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affliction. And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against 12 every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren. And she called the name of 13 the Lord that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me? Wherefore the 14 well was called Beer-lahai-roi; behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered. And Hagar bare Abram a son: and Abram called his 15 son's name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael. And Abram was four- 16 score and six years old, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram.

7. Who provideth for the raven his food? When his young ones cry unto God, they wander for lack of meat. Job xxxviii. 41. For he hath not despised nor abhorred the affliction of the afflicted, neither hath he hid his face from him; but when he cried unto him he heard. Ps. xxii. 24.

12 A wild man.] And God was with the “lad” (“Ishmael''), and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer. Gen. xxi. 20. For vain man would be wise, though man be born like as a wild ass's colt. Job xi. 12. Who hath sent out the wild ass free? or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass? The range of the mountains is his pasture, and he searcheth after every green thing. Job xxxix. 5. 8.

His hand, &c.] By thy sword shalt thou live, and shalt serve thy brother: and it shall come to pass, when thou shalt have dominion, that thou shalt break his yoke from off thy neck. Gen. xxvii. 40.

He shall dwell, &c.] And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria. Gen. xxv. 18.

13 Called the name, &c.] See verses 7. 9, 10. And Abraham called the name of that place (where he offered the ram in the stead of Isaac) Jehovah-jireh; as it is said to this day, in the mount of the Lord it shall be seen. Gen. xxii. 14. And he (Jacob) was afraid, and said, how dreadful is this place! (where he had the vision of the ladder). This is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven. And he called the name of that place Bethel, but the name of that city was called Luz at the first. Gen. xxviii. 17. 19. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel (where he wrestled with the angel), for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved. Gen. xxxii. 30. Then Gideon built an altar there (where the Lord shewed him a sign) unto the Lord, and called it Jehovah Shalom. Judges vi. 24.

Thou God seest me.] And when Jacob saw them (the angels), he said, this is God's host; and he called the name of that place Mahanaim. Gen. xxxii. 2. And the Lord said unto Moses, I will do this thing also that thou hast spoken, for thou hast found grace in my sight, and I know thee by name. And he said, I beseech thee shew me thy glory. And

he said, I will make all my goodness to pass before thee, &c. And I will take away mine hand (saith the Lord), and thou shalt see my back parts, but my face shall not be seen. Exod. xxxiii. 18. 23. And the Lord descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the Lord : the Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity, and transgression, and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty: visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, unto the third and to the fourth generation. Exod. xxxiv. 5. 7. O Lord, thou hast searched me, and known me yea, the darkness hideth not from thee, but the night shineth as the day: the darkness and the light are both alike to thee. cxxxix. 1. 12. For the ways of man are before the eyes of the Lord, and he pondereth all his goings. Prov. v. 21. The eyes of the Lord are in every place, beholding the evil and the good. Prov. xv. 3.


That seeth me.] Except the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and the fear of Isaac, had been with me, surely thou hadst sent me away now empty. God hath seen mine affliction, and the labour of my hands, and rebuked thee yesternight (said Jacob to Laban). Gen. xxxi. 42.

14 Kadesh, &c.] And they (who were sent to search the land) went and came to Moses, and to Aaron, and to all the congregation of the children of Israel, unto the widerness of Paran, to Kadesh, and brought back word unto them, and unto all the congregation, and shewed them the fruit of the land. Numb. xiii. 26.

15 And Hagar, &c.] See verse 11. Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bare unto Abraham, &c. Gen. xxv. 12. The sons of Abraham; Isaac, and Ishmael. 1 Chron. i. 28. Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a free-woman. But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh, but he of the free-woman was by promise. Gal. iv. 22, 23.

Ishmael.] And Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee. And as for Ishmael (God said) I have heard thee:


1 AND when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; 2 walk before me, and be thou perfect. And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly.

behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. And Ishmael, his son, was thirteen years old when he was circumcised. In the self-same day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son. Gen. xvii. 18. 20. 25; 26. And Sarah saw the son of Hagar, the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking. And God said unto Abraham, let it not be grievous in thy sight, because of the lad, because of thy bondwoman. Gen. xxi. 9. 12. Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had, Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, Abraham's son, the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife. Gen. xxviii. 9. Come (said Judah) and let us sell "him" ("Joseph") to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon him, for he is our brother, and our flesh. Gen. xxxvii. 27.

