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granted six sections of laud to be devoted scientific. The institution was opened to to purposes of education. As early as Au- women, by a vote of the regents, January gust 26, 1817, the governor and judges of 5, 1870, and in the same year an organic the territory adopted an act for establish- connection was established between the ing a university, and entrusted the execu- university and the high schools of the tion of it to a Catholic clergymen of wide state. popularity, Father Richard, and to an To a considerable extent the methods able Presbyterian minister, Rey. John adopted under Dr. Tappan and his sucMonteith. A second act was passed cessors were those of the German univerApril 30, 1821, giving a new form to the sities, but by far the larger part of the decorporation founded in 1817. Little was velopments which have raised Michigan done during the next sixteen years, ex- to the highest university level have been cept to care for the land grants already effected under the long presidency of Dr. made.

Angell. The liberality of the state, how

ever, alone made these developments posMichigan

On the admission of sible. From 1867 to 1891 the university versity Michigan as a state into had received from the state over $1,800,the Union, educational plans of large 000. An admirably planned library buildscope, including university development, ing with fire-proof room for 100,000 volwere embodied in the state constitution. umes, a large reading-room and special What was then a novelty, a state superin- seminary rooms were dedicated December tendent of public instruction, had been 12, 1883. Other notable developments of provided for in the Michigan constitu- the last ten years have been an extensive tion. The governor appointed Rev. John and complete physical and hygienical D. Pierce to this office, and he, upon full laboratory and an engineering laboratory. inquiry among educators in the East, and In the development of university methwith rare practical sagacity, matured a ods the administration of Michigan Unicomprehensive university scheme, which versity during the last quarter of a the Legislature adopted March 18, 1837. century has in many respects taken the Two days later the Legislature ordered the lead. The freedom of choice in studies location of the university at Ann Arbor. which was introduced so successfully at From 1837 to 1852 proved a period of Harvard less than ten years since was immaturity due to undue control by the adopted some years earlier under PresiLegislature.

dent Angell. Facilities for graduate work From the first of January, 1852, a and the development of a large graduate board of regents were given the entire department have increasingly given evicontrol, and their first act was to call to dence in recent years of the high univerthe presidency of the university Dr. sity character of the aims of Michigan Henry P. Tappan, under whom, during University. It stands to-day second to eleven years, the institution was gradu- Harvard in the number of its students, ally changed from a classical college to a and not second to Harvard even in the considerably developed university, with height of its achievement and the breadth an undergraduate department, which of its influence, especially if it be considfully recognized the claims of science, a ered, as our sketch shows, that two other medical department with 250 students, remarkably developed universities, Corand a law school of 134; the total attend- nell in central New York and the Northance reaching 652. Dr. Tappan was western University in Illinois, have been succeeded October 1, 1863, by Dr. E. O. shaped to no small extent through forces Haven, who continued in the position set in motion at Michigan. It may be until June, 1869, when Professor Henry unquestionably said that where Harvard S. Frieze, of the chair of Latin, was made stands at the head of the whole breadth acting president until the acceptance of of Atlantic development, Michigan stands the office (August 1, 1871,) by Dr. J. B. at the head of the whole breadth of Angell, who has continued in the posi- Western development with almost certion to the present time. At the close of tain promise of becoming, if the authorPresident Haven's term of service there ities of the state rise to the full height of were more than 500 medical students, its opportunity, one of the two or three more than 400 law students and about conspicuously largest and strongest se ats 500 collegiate students either classical or of university culture in America.

The Northwestern Among foremost Amer. ish Seminary, established in 1872, for University

ican institutions of providing thoroughly trained ministers at Chicago.

