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only, the discouragement of all imports, nations began to comprehend the true and the support of all monopolies—these principles which underlie and govern the things, chief elements of what is called laws of trade. The idea of self-interest the 'isolation theory of trade,' gave Hol- being always uppermost, it was hard to land vast temporary wealth, discouraged understand how the same transaction her power of production, and finally left could be of equal benefit to both of the her impotent among the nations."'* parties engaged in making it. It was
England was not slow to push forward still more difficult to believe that the and secure a fair share of the world's prosperity of any nation is enhanced by commerce, and particularly of the trade the prosperity of its neighbor with which with America and the Indies. In 1599 it has trade relations, or that the systhe merchants and adventurers of Lon- tematic impoverishment of a colony in don organized, for the purpose of trade order to promote the commercial interests in India, the famous East India Com- of the mother-country is sure to produce pany, which was incorporated by Queen effects the opposite of those intended. It Elizabeth in the same year. This was was the short-sighted policy of self-interthe first step in a series of events which est which led England to impose upon finally added to the British dominions the American colonies a series of “navthe vast territories now known as the igation laws” restricting their trade with Indian Empire. It was followed by the one another as well as with foreign counestablishment of numerous colonies in tries. From the period of the first setNorth America and the acquisition of tlements the provinces were regarded several islands among the West In- merely as the instruments of commerce, dies, besides the establishment one after existing solely for the enrichment of another of trading-posts in almost every the mother-country. Hence laws were part of the world.
enacted closing the ports of the Thus, within the eventful centuries colonies against all foreign vessels; that followed the somewhat timid enter- obliging them to export their producprises of Prince Henry the Navigator, tions only to countries belonging to the world was well explored. Colonies the British crown; permitting them to were planted on every coast; great na- import European goods from England tions sprang up in vast solitudes or in only, and in English ships; and requircountries inhabited only by savage op ing them to pay duties upon merdecadent races of men; and all parts of chandise received from whatever source the world were brought into habitual into the colonies. All manufactures, too, commercial intercourse. The seas, sub- in the colonies, that might interfere with dued by the progress of navigation to the those of the mother-country were either service of man, now yielded their own totally prohibited or subjected to intolerriches in great abundance; and the able restraints. The acts of Parliament, whale, seal, herring, cod, and other fish- imposing these restrictions and prohibieries, prosecuted with ample capital and tions, caused, at various times, great dishardy seamanship, had become the source content and opposition on the part of the of no small traffic in themselves. The colonists, and finally culminated in the lists of imports and exports, and of the revolutionary outbreak of 1775, and the places from which they flowed—to and establishment of the free and independent from the centers of trade--show how government of the United States. * Great busily and steadily the threads of com- Britain was not alone in this selfish policy merce had been weaving together the of regarding the colonies as instruments labor and interests of mankind and ex- rather than as partners in promoting the tending a security and bounty of exist commercial prosperity of the nation. But ence unknown in former ages. +
the folly of such a policy has long since
been recognized by every enlightened goyXXVI.
ernment, and restrictive laws intended to It was a long time, however, and not give the monopoly of traffic to the motheruntil many disastrous experiments had country have no longer a place on the been tried, before the most sagacious of statute books of any European nation.
* See E. B., Vol. XII. 80, subject “Holland.”
† See E. B. Vol. VI. 203, article “Com. *See E. B., Vol. XXVI. 735, article “United merce."
THE STORY OF THE EARTH
some places, over one thousand feet thick. CONTINUED—LAND MONSTERS It consists almost wholly of microscopic
shells, which, in a fornier age, were deN telling the story of the rep posited as a white mud on the bottom of tiles I took occasion to guard the sea. you against supposing that all Following these lowly forms of life of the animals of the ancient came insects and fishes. How the fishes
world were monsters. Now were followed by the saurians,-airthat we propose to look at some of the breathing animals, of which some lived huge land animals,-mammals, as they in the sea, some partly on land and are called,—which followed the saurians, partly in the water, as do the modern it will be well to repeat the caution, lest turtles and crocodiles, while others lived you should form a wrong idea of the an- wholly on the land, -as has been told cient and now, for the most part, extinct in the preceding chapter. We have seen forms of life which have left their vestiges that some of them were of enormous in the rocks. The shell-fish, worms, in- size, and it is because of the promisects, fishes, and animals of the ancient nent place which they thus held in the world were mostly no larger than those animal kingdom that the period of which exist to-day, but they were, almost time in which they flourished has been without exception, so different than those called the “ Age of Reptiles." What it now living that a naturalist readily dis- was that peculiarly favored the class of tinguishes an ancient from a modern spe- animals, and how long their reign lasted, cies, and can even tell the age in which and why they finally dwindled in size, it lived.
