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- played with such skill

even the trees to dance, was simply the That those who heard him could never keep wind. It is this musician who still plays still,

“Over the Hills and Far Away." although

-the only tune that he could play Was “Over the Hills and Far Away,"

THE SOLAR DAY we begin to get interested. We recall N ine persons out of ten-yes, nine hunto mind another fainous piper, the Pied dred and ninety-nine persons out of every Piper of Hamelin. He, too, played with thousand-if asked how long it takes the marvelous skill, and was able to draw earth to turn once on its axis, would after him by means of his enchanting answer, twenty-four hours; and to the pipe whatever listening creatures he chose question, how many times does it turn to attract, whether mice or children. He, on its axis in the course of the year, the too, was a villainous thief, and he stole answer would be, three hundred and away the little ones of the good people of sixty-five and a quarter times. Hamelin, disappearing with them forever Both answers are wrong. It requires but in the Koppelberg hill.

twenty-three hours and fifty-six minutes There have been other musicians for the earth to make one complete turn, equally powerful. When the Greek Or- and it makes three hundred and sixtypheus tuned his lyre, not only did the six and a quarter turns during the year. beasts of the forests come to listen, but The error springs from a wrong idea even the rocks and the trees danced. of what is meant by a day. The day is

A very curious and very complete ex- not, as is commonly supposed, the time planation has been found for this Grecian required by the earth to make one turn fable. The name Orpheus is the same on its axis, but the interval between two word as the Hindoo arbhu or ribhu. The successive passages of the sun across the Ribhus, in Hindoo legend, were cunning meridian–that is to say, the time which artificers. They built the chariot of the elapses after the sun is seen exactly south god Indra. Numerous traits reveal their at noon before it is again seen in that true character. They were originally position. simply the winds. In German and Eng- Now, in consequence of the earth's lish fairy tales they appear as alben or revolution in its orbit, or path around elves, cunning and unseen workers of the sun, the sun has the appearance of mischief, which, as we can see now, al moving in the heavens very slowly though we should hardly have guessed toward the east. At noon to-morrow the it, had we not the key furnished by their sun will be a short distance to the east of names, were at first simply the winds, the point in the heavens at which it is at like their relatives the Ribhus. The noon to-day, so that when the earth has same key unlocks the mystery of the fa- made one complete turn it will still have ble of Orpheus and the musicians of his to turn four minutes longer before the class. The original musician who moved sun can again be seen exactly south.


THE questions for December are December 2. What points of resemblance in

| answered in Vol. XIV. of character and career do Kosciusko and La El the Encyclopædia Britannica. Fayette present ?

142, 201 9 Au unusuaily large propor

December 3. What are the obligations of Y tion relate to persons, and this

mathematicians to Laplace, Lagrange and Lefact will render them specially interesting, as the current of popular inquiry

gendre, probably the most illustrious triad of

contemporaries the world has ever seen in this is everywhere setting in that direction

realm of knowledge?

301, 207, 413 now.

December 1. Where are the finest laces December 4. What is known of the Kurds, made, and how does the machine-made product whose name has come into such wide notoriety compare with hand-made laces?

183 through the Armenian massacres?





December 5. What place does Robert E. Lee hold among those whose names the Civil War raised into celebrity?

399 December 6. What is the present condition of the world's great libraries, and which are the most remarkable?

509, 993 December 7. On what astronomical labors rests the fame of Kepler and what estimate has posterity placed upon them?

45 December 8. What additions have been made to our knowledge of prehistoric peoples by a study of the “ Lake Dwellings”? 222

December 9. What literary labors bear testimony to the genius of Littré and in what line of work has he never been equaled? 705

December 10. What various kinds of oil have been used for illuminating purposes, and what improvement do modern lamps show in comparison with those of an earlier age? 244

December 11. To what is attributable Le Sage's peculiar distinction of being more important in European literature than in that of his own country?

472 December 12. In what respects are the Lapps sharply distinguished from the nations which surround them, and what animal takes among them the place of the horse and ox? 304

December 13. What trying situation called Abraham Lincoln's talents into action, and what crisis in American affairs afterward made his personality assume colossal proportions?

653 December 14. Of what devices and contrivances does the lapidary avail himself in cutting the diamond and other precious stones?

298 December 15. What is the extent and variety of those labors by which Lessing changed the whole current of German literature?

