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been alternately land and sea. Where itants, and, perhaps, exercised some innow is land, there certainly has at one fluence over the destinies of men? Of time—at more than one time—been ocean; course, philosophers wondered what these and where now are oceans, there have little sparkling points of light were, doubtless been continents.

and the opinion which seems to have Other parts of the story tell of the found the most favor was that they were formation of mountains by the wrinkling fires of a very ethereal sort, which were of the earth's crust, and explain, too, fed and kept aglow by certain “effluvia," why it is that we usually find the rock or, as we would now say, gases, that were layers, which must have been originally exhaled by the earth, and rose, by reason pretty nearly level, tilted up and bent of their lightness, until they reached the and twisted out of shape. A still more high “empyrean," or sphere of fire. interesting part relates to fossils—the re- We now know that this ancient view mains of vegetation and of animals which of the great importance of the earth was became imbedded in the rocks.

all wrong. We have learned that the We are not yet done with this story. earth is only a little planet, and that the But it is to be hoped that even what has sun, which formerly was supposed to rebeen said here will lead you to take a volve around it, is really the central body, little more notice of the rocks than you and is of vastly greater size than the earth have, perhaps, heretofore taken, and —more than a million times as great. will give you some ideas to work upon in This great truth was not discovered all your wonderment of how they grew. * at once. Even Copernicus, the author of

the modern and true system of astron

omy, had no idea how vast a body the WHAT IS A STAR?

sun is, nor how far away it is. But he

was right in his opinion that the earth The ancients had very queer ideas revolves about it, and the discovery of about the stars. How could it be other this fact alone made a very great change wise? They had not the slightest reason in the views of astronomers regarding the to suppose that the stars were so far away stars. They saw that these stars must as we now know them to be. They im- be vastly more remote from us than had agined, too, that they were all at pretty ever before been suspected, and they nearly the same distance from the earth, were not long in reaching the conclusion and that the starry firmament was actu- that they are actually suns, and that the ally a huge, hollow sphere, with the feebleness of their light is only because earth at its center, just as it appears to be. of their enormous distance from us.

The earth was, for them, the principal Not only are the stars suns, but since body in the universe, and all else was it has become possible to estimate pretty dependent on it. The sun moved round nearly their distances, the truth has been the earth-even the great sphere of the brought out that many of them are of heavens, with its host of stars, moved vastly greater size than our own sun. round the earth. How could these stars. Indeed, our sun seems to hold a rather then, be looked upon as bodies of any inferior rank among the celestial bodies. very great size or of great importance, There are probably very few of the stars except as they beautified the heavens which we can see with the naked eye and delighted the eyes of its inhab- which do not exceed the sun in size, some

of them very greatly. *The article on “Geology" in the Encyclo- But have we answered fully the quespædia (Vol. X. 212-375) tells the whole

tion, What is a star, when we have said story of the earth's crust, and although, as a whole, it is hardly suited to young readers,

that a star is a distant sun ? Who knows there are many parts of it which I think you what a sun is, and are all suns alike, exwill find interesting. To begin with, the illus- cept as to size? There is no end to questrations: Look on pages 298–301 for pictures showing the inclination and the curvature of

tions of this sort, when once they are rocks. See how the different kinds of rocks

started. overlay one another, and how they are bent up Astronomers do not pretend to be able and twisted out of shape. Read what is said to answer these questions fully, but within about the Solid Globe (222), Composition of the Earth's Crust (237), Volcanoes (240), and

the past thirty years they have been able on Movements of Upheaval and Depression

to gather a great deal of surprising and (255).

interesting information bearing upon these questions. I say surprising, because the ous as these, shine with a bluish-white facts which they have learned are of a light. Sirius, the brilliant Dog Star, is sort which, before the invention of the a good example of this class. These wonderful little instrument called the stars are thought to be even hotter than spectroscope, no one could have dreamed the “solar,” or yellow stars. They are it possible to obtain.