learning broadly devel- for Swedish churches. oped and successfully administered upon The present catalogue of the univeruniversity lines, the Northwestern Uni- sity shows 200 members engaged in the versity, situated in Chicago in large part work of its several faculties of instrucand in part at Evanston on the lake tion and over 2,400 students profiting by shore next north of Chicago, has already that work. The presidency is in the hands obtained the rank of the third largest of Henry Wade Rogers, LL. D., a graduniversity aggregate in America. The uate of the University of Michigan, who charter under which it was established had become dean of the law school of dates from January 28, 1851. Its first that university and had raised it to the president and first successful adminis- position of the largest law school in the trator, Dr. E. O. Haven, president for United States. Elected to his present some time of Michigan University, was position in 1890, to fill an office hitherto appointed in June, 1853. The charter occupied with great distinction by able planted the university as a distinctly clergymen, President Rogers has proved Chicago institution, however it might be an administrator thoroughly representing partly located beyond the city limits. the breadth of development necessary to The words of the charter were: "said a great modern university. institution shall remain located in or The law school, which is established near the city of Chicago.” The trustees in commodious quarters in the Masonci recognized by the charter were four per- Temple, Chicago, is not surpassed in its sons from each of six Methodist-Episco- methods and its corps of instructors and pal Conferences of Illinois, Wisconsin, lecturers by any school in the United North Indiana, and Iowa with twelve States. The medical school occupies an others who were added as “ citizens of advantageous situation in Chicago at the Chicago or its vicinity.” It has not corner of Prairie avenue and Twentybeen commonly understood how thor. sixth street, with every convenience for oughly in every respect this great uni- hospital, museum and laboratory study. versity development has represented The woman's medical school is one of Chicago and is administered in Chicago. the foremost of its kind in America. It Its medical school, its law school, its occupies two large buildings at 333 to school of pharmacy, its dental school, 339 South Lincoln street, opposite the and its woman's medical school, com Cook County Hospital. The school of prising five of its seven departments, are pharmacy, located at 2425 Dearborn street, advantageously situated and carried on is, with a single exception, the largest in Chicago. The college of liberal arts and most successful in the United States. and the schools of theology are estab- The dental school, located on Indiana lished at Evanston. Chicago is the avenue and Twenty-second street, with place where the commencements of the ample provision for thorough medical as university are held.

well as dental instruction, has become The college of liberal arts was opened one of the best schools of its kind to in November, 1855. The medical school which students can resort. was established in connection with the A conspicuous feature in the success university in 1869; the law school in of the university is its provision of a 1873; the school of pharmacy in 1887; woman's hall, accommodating 135 stuthe dental school in 1888; and the dents, and a college cottage affording adwoman's medical school in 1889. The ditional accommodation for about fifty schools of theology are three in number: young women. The university main(1) The Garret Biblical Institute, which tains a large, admirably conducted, and has been in operation since 1856 under very successful school of music; also a Methodist auspices, but open to all young school of oratory of the highest character, men desiring to prepare themselves by with a special building of its own and a study for the Christian ministry. (2) provision of thorough instruction probaThe Norwegian Danish Seminary, in bly unequalled in connection with any which theological study may be pursued American university. For purposes of with the use of Norwegian and Danish adequate preparation for college study, together with English. (3) The Swed- the university controls the administration

of an academy with an attendance of great plan and singularly accomplished nearly 600 pupils.

methods. Of the Quarterly Calendars, Besides the valuable locations belong each a small quarto of over 150 pages, ing to the university in the city of Chi- in which may be read the history of the cago the university campus at Evanston institution to date, fourteen numbers has an area of about forty acres on the have already appeared. A unique feat. shore of Lake Michigan. On it are Uni- ure of the plan under which the work of versity hall, containing a museum, labo the institution has been begun, is that of ratories, lecture and recitation rooms; the dating the entrance of any student from Fayerweather hall of science; the Dear the first of any quarter, thus opening born observatory, in which is the astro- the doors of opportunity to the seekers nomical department of the university; the of knowledge four-square, as it were, to new Orrington Lunt library building; the all the points of the compass. It is in gymnasium, a large dormitory; the me. accordance with this arrangement that morial hall; Swift hall, for the work in the calendar of the university is pubelocution and oratory; Heck hall, the lished quarterly. By enclosing 20 cents dormitory of the theological students; the in a letter addressed to the university, women's hall; and the college cottage. any one can secure a copy of the latest

The statement of receipts and expendi- calendar with its admirable presentation tures of all departments for a year show of what the university is doing and a receipts $253,442, and payments $236,- great deal of incidentally communicated 878. The following comparative enroll- learning and discussion, such as reports ment of students given in one of the uni- of important addresses and abstracts of versity documents shows the place occu- papers which have been read at the unipied by the Northwestern in the list of versity. principal American universities;