CHAP. XVII.-1 See Gen. xii. 1. Ninety years old and nine, &c.] And Abram was fourscore and six years old when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram. Gen. xvi. 16.

Almighty God, &c.] Is any thing too hard for the Lord? At the time appointed I will return unto thee, according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son. Gen. xviii. 14. And Isaac said unto "him" ("Jacob"), God Almighty bless thee, and make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, that thou mayest be a multitude of people. Gen. xxviii. 3. And God said unto him (Jacob), I am God Almighty, be fruitful and multiply. Gen. xxxv. 11. And I appeared (said God to Moses) unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty; but by my name Jehovah was I not known to them. Exod. vi. 3. And the Lord said unto Moses, Is the Lord's hand waxed short? Thou shalt see now whether my word shall come to pass unto thee or not. Numb. xi. 23. For the Lord your God (said Moses to the children of Israel) is God of gods, and Lord of lords; a great God, a mighty, and a terrible, which regardeth not persons, nor taketh reward. Deut. x. 17. Canst thou by searching find out God? canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? Job xi. 7. But our God is in the heavens: he hath done whatsoever he hath pleased. Ps. cxv. 3. Ah Lord, behold thou hast made the heaven and the earth by thy great power, and stretched-out arm; and

there is nothing too hard for thee. Jer. xxxii. 17. And he doeth according to his will in the army of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth, and none can stay his hand, or say unto him, what doest thou? Dan. iv. 35. With God all things are possible. Matt. xix. 26. Now unto him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in us; unto him be glory, &c. Eph. iii. 20, 21. I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me. Phil. iv. 13. Wherefore he (Christ) is able to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him. Heb. vii. 25.

Walk before me.] See com. on chap. v. 22. and 24. And Solomon said (to God), thou hast shewed unto thy servant David my father great mercy, according as he walked before thee, in truth, and in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart with thee. 1 Kings iii. 6. Lord, keep with thy servant David my father (said Solomon), that thou promisedst him, saying, there shall not fail thee a man in my sight, to sit on the throne of Israel, so that thy children take heed to their way, that they walk before me as thou hast walked before me. 1 Kings viii. 25. And (Hezekiak) said, remember now, O Lord, I beseech thee, how I have walked before thee in truth, and with a perfect heart. Isa. xxxviii. 3. And Paul, earnestly beholding the council, said, men and brethren, I have lived in all good conscience before God until this day. Arts xxiii. 1. And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offence toward God, and toward men. Acts xxiv. 16. Wherefore, we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably, with reverence and godly fear. Heb. xii. 28.

Perfect, &c.] See com. on chap. vi. 9. Thou shalt be perfect with the Lord thy God. Deut. xviii. 13. Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect. Matt. v. 48.

2 Will make my covenant, &c.] See verse 4. 6. and com. on chap. ix. 9. And in that same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates. Gen. xv. 18. He hath remembered his covenant for ever. the word which he commanded to a thousand generations, saying, unto thee will I give the

And Abram fell on his face: and God talked with him, saying, 3 As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be 4 a father of many nations. Neither shall thy name any more be 5 called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for a father of

land of Canaan, the lot of your inheritance. Ps. cv. 8. 11. The covenant that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law which was four hundred and thirty years after cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect; for if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise, but God gave it to Abraham by promise. Gal. iii. 17, 18. Multiply thee exceedingly.] See com. on chap. xii. 2.