most certainly gaseous, and they are probI wish it were easy to tell you what the ably more distended by heat than is the spectroscope is and how it does its work. sun, and are not nearly so heavy, bulk But I fear the story would be a little diffi- for bulk, as are stars of the solar type. cult to make quite clear. I will only say Then there are very many stars which here that it has the power of breaking up have a decidedly reddish color. These and sifting, so to say, the light of the sun are generally thought to be suns which or of a star or of any other shining body, have cooled down to a temperature much and thus revealing to a practiced eye below that of our sun. They are apsomething of the nature of the body from proaching extinction as luminaries. which the light has come. It can tell, There are still other stars which some for example, whether the body is solid or astronomers think are simply dense clouds gaseous; and it can tell something about of meteors-small bodies which congreits temperature; whether it is exceed gate in vast shoals or swarms, and which ingly hot or only moderately hot.

are in rapid motion among themselves. This is what the spectroscope has told These meteors are supposed to be continus about the stars.

ually clashing together, producing by A very large number of the stars, it their hard knocks against one another tells us-nearly one-half—resemble the heat and light—"striking fire," as we sun very closely, although few of them say. The astronomers who hold this resemble it exactly. They are, like the opinion believe that these meteoric masses sun, intensely hot bodies. Probably they are slowly condensing, and are becoming are enormous masses of densely com- hotter, as well as more compact, and that pressed gases. In their upper regions some day they will become suns, alfloat clouds, of which the droplets, instead though this is not their character now. of being of water, as are those of our ter This question of the nature of the stars restrial clouds, are of molten metal; or, as is one of the most interesting of the quessome astronomers think, they are glow- tions to which astronomers are now trying particles of carbon. Above this pho- ing to find an answer. They have as yet tosphere,” as this dazzling cloud envel- only made a beginning; but as you see from ope is called, is an atmosphere in which what has just been said, they have already float gases that are comparatively cool found out that, whatever the stars are, and the vapors of metals. In the atmos they are not all alike. It is considered as phere of the sun all of the more impor- most likely that they are in different tant of the “elements," as chemists say stages of formation or of world-life, or to -iron, copper, aluminum, sodium, man- state the case a little differently, that the ganese, hydrogen, etc.—are known to work of creating worlds is still going on exist, and a very large number of them before our very eyes, although so slowly are found to be present also in the stars. that the entire life of the human race These sun-like stars may be known by may be a period too short for any very their yellow color.

great changes to take place among these Another class of stars, fully as numer- celestial bodies.


HE answers to the questions wish to read it in its entirety. Not infrefor October will be found in quently in the body of an article will be Volume XIX. of the Ency- found references to other volumes of the clopædia Britannica.

Encyclopædia Britannica. Usually the page given is the one on which the article begins, as it Oct. 1. Viewing at this distance of time the is assumed that the private student will vast theatre of the second Earl of Chatham's

that he was the first traveler to make observations possessing real scientific value? 404

Oct. 17. What are the salient points of interest in the evolution of the post-office system?

562 Oct. 18. What have been the chief incentives to search in frozen seas, and to whom are we most indebted for our present knowledge of the polar regions ?

315 Oct. 19. How old is the use of pins, and what are the chief processes in the manufacture of this convenient article ?

97 Oct. 20. What elements in the character of Alexander Pope escaped the notice of the biased and undiscriminating critics of his own time, and yielded only to such literary alchemy as finds illustration in Britannica biographies?

481 Oct. 21. What are mankind's chief obligations to Portugal, and what are the causes of the present decadence of its maritime power? 536

Oct. 22. Where originated the practice of smoking tobacco in pipes, and what is the magnitude of the pipe-making industry now? 110

Oct. 23. Who was Pizarro, and what expedition made him famous ?

activity, what are the chief lessons to be learned by H. U. L. members from a perusal of Lord Macaulay's felicitous portrayal of the great leader?

134 Oct. 2. What facts of general interest are presented by the history of platinum, where was it once coined, and what was the alleged reason for its speedy demonetization ?


18 Oct. 3. Who founded the house of Plantagenet, and which are the chief names in this long line of princes, whose descendants still sit in high places ?

175 Oct. 4. What is the history of the Plague, to what regions is it now practically restricted, and to what is due this mastery over the once dread disease?