many of them becoming wholly extinct, From the earliest times to the present are questions to which no complete anthe lowest forms of animals have been swer has yet been found. That they exceedingly minute. The animalcules, flourished for many thousand years is ceror “ little animals,” which swarm in tain, for during this age very great countless millions in a pool of stagnant changes took place in the earth's crust. water, are so tiny that we can see them We have now reached the period in the only with a microscope. There are shell- earth's story which geologists call the fish so small that to the naked eye they Tertiary Age, or the Recent-life Age. look like particles of dust. These minute Preceding this were the Primary, or Ancreatures, which now stand lowest in the cient-life Age, and the Secondary, or scale of animal life, seem to have been Middle-life Age. The former of these is the first of animals created. The oldest sometimes called the “ Age of Fishes”; limestone rocks were built upon the bot- the latter is the period which we have toms of seas and lakes out of the shells of been calling the “Age of Reptiles." such minute creatures. When I tell you The Tertiary Age is in like manner that the layers of these rocks are often called, from its higher class of animals, hundreds of feet in thickness, you can the “ Age of Mammals.” form some idea how plentiful these little A t the beginning of this period—the creatures were and how many thousands “Recent-life Age"—the chalk deposits of generations of them must have lived spoken of above had already been lifted and perished to form of their tiny shells out of the sea. The continents had asdeposits of such depth. The chalk which sumed pretty nearly their present forms, forms the white cliffs of England, and although their mountains had not yet layers of which are found here and there reached their loftiest height. Europe over nearly the whole of Europe, is, in and America were about the same as now in extent and outline, but in both pictures which we want. I need do litcontinents there were large inland seas. tle more than name the animals and refer Into these seas the rivers carried, besides you to the Encyclopedia, where you will the mud, which slowly subsided over find them fully described, with pictures their bottoms, rubbish of all sorts of their skeletons, as they appear mounted leaves, mosses, twigs and plants and in various museums. whole trunks of trees, and now and then We will begin with the Mammoth and the carcass of an animal, which would be the Mastodon. Both of these huge devoured by fishes, except the bones beasts belonged to the elephant family; but and this various material, sinking, finally, they differ in many particulars from each to the bottom, became buried in the mud, other and from any existing species of deeper and deeper as the years and cent- elephants. The Mammoth does not uries passed, while the mud itself in the really belong to the age of which we are course of time became changed into rock. speaking, but made its first appearance
These Tertiary deposits are often of after that age had closed. Still, it has vast thickness, and in some favored lo- long been extinct, and as one of the best calities they are filled from top to bottom known of fossil animals, it may well with material of the kind just described— stand at the head of our list. evidences of the sortsof plants and animals Remains of the Mammoth*-its bones, which flourished during this age. These teeth, and tusks—are found in the northvegetable and animal forms are found to ern part of Asia, in nearly all parts of be very closely related to those which are Europe, and in the northern part of North still living. Few species, either of plants America. They are particularly abunor animals, have so high an antiquity as dant along the coast of Siberia. Indeed, the beginning of this period; but the the first complete skeleton of a Mammoth general character of vegetation and of was found in that country. It had been animal life was the same then as now. buried in the ice for no one knows how There were oaks and maples and syca- many thousand years, and when it was mores and others of our present forest thawed out during an unusually warm trees; there were flowering plants, of summer, the flesh was still so well prewhich the leaves and petals are often served that the wolves and dogs came to found so well preserved that even their feed upon it at night. From these refine veins can be traced distinctly, while mains and from others which have been the remains of bees and wasps and but preserved in the same way, in this sort of terflies tell of the honey distilled by these natural refrigerator—that is, buried in flowers of an age which had closed before ice or in frozen ground-it is known that man made his appearance upon the earth. the Mammoth was clothed with a thick
The climate during nearly the whole coat of long and shaggy brown hair. Its of this period is shown by the character appearance was, therefore, quite unlike of the vegetation to have been nearly that of the modern elephant. Its most tropical, even in high northern latitudes. striking feature, however, was its enorThe polar regions had not yet become mous curved tusks. These tusks are covered with the never-melting sheet of found in vast numbers in Siberia and are ice and snow which now mantles them, an article of commerce, affording exceland there are reasons to believe that veg- lent ivory. Not unfrequently they are etation extended to the pole itself. We nine or ten feet in length. shall see, in a subsequent chapter, that The Mastodont was a Tertiary animal, this state of things came to a remarkable and in Europe it had become extinct beclose, -that there came a season of intense fore the appearance of the Mammoth, cold, known as the Glacial Period, when although in America the Mastodon conice not only formed about the pole, but tinued to exist down to a comparatively spread itself over nearly the whole of Eu- recent time. It was, probably, hairless, rope and over America as far south as like the elephant, and it differed in apthe Ohio river.