The Annual Register of the university, Harvard, total number of students . ... 3,290

issued about May 1 of each year, is a Michigan, total number of students . . . 2,864

quarto volume of 400 pages completely Northwestern, total number of students. 2,414 portraying the elaborate organization

lvania, total number of students . 2,398 and operations of the university for a Yale, total number of students. .... 2,350

year. To all persons interested in study Columbia, total number of students . . .1,954

and especially to advanced scholars and The chief benefactors thus far of the teachers, this hand-book of an exceed

sity have been John Evans, Oring. ingly ambitious scheme of organized ton Lunt, William Deering, Daniel B. learning will be found very rich in inFayerweather, and James B. Hobbs, all terest. Whatever, upon scrutiny, may of whom are represented by generous be found to be the university results gifts and large services to the university. thus far accomplished, under the stimulus No instance of phenomenal contribution

of Mr. Rockefeller's contributions, no to the resources of the university has yet one can examine the pages of the Annual appeared. The very just claim is made Register without finding himself face to that no equal instance can be found of so

face with universal learning in the hands much work done with so little money as of comprehensive instruction. He will that shown by the recent history of the

be sure to ask himself, Is there anything Northwestern University. When the pe

that these people do not know and do riod of phenomenal contributions shall

not teach? The array of names, many arrive, as it must to a university which

of them names of strength and renown is the earliest and the principal repre- in educational matters, would alone sugsentative of development in this direction gest, what the pages of the Register at Chicago, there can be little doubt that abundantly show, that everything has results not surpassed anywhere in America been planned on the basis of giving the will be seen.

very best and giving it in the greatest

abundance. University Any one who will send The university took its start from the

of Chicago for the documents of interest of the American Baptist Educa“The University of Chicago, Founded tion Society in Baptist educational matby John D. Rockefeller," will find him- ters. Rev. F. T. Gates, secretary of that self supplied with exceedingly interest- society, has been from the beginning and ing and most impressive evidence of a still is a principal representative of the

Pe

interest, the outcome of which is the uni- vanced and elevated view by adding versity. An earlier university of Chi- $1,000,000 to his former subscription, at cago under Baptist auspices came to an end the same time attesting the sincerity of in 1886, but not without almost immedi- his Baptist interest by stipulating that a ately suggesting to Mr. J. D. Rockefeller Baptist Theological Seminary, already that what had been attempted without existing at Morgan Park, should become success in the south part of the city of the divinity school of the university, and Chicago ought to be attempted again that $100,000 of his contribution should with securities, if possible, for success. be devoted to providing buildings for Upon conference with Dr. W.R. Harper, this school on the university grounds. then very conspicuously active in ad- In view of the greatly enlarged plans vanced educational matters, Mr. Rocke- thus adopted, Mr. Field's gift of a site feller communicated his views to Mr. was supplemented by the purchase, for Gates, the Baptist Education Society's $282,000, of two and a half additional secretary, and through Mr. Gates the blocks of land, thus giving a site of four society undertook to have everything blocks, or about twenty-four acres. In possible done to carry out Mr. Rocke- lieu of the divinity school at Morgan feller's suggestion of a new University Park an academy of the university was of Chicago to take the place of the old. opened there to meet the demand for To give substantial aid in the matter Mr. preparation of high character for entrance Rockefeller, about May, 1889, subscribed to the college classes of the university. $600,000 toward a university endowment An early development greatly contribfund, on condition that before June 1, uting to the broadly university character 1890, other parties should pledge $400,- of the new institution was the action, in 000. Early in June, 1889, persons in the spring of 1891, of the executors and Chicago interested in the movement trustees of the estate of William B. Ogden formed a committee of thirty-six with assigning to the Chicago University a Rev. T. W. Goodspeed as their agent, to portion of that estate likely to amount to assist Mr. Gates in securing contributions more than half a million dollars, for the to the amount of $400,000.

purpose of establishing “the Ogden

school of science of the University of University Aims The success of Mr.Good- Chicago,” devoted to graduate or strictly

Dr. Harper speed and Mr. Gates university instruction in science. made the university a fixed fact. Not only did these agents of Chicago inter