478 December 16. What do we know of the properties of light, and what eminent men distinguished themselves in elaborating the theory which accounts for the observed facts?

577 December 17. What instructive facts are presented by the different systems of lavdtenure from the earliest times down to the present?

259 December 18. To what qualities of head and heart does Longfellow owe his wide popularity with all classes of readers?

860 December 19. What are the dominant peculiarities of the Latin language, which long surviving the downfall of imperial Rome, bequeathed its virile vigor to derived tongues

and enriched the vocabulary of every cultivated idiom of modern times?

December 20. What operations characterized by sigual administrative and military ability, marked Kublai Khan as the greatest of Chinese rulers?

150 December 21. What legislative measures in regard to labor in England, and some other European countries, illustrate special phases of the labor question in America?

165 December 22. In what famous work did La Bruyère combine the nicer qualities of Pope's satire and the sculpturesque precision of Addison's prose?

December 23. What triumphs in lock-conStruction have given Americans the first place in this important branch of manufacturing?

744, 1020 December 24. Which of the natural sciences owes to Linnæus its advance from a state of chaotic conjecture to the dignity of exhibiting accurate classification with exact nomenclature?

671 December 25. What points of accidental resemblance are observed on comparing Lamaism with Catholicism?

December 26. What were the fortunes of those German invaders who left on the people of Northern Italy an imprint sharply distinguishing them, even after the lapse of centuries, from the swarthy southern Italians descended, for the most part, from Rome's Asiatic and African slaves ?

December 27. What place has been assigned to John Knox among those reformers who gave direction to the religious thought of their century ?

December 28. What facts and figures with reference to London's greatness serve to illustrate, in part, England's commercial and political system, the most stupendous with which history has to do?

818, 1019 December 29. What are the chief incidents. in the life of Keats, whose poems, ignored upon first publication, have in our day been lifted by the consensus of critics to equal rank with those of Coleridge and Shelley ?

22 December 30. What legend of antiquity fur. nished the subject for the most striking piece of sculpture which has come down to our times?

292 December 31. What is the history of logarithms, which, by abridging computations, have given new impetus to mathematical study, and rendered practicable new forms of scientific research?




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[See Special Announcement, Prize Essay Contest, page 702.]

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A Magazine of Knowledge with Departments Devoted to the Interests


JANUARY, 1896.

No. 4.

SELF CULTURE will be published on the first of each month. It will be sent postpaid for one year on receipt of $2.00.
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HEN Washington saw the sun with broader and richer lands. The futof assured freedom rise upon ure student of the foundations of Amerthe confederated American ican history across the entire continent states at the close of the Re- will trace with peculiar interest the steps

volution his first thought was of men and women and families of chilof the paths by which commerce would dren of English descent from Pilgrim connect the East with the yet undevel- and Puritan ancestors, who opened in New England oped immense West. He the wilderness beyond the Hudson and

and the West devoted his own inter- along the great lakes, to the line of the est to the great highway leading from the Mississippi and far across to the Pacific Potomac to the Ohio. At the same time Coast, paths of progress which will to he pointed out the certainty of the open- the most distant time bear witness, such ing of a second great highway from the as no land in the world has elsewhere Hudson to Lake Erie. To the men of known, of thorough planting of the best New England who had reduced them- culture. selves to penury to win the independ. The territory of Michigan was an atence of America, and who found them- tractive field to great numbers of westselves hopeless of getting the meager payern-moving emigrants from New Engdue for their services, the great commander land, and one of the first results of the pointed out the prospect of bettering their presence of these emigrants in this field condition by attempting the planting of was the initiation of a scheme or schemes the West.

which reached large accomplishment in The settlement of Ohio was one of the the establishment, on the basis of state first results following from action taken support, of the University of Michigan. in pursuance of Washington's suggestion. When the territory of Indiana was creAnother was the advance of emigration ated, April 30, 1802, Michigan was infrom the Atlantic Coast along the line of cluded in it until set off as Michigan, central New York and the south shore of June 20, 1805. It was not until 1817 the great lakes. The completion of the that the Indian tribes having claims Erie Canal about 1825 greatly acceler- within the territory parted with their title ated the westward movement of New to lands which they had occupied. In doEnglanders, seeking larger opportunities ing so, these Indian tribes specially

Copyright, 1895, by THE WERNER COMPANY. All rights reserved. 657

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