pearance from the Mammoth in having We started out to look at some ani- tusks that were nearly straight. The mals which lived during this Tertiary most complete remains of this animal Age. The description of an animal is incomplete without a picture. Fortun *“Mammoth.” E. B. Vol. XV., 447. ately our Encyclopedia contains just the “Mastodon.” E. B. Vol. XV., 622.
have been found in America. In Ken- or Great-beast, was a gigantic sloth. All tucky, twenty miles south of Cincinnati, is of the remains of this animal have been a famous salt spring called the Big Bone found in South America, in the deposits Lick, from which it is estimated that the of the Argentine Republic and Paraquay, bones of one hundred Mastodons and and along the Rio de la Plata. Like the twenty Mammoths have been dug, to- Mammoth, this “Great-beast” came gether with the bones of many other ani- after the close of the Tertiary Age; but mals, recent and extinct. Three perfect it has long been extinct. skeletons of Mastodons have been dug The Mylodon* (Myl-o-don), or Millfrom the marshes of Orange county, in tooth, was also a South American aniNew York; one near Cohoes Falls, on the mal, and like the preceding was a huge Mohawk; one in New Jersey, and an- beast, at least as large as a rhinoceros. other on the banks of the Missouri, and You will see it represented in the picture separate bones and partial skeletons have resting on its hind legs and supporting been found in many other places.
itself against a tree. It is supposed to Soon after the discovery of the fossil have fed on the leaves of trees, dragging elephant of Siberia workmen engaged in down the branches with its forepaws. the stone quarries near Paris discovered Along the eastern slope of the Rocky some curious bones, which they took to Mountains, in the region which now the celebrated naturalist Cuvier for ex- forms parts of Wyoming, Colorado and amination. Cuvier decided that they New Mexico, there was, in the age of belonged to an animal which no longer which we are speaking, an extensive inexisted, and he gave it the name land sea. The deposits formed on the Palæotherium,(Pal-e-o-thé-ri-um)*which bottom of this sea, and on the bottoms means Ancient-animal. Since that time of other seas then existing in the westremains of these “ Ancients" have been ern part of the continent, are remarkfound in great nunibers in both Europe ably rich in fossils, and have yielded and America. These animals resemble in many remains of strange monsters which some respects the modern tapir, having are found nowhere else. It would be a short proboscis, or trunk, and in some impossible to describe them here, and a particulars they were like the hog. list of their hard names would not be There were several species of them, very attractive. I will show you one varying in size from a sheep to a horse. only, as a specimen, the Dinocerast At one time they were, probably, very (Din-o-ce-ras), or Terrible-horn, and numerous, and it is thought that they when you have seen the picture of its roamed in great herds.
skeleton you will agree with me that the The Anoplotheriumt (An-op-lo-thé- monster, when clothed with flesh, must ri-um), or Weaponless-beast, was some have been hideous enough to deserve what like the preceding, but without this terrible name. the trunk and with a longer tail. It Among the fossils of the deposits just might be regarded as a sort of ancient referred to are found the remains of a hornless deer.
family of animals, which can be arranged The Dinotherium (Di-no-the-ri-um)— into a regular series, and which are of a these are hard names—was, as its name particular interest to naturalists, because implies, a “frightful beast.” A head they have been thought to represent the of one of these animals, found in Hesse ancestors of the modern horse at different Darmstadt, measured 472 feet in length periods. One of them, called the Hippaand 3 in breadth, thus indicating an rion (Hip-pa-ri-on), which is found also animal surpassing the elephant in size. in Europe, very closely resembled the A picture of a skull of this animal is horse, except that it was smaller and that given in the Encyclopedia. I You will for feet it had three hoofs instead of one. see that the “ frightful” feature of the Remains of the true horse are also found beast was a great hook-like tusk attached in America, although this animal became to its lower jaw.
extinct in this country before the time of The Megatheriums (Meg-a-thé-ri-um), its discovery by Europeans.
