn crop of 1895 bas matured successfully and promises now in bushels to give the country a phenomenal yield, is a statement that bare figures cannot convey. A busbel of wheat simply means so much flour. It is converted into practically nothing else, and when it is barreled up and sent forth on its errand to feed and sustain the world, it has accomplished its mission; but the uses, and we might say abuses, to which corn is put, are many and varied. It is not only bread, but
promises this winter, in many parts of our country, to be fuel. The corn belt proper consists of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Missouri, Kansas, Kentucky and Tennessee. For the last few years Illinois has become a diversified state so far as her crops are concerned — a system of agriculture which has added greatly to her permanent wealth. Her corn crop this season, with very few exceptions in certain localities, promises to be the largest crop she has ever made, and the question, “What shall I do with it?'' is already beginning to bother her.
I do not think we need to spend much thought as to its disposal; the great thing is to grow it and see it safely housed in its little crib. In the northern part of Illinois corn is now almost universally used for feeding hogs and cattle. The amount which was sold and shipped out of the state in its natural condition (by that I mean shelled) bears a very small percentage to the total amount of the crop grown.
Illinois also converts a great deal of her corn into glucose and whisky. Iowa has been very successful this season with her corn. There are a few counties where dry weather has reduced the yield of the crop, but she also will come to the front this fall with the largest crop she has ever produced. Iowa is a very large hog and cattle state, and at the same time a large exporter of corn. The corn crop of Nebraska, in 1894, was practically a total failure. Hence, the conditions this season in that state, as to the final outcome of the corn, have been watched with more than usual interest.
Nebraska has suffered this season, in the eastern and southern portions of the state, more or less, from severe drouth, and while the crop promises to be a good and large one, yet it will not come up to the anticipations and prospects that it gave for a full return early in the season.
Missouri is also a great corn state. It ships out very little corn, however, the great bulk of it finding its way into food for stock of all kinds -cattle, hogs, mules and horses.
Kansas, this season, thinks, and no doubt she has every reason to, that she is going to give the country the largest crop of corn she ever made in a single year. This state is always a large shipper of corn, a vast amount generally finding its way into southern markets.
I now come back again to Ohio and Indiana. Ohio has suffered some from drouth this season. She does not, however, pay as much attention to or make corn a specialty. She has no reason to complain of her corn crop this season. Indiana is preëminently a corn state, and has also, under many trials, largely those of drouth, been able to keep her position and fill the place she justly deserves as a great corn-producing State.
We must not forget that Kentucky and Tennessee have made the largest crop of corn in their history. This corn is consumed almost exclusively at home, being converted into horses, cattle and hogs.
I have tried to take you as concisely as possible over the wheat, oat and corn belts of the country, and without the use of figures to give you, not a statistical, but a practical idea of the immensity of the crop and let you imagine for yourselves the vast benefits it will bring, not only to sections, but to the country at large.
S. THORNTON K. PRIMĘ.
STUDIES IN CIVIL GOVERNMENT
WHENEVER two individuals gregarious, or social, and from the further
live in any sort of relation fact that, except in the crudest state of barwith each other, a condition barism, he cannot maintain himself with
exists which is called society. out dependence on others (E. B., Vol.
= Those rules of society which XIV. 354-367). There have been herregulate the relations between individuals mits who have lived an almost animal exconstitute government. Every individu- istence, entirely apart from society. There al's conduct is of two kinds--that which are tribes which exist, or have existed, in a concerns himself only and that which degraded condition, with very few regconcerns his fellow-men.
ulations; but those only emphasize the When Alexander Selkirk lived alone fact that man, as a rule, has lived in comon his desolate island, he was bound by munities, and in established relations with all the laws affecting his personal charac his fellows. As civilization has proter that he was subject to when in civil- gressed the regulations have become ization. He was obliged to follow the dic- more complex and more clearly defined. tates of his conscience, and, although his In the African jungle, where people subsphere of personal action was narrow and sist largely on wild fruits and game, a his responsibility in a sense limited, yet very simple form of government would so far as it existed he was bound by it. suffice; and yet, in these communities, Outside the realm of pure morals be was we often find a very complicated system, a law unto himself, since there were no and one which is more strictly enforced persons there whose rights he could per- than in more civilized communities, where sonally invade. But when he took the there is often constant evasion of, and man Friday to live with him, the whole disrespect for, the laws. situation was changed. A condition of We can get at the nature and growth society existed. Although Selkirk was of government fairly well by assuming of the most civilized race, he was bound a possible case. Imagine a shipload of by certain duties to the untutored savage, emigrants, of various nationalities, on whose rights he was obliged to respect. board an English vessel bound for AusIt is true that, so far as his moral nature tralia. While on shipboard, all are under was concerned, there was no difference in the laws of the British Government, exthe situation; but as to his general sphere actly as if they were in London. Under of action he was bound by laws that were these laws, the captain of the vessel is the more or less clearly defined. The sav- absolute master of all on board. He can age, Friday, was entitled to life, liberty shoot any person he pleases in case of and comfort in so far as he did not invade mutiny, or in case of an attempt to deSelkirk's rights, and the converse was stroy the ship. He is the executive, legequally true. Selkirk could not beat his islative, and judicial power over all on newly acquired comrade unless as a salu- board, subject only to the laws of Great tary regulation for their mutual good. Britain, which give him ample powers in He could not make Friday do all the work the premises. Should he become crazed, while he enjoyed all the benefits of that however, the second in command can labor. Each was equally entitled to his forcibly take charge of the vessel, and share of the proceeds of their mutual put the captain in irons. In extreme labor. Each had rights that must be re- cases, where the captain has exceeded spected, and these rights were that the authority, and seems bent on a line of other should do his duty. We are speak- action likely to result in the destruction ing now in a purely theoretical sense. of the lives of those on board, he can, in Every principle of government that would like manner, be superseded, and simiproperly regulate the intercourse between larly, the third in command can displace these two is applicable to the largest and the second, and so on; but in such cases most civilized nation.
the action is subject to review of the The necessity of government arises courts when port is made. In case the from the fact that man is, by nature, captain dies, or is disabled, and the pas