159 Oct. 5. What wide-spread and venomous slanders of Edgar Allan Poe (whom a gifted French critic pronounced “the greatest analytical mind of the century'') are corrected in Minto's masterly sketch of the lamented Southerner? 255

Oct. 6. What is known concerning Pontius Pilate of New Testament notoriety ? 89

Oct. 7. What Europeans first found the potato in a cultivated state, and when was it intro. duced into Europe ?

593 Oct. 8. What lesson is taught by the brilliant success of America's greatest sculptor-Hiram Powers ?

Oct. 9. What interesting contributions to our knowledge of ancient Italy are due to excavations at Pompeii?

Oct. 10. Through what stages of development has the piano passed ?

64 Oct. 11. Under what adverse circumstances did Wm. H. Prescott achieve distinction as a most scholarly and accurate historian ? 702

Oct. 12. Which are the principal pigments and what is their relative commercial impor. tance ?

85 Oct. 13. What is the historical significance of pilgrimages and to what countries and religions are they chiefly restricted at the present day? 90

Oct. 14. What is the extent of our knowledge concerning Plutarch, the author of the incomparable " Lives," which everybody reads sooner or later?

232 Oct. 15. Where are the most valuable varieties of pine found, and what are the distinguishing characteristics of each ?

102 Oct. 16. What facts (stranger than fiction) give color to the claim made for Marco Polo,




Oct. 24. What is the present perfcction of . pottery as an art, and what remarkable variations are exhibited by the products of different periods and countries?

600 Oct. 25. What place in Latin literature is held by the comic dramatist, Plautus? 215

Oct. 26. What combination of circumstances caused Poland to disappear as a separate country from the map of Europe ?

285 Oct. 27. Which was the greatest of the popes who bore the name of Pius ?

151-157 Oct. 28. What interesting facts are presented by the history of plate and plate-engraving in the different countries?

178 Oct. 29. What qualities of style and methods of work caused Polybius's account of Roman affairs to take rank above that of Livy, though the latter undoubtedly enjoyed far superior facilities?

411 Oct. 30. What peculiarities of structure and habits render the platypus (“duck-bill") the most remarkable of existing animals? 213

Oct. 31. What was the importance of Pisa during and just after the Crusades, and what was the origin of the contest with Genoa, in which Pisa succumbed to her great rival ? 118


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A HE publication immediately of turn to Mr. Sherman's narrative as to a

John Sherman's Recollections contemporary author of the first rank.
af Forty Years in the House,
Senate, and Cabinet, will
add to books of recent Amer A Family

Among families of the

of Distinction ican history one, not only of the great

tinction highest distinction in the

: est interest for popular reading, but settlement of New England and of Amerof extreme importance to students of our ica, two may be named as taking a conpolitics, and to the future historian. Mr. spicuous lead in the earliest days, and Sherman's pages show that he has used maintaining an illustrious line to the absolute frankness, even to the extent present time. They are those of Winof self-criticism, in his recital of both po- throp and Sherman. Both came out of litical and personal matters. They are the county of Suffolk, in the east of Engrich in pithy judgments, in anecdotes land, and not far from London. John and personal sketches, and in outlined Winthrop was born of a family of means views of great passages of history, the and high standing in Suffolk in 1587. weight of which, as testimony, cannot be How he led the greatest of Puritan emlexaggerated.

igrations out of England to Massachusetts And it cannot fail to seem plain Bay in 1629, is one of the great stories to every intelligent reader that the author of the heroic settlement of New England; of this remarkable narrative was, in standing next after the forever matchless more respects than one, a foremost story of the Pilgrim settlement at Plyfigure in the whole history. Possibly it mouth in 1620. may seem that he, especially at the first, In 1585 there was born, also in Suffolk, stood for more in the making of the his- and of like important family, Edmond tory than any other single individual, Sherman, of whose three sons, John, president, general, or other. The book Edmond, and Samuel, the first and the will be universally welcomed as a notable third leaving England in April, 1634, one, notable alike for its value to the arrived in Boston in June, and entered mass of readers, and for its importance conspicuously into the development of to scholars and statesmen. It will long New England. It is from the youngest, instruct generations of Americans in the Samuel, that the brilliant and famous real history of a momentous passage in general and the eminent statesman and human affairs; and learned inquiry in re senator are descended. gard to the persons, the policy, and the The third in descent from Samuel Sherevents of that great period will always man of the line leading to the general