After adopting a general ests and of the Baptist Education Society

Developments plan for the entire group secure the money, but they obtained of university buildings likely to beerected, from the generosity of Mr. Marshall building operations were begun NovemField, Chicago's foremost merchant ber 26, 1891. In February, 1892, Mr. prince, the gift of a block and a half of Rockefeller made another gift of $1,000,ground valued at $125,000, as a site for ooo for the further endowment of instructhe new institution. At the annual meet- tion. Mr. S. A. Kent, of Chicago, uning of the Education Society held in Chi- dertook to supply, and, at the cost of cago in June, 1890, articles of incorpora $235,000, presented to the university, the tion and a charter for the new institution Kent chemical laboratory. Mr. Marshall were adopted, and on September 10, in Field added $100,000 to Mr. Kent's gift, the same year, an act of incorporation on condition that others should contribwas secured. Dr. W. R. Harper was at ute, within ninety days, enough to once elected president. He accepted in complete a round million, to be spent the spring of the next year, and entered upon buildings. This was accomupon the duties of the office July 1, 1891. plished. Among the contributions were It was through Dr. Harper that the Silas B. Cobb, $150,000; Martin A. whole scheme was lifted from the level Ryerson, $150,000; George C. Walker, of a plan for a Baptist college to the level $130,000; Mrs. N. S. Foster, $60,000; of a plan for a great university, the Bap- Mrs. Henrietta Snell, $50,000; Mrs. tist auspices of which should not inter- Mary Beecher, $50,000; Mrs. Elizafere with genuine university aims and beth G. Kelley, $50,000. In Decemdevelopment. Mr. Rockefeller empha- ber, 1892, Mr. Rockefeller gave ansized his acceptance of Dr. Harper's ad- other million as an additional endow

Building

ment; and toward the general equipment University . The university is organof the university, the needs of which were

Organization ized in schools, colleges, as yet very imperfectly met, Martin A. and academies. The work done in the Ryerson gave $100,000 toward half a academies is of the ordinary preparatory million, which was secured by July 1, character. That done in the colleges is 1894, Mr. Rockefeller meanwhile having academic for the first and second years, stimulated the effort to secure this sum by corresponding to the usual freshman and offering to add, which he did, another sophomore years, and university for the half million on his own account. Mr. two following years. The schools are for Ryerson, in carrying out one of the pur- graduate study, either professional or nonposes of his contribution, gave $75,000 professional. Of professional schools, more for the completion of the Ryerson that of divinity alone has been estabphysical laboratory at a cost of $225,000. lished. Schools of law, medicine, engiIn June, 1894, Mrs. Caroline E. Haskell, neering, technology, fine arts, and music of Chicago, made a gift of $100,000 for are yet to be established to fill out the the erection of the Haskell oriental mu scheme of the university. The graduate seum-a memorial of her husband, Mr. study now provided for is under the two Frederick Haskell. In addition to the schools of arts and literature and science. Kent and Ryerson laboratories, the build. The graduate school of arts and literaings already erected by the university ture has had the present year 338 stuare: The Cobb lecture hall, Walker mu- dents; the school of science, 155; the seum, Beecher, Kelley and Foster halls colleges, or four classes for college study, for women, Snell hall for undergraduate 476; and there have been 296 unclassified men, and a group of graduate and divinity students. It will be seen that graduate dormitories.

study engages 493, and undergraduate One of the most munificent benefactors study 476,-a very large proportion at of the university has been the great the full university level. The reported street railway capitalist of Chicago, Mr. income from all sources for current exCharles T. Yerkes, who undertook to penses the past year has been $564,720, supply, regardless of cost, an astronom- an increase of income over that of the ical observatory, the best that could be preceding year of $114,000. The disbursemade, with the best equipment ever yetments for the year have been $550,818. attempted. For the use of this obsery- The present teaching staff of the uniatory a forty-inch equatorial, the largest versity numbers 164, of whom 99 are of and most powerful refracting telescope the professorial rank. This is without ever constructed, has been provided; an counting the numerous officers of adinstrument with a focal length of about ministrative branches. The beneficiary sixty-four feet; and mounted upon plans funds of the university, providing for 92 which are an improvement upon anything fellowships and a large number of scholaryet done in the construction of observ- ships, amount to nearly $30,000 for the atories. The location for this great current year, a larger sum in proportion achievement in astronomical construction to the number of students than is granted is near Williams Bay, on Lake Geneva, by any other institution of the same charWisconsin, about seventy miles from acter in the United States. No less than Chicago.

fifty-seven colleges are represented on the The library developments of the uni- roll of those who have received appointversity, embracing the general libraryments to fellowships. and the departmental libraries, show an The university extension department aggregate of more than 300,000 volumes has been broadly developed and ably adalready collected.

ministered. The work for three years The doors of the university were shows 128 courses of lectures by 18 lecturopened to students on October 1, 1892. ers at 116 centers with a total attendance and the number of students the first year of 23,584. The entire staff of this departexceeded 900. The enrollment for the ment engaged in the work of other year 1894-95 shows a total of 1,265 stu- branches as well as that of the lecture dents under the charge of the faculty of centers numbers 100. arts, literature and science, and of 281 A notable feature of the Chicago Uniunder the divinity faculty, making a total versity and one affording the most authenof 1,546.

tic guarantee of its promise is the de

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