3. Fell on his face.] See chap. xvii. 17. and com. And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look upon God. Exod. iii. 6. And Moses and Aaron went into the tabernacle of the congregation, and came out and blessed the people; and the glory of the Lord appeared to all the people. And there came a fire out from before the Lord, and consumed upon the altar the burnt-offering and the fat, which when all the people saw, they shouted and fell on their faces. Lev. ix. 23, 24. Then Moses and Aaron fell on their faces before all the assembly of the congregation of the children of Israel. Numb. xiv. 5. And when Moses heard it he fell upon his face. And they fell upon their faces, and said, O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh, shall one man sin, and wilt thou be wroth with all the congregation? Get you up from among this congregation (of Korah and his company), that I may consume them, as in a moment: and they fell upon their faces. Numb. xvi. 22. 45. As captain of the host of the Lord am I now come (said the man armed with a sword to Joshua, at Jericho). And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and did worship, and said unto him, What saith my Lord to his servant? Josh. v. 14. It came to pass, when the flame went up toward heaven from off the altar, that the angel of the Lord ascended in the flame of the altar; and Manoah and his wife looked on it, and fell on their faces to the ground. Judges xiii. 20. And when all the people saw it (the fire of the Lord consuming the burnt sacrifice), they fell on their faces, and they said, The Lord he is the God: the Lord he is the God. 1 Kings xviii. 39. Then I (Ezekiel) went forth into the plain; and behold the glory of the Lord stood there as the glory which I saw by the river of Chebar, and I fell on my face. Ezek. iii. 23. And it came to pass, while "they" (the six men with slaughter weapons in their hands) were slaying "them" ("the people of Jerusalem," as seen in the vision), and I was left, that I fell upon my face, and cried, and said, Ah, Lord God! wilt thou destroy all the residue of Israel in the pouring out of thy fury upon Jerusalem? Ezek. ix. 8. So he (Gabriel)


came near where I stood; and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face; but he said unto me, understand, O son of man, for at the time of the end shall be the vision. Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep, on my face toward the ground; but he touched me, and set me upright. Dan. viii. 17, 18. Yet I heard the voice of his (the angel's) words; and when I heard the voice of his words, then was I in a deep sleep on my face, and my face toward the ground. Dan. x. 9. And when the disciples heard it (the voice from the cloud at the transfiguration) they fell on their face, and were sore afraid. Matt. xvii. 6. And when I saw him (one like unto the Son of man), I fell at his feet as dead; and he laid his right hand upon me, saying Fear not, I am the first and the last.

unto me,

Rev. i. 17.

4 Father of many nations, &c.] See com. on chap. xii. 2. And the angel of the Lord said unto "her" (" Hagar") I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude. Gen. xvi. 10. Then again Abraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah: and she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah, &c. &c. Gen. xxv. 1, 2. I will surely do thee good, and make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which cannot be numbered for multitude. Gen. xxxii. 12. See Gen. chap. xxxvi. throughout; and Numb. chaps. i. and xxvi. throughout. "Who" (meaning "Abraham") against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations; according to that which was spoken, so shall thy seed be. Rom. iv. 18. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female, for ye are all one in Christ Jesus; and if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise. Gal. iii. 28, 29.

5 Thy name shall be, &c.] And God said unto Abraham, as for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be. Gen. xvii. 15. And he (the angel) said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel. Gen. xxxii. 28. And Moses called Oshea, the son of Nun, Jehoshua. Numb. xiii. 16. And he (David) sent by the hand of Nathan the prophet, and he called "his" ("Solomon's") name Jedidiah, because of the Lord. 2 Sam. xii. 25. Lord the God who didst choose Abram, and broughtest him forth out of Ur of the Chaldees, and gavest him the name of Abraham. Nehem. ix. 7. And the Gentiles shall see thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory, and thou