Copyright, 1895, by The WERNER COMPANY. All rights reserved. 465

and the senator, was Judge Daniel Sher- The eldest son of Judge Sherman, man, of Woodbury, in Connecticut; a man Charles Robert Sherman, born in Norof commanding powers of mind, of ster- walk, Connecticut, in 1788, and settled ling integrity,—a matter of course in the with his young wife at Lancaster, Ohio, Sherman line,-who filled a variety of in 1811, had, until his early death at 41 public posts during more than a third of a years of age, a very distinguished place century, including the period of the Amer- in the creation of the State of Ohio out ican Revolution. The celebrated Roger of a wilderness territory. He had enSherman was his cousin. And a thorough tered at the date of his death upon the type of the family was this famous Roger sixth year of his occupancy of the SuSherman.

preme Judicial Bench in Ohio, and was, When New Haven spoke out against beyond a doubt, in public appreciation, the stamp tax, its most significant act the first citizen of the state, and one to was the election, September 17, 1765, of whom would have been, if he had lived, Roger Sherman to be one of their repre- entrusted the representation of the state sentatives—“ one of the great men of his in the senate of the United States. time," Bancroft says. Forty-four years of age, a member of the bar from 1754, A Typical

The common wealth, few men of the time had his clearness of

Commonwealth which thus lost a conhead and soundness of heart. Bancroft spicuously foremost citizen, stands in the justly designates him, at his next con- history of the United States, with referspicuous appearance, in 1774, a man ence to the second great period of Amer“whom solid sense and the power of clear ican development, somewhat as New Enganalysis were to constitute one of the land stands with reference to the first pemaster builders of our republic.” “The riod of American development. Its origparliament of Great Britain,” said this inal planting was the planting of the clear-headed rebel, “can rightfully make eastern front of an extensive territory, laws for America in no case whatever.” destined to be divided into six states, and

In the great constitutional convention not of that extensive territory alone, but of 1787 no man stood nearer the top, by of the vast region west of the Mississippi the side of Washington, than Roger to the far shores of the Pacific. Sherman. Only Benjamin Franklin was A noteworthy point in the character of his senior in that body. Only George Washington and in the story of his career Washington was more than his peer. A appears in the prophetic eye with which product of self-culture, he bore the guinea he regarded the undeveloped country bestamp as hardly another man of his yond the Ohio, and in the fact that his time, out of whatever university, did. first conspicuous appearance as a historThe church, the college, the state, the ju- ical character was in the mission which dicial bench, Congress, committees of the he executed as a representative of British first importance, and conventions of the and American colonial interests, sent by greatest historical significance, claimed the governor of Virginia, to challenge his services and found his leadership the presence of a French armed force in matchless, his character beyond reproach. the wilderness beyond the Ohio. The

Taylor Sherman, the son of Judge Dan- story of that mission, though but a hasty iel Sherman, was grandfather to the sen- fragment reporting its incidents and its ator. His wife, Elizabeth Stoddard, whom outcome, was yet a notable writing, and he married in the great year of liberty, one which carried the name of the young 1787—was a woman of the strongest and Virginian all over Europe, because of the sturdiest Puritan type--"the best type I relation it bore to the impending conflict have known,” says her grandson, “of of English and French interests on the the strong-willed religious Puritan of the American continent. How Washington, Connecticut School,”—a woman who with a handful of colonial soldiers, sought “maintained a masterly care of her chil- the French on the Ohio and drew the first dren and her grandchildren." It fell to blood in that conflict; how, later, he had Taylor Sherman, as the agent of the offi- part in the disaster of Braddock's bloody cial survey, to become familiar with, and field and carried off from that terrible to locate the seat of the family fortunes in English defeat the highest soldierly disthat section of Ohio known as the West- tinction, has long been a familiar story. ern Connecticut Reserve.

It is less known how, in the darkest mid

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