There were no bears, lions, or tigers in ** Palæotherium,” E. B Vol. XV. 429. t" Anoplotherium," E. B. Vol. XV. 430. I“ Dinotherium,” E. B. Vol. XV. 426.
*“Mylodon,” E. B. Vol. XV. 385. Megatherium," E. B. Vol. XV. 829.
t" Dinoceras,” E. B. Vol. XV. 426.
the age of which we have been speaking, The Man in the Moon, for example, although there were many flesh-eaters who has not heard how he which stood in their stead; so that the
Came down too soon, weaker herbivorous animals had their
Inquiring the way to Norwich ? enemies then as now. After the close of But how many persons nowadays ever this period, in what we may call here the hear more of him? “Mother Goose" Fourth Age—the present geological age did not invent the Man in the Moon. -in the deposits of which vestiges of She simply alluded to a story which in man are for the first time met with, these her day was well known to everybody,beasts of prey also made their appearance. the story, once widely current in both Europe, even in England, was at one England and Germany, of a man who, time infested with bears and hyenas, by for some terrible crime, which some said the side of which the modern bear and was theft and others said was Sabbathhyena would appear as pigmies. The breaking, was banished to the moon, remains of these beasts have been found where he must remain to all eternity, in caves which had been their dens, and and whom anybody can still see, who which, when discovered, were thickly looks for him. strewn with the bones of the animals on Of course this story was started to ac. which they had feasted.*
count for the dark spots on the moon's This brief account is intended merely face. There were other ways in which to give you some idea of the various these spots were accounted for, An old strange and often frightful animals which Icelandic book, called the Edda, contains have lived on the earth and have, for- a story about Mani, the Moon, which is, tunately for us, ceased to exist–to inter- in substance, this: est you in the subject. If you will turn Mani, it is said, once stole from the over the pages of the article MAMMALIAŤ earth two children, a boy and a girl, in the Encyclopædia you will find, to- named Hjuki and Bil. They had been gether with many pictures of the remains drawing water from the spring Byrgir, of extinct animals, many interesting facts and were carrying it in a bucket susrelating to them, which we have necessa pended from a pole, which rested on their rily passed unnoticed.
shoulders. Mani placed these two children in a conspicuous place in the heavens,
where they could be seen by all men. SOMETHING ABOUT
This undoubtedly refers to the spots on NURSERY RHYMES
the moon, and it is said that to this day
the Swedish peasants point to two of these The greater number of those rhymes spots as a boy and a girl carrying a bucket which are know as the Mother Goose of water between them. Melodies, are, as every one knows, mere
Now, “Mother Goose” had heard this jingles of words, which, if they ever had story, undoubtedly, and that is how she any point or meaning, have lost it irre- came to make up the rhyme about Jack coverably. But now and then we come and Jill. She changed the name Hjuki across something in this medley of non- into Jack and turned Bil into Jill, so that sense, of which most children, and most it would not seem to be a boy's name; of all old children, have a delicious recol- and the story about the mishap that belection,—to remind us that these rhymes fell the children was easily invented. We are not a modern invention, but that they can, in fact, see the accident occur every have been repeated to children generation month, if we will watch the moon; for as after generation, and that some of them the moon wanes its spots successively at least have a very respectable antiquity. disappear: “Jack falls down and Jill They contain many allusions to old cus- comes tumbling after.” toms, to old superstitions, and to stories Another venerable, if not a very dignionce current among our ancestors. but fied, personage met with in the pages of which are now to be found only in the
"Mother Goose” is “Tom, the Piper's books of scholars who have made a study Son." So long as Tom is presented to of ancient fables and popular legends.
us only as a pig-stealer, there is nothing
about him that is particularly attractive. * "Cave Beasts,” E. B., Vol. II. 336,337.
But when we are told of his wonderful + “Mammalia,'' E. B., Vol. XV. 347.
power as a musician, that he