Thou art the

6 many nations have I made thee. And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come 7 out of thee. And I will establish my covenant between me and thee, and thy seed after thee, in their generations, for an everlasting 8 covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. And

shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of the Lord shall name; thou shalt no more be termed “forsaken,” neither shall thy land any more be termed “desolate," but thou shalt be called "Hephzibah” (“ my delight is in her"), and thy land Beulah: for the Lord delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be married. Isa. lxii. 2. 4. And ye (the wicked Jews) shall leave your name for a curse unto my chosen; for the Lord God shall slay thee, and call his servants by another name. Isa. lxv. 15. And it came to pass on the morrow, that Pashur brought forth Jeremiah out of the stocks. Then said Jeremiah unto him, The Lord hath not called thy name Pashur, but Magor-missabib. Jer. xx. 3. In his (the Messiah's) days, Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely and this is his name whereby he shall be called, the Lord our Righteousness. Jer. xxiii. 6. And she (Mary) shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus, for he shall save his people from their sins. Behold a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is "God with us." Matt. i. 21. 23. And he (Andrew), brought him to Jesus, and when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon, the son of Jonas; thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation a "stone," (or "Peter"). John i. 42. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth, saving he that receiveth it. Rev. ii. 17.

For a father of many nations.] As it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations. Rom. iv. 17.

6 Nations of thee, &c.] See com. verse 4. And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: behold I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly. Gen. xvii. 20.

Kings shall come out of thee.] She (Sarai) shall be a mother of nations; kings of people shall be of her twelve princes shall "he" (" Ishmael") beget. Gen. xvii. 16. 120. And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel; Bela, Jobab, Husham, Hadad, Samlah, Saul, Baal-hanan, and Hadar. Gen. xxxvi. 31-39. There have been mighty kings also over Jerusalem, which have ruled over all countries beyond the river. Ezek. iv. 20. And Jesse begat David the king, and David the king begat Solomon of her

that had been the wife of Urias, &c. &c. Matt. i 6. &c.


ī I will establish my covenant, &c.] See com xv. 8. I am the God of Abraham thy father (said the Lord to Isaac); fear not, for I am with thee, and will bless thee, and multiply thy seed for my servant Abraham's sake. Gen. xxvi. 24. I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers. Erod. vi. 4. He hath remembered his covenant for ever, the word which he commanded to a thousand generations, saying, unto thee will I give the land of Canaan, the lot of your inheritance. ev. 8. 11. Thou wilt perform the truth to Jacob, and the mercy to Abraham, which thou hast sworn unto our fathers from the days of old. Micah. vii. 20. He hath holpen his servant Israel in remembrance of his mercy. As he spake to our fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed, for ever. To perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant, that we might serve him in holiness and righteousness, before him all the days of our life. Luke i. 54, 55. 72. 75. Who are Israelites? To whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises? They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God; but the children of promise are counted for the seed: for this is the word of promise; at this time will I come, and Sara shall have a son. Rom. ix. 4. 8, 9. And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. Gal. iii. 17. You hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins, wherein, in time past, ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience. Eph. ii. 2.

A God unto thee.] I am the God of Abraham thy father. Gen. xxvi. 24. And behold the Lord stood above "it" (" Jacob's ladder"), and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac. Gen. xxviii. 13. I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Exod. iii. 6. And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel; the Lord God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you. Exod. iii. 15. And I will walk among you, and will

I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God. And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations. This is my covenant, which ye shall 10

be your God, and ye shall be my people. Levit. xxvi. 12. I am the Lord thy God which brought thee out of the land of Egypt. Ps. lxxxi. 10. And they shall know, that I am the Lord their God. Ezek. xxviii. 26. I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob: God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. Matt. xxii. 32. I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people. Heb. viii. 10. Wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God. Heb. xi. 16.

To thy seed, &c.] Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me, above all people, for all the earth is mine, and ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests and an holy nation. Exod. xix. 5, 6. Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of God. Mark x. 14. For the promise is unto you (said Peter to the Jews), and to your children. Acts ii. 39. Neither because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: they which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God; but the children of the promise are counted for the seed for this is the word of promise, at this time will I come, and Sara shall have a son. Rom. ix. 7, 8, 9.

8 I will give unto thee, &c.] See com. chap. xii. 7. See com. xiii. 15. 17. See com. xv. 7. 21.

Wherein thou art a stranger.] I am a stranger and a sojourner with you (said Abraham to the sons of Heth). Gen. xxiii. 4. God Almighty bless thee (said Isaac to Jacob), that thou mayest inherit the land, wherein thou art a stranger. Gen. xxviii. 4.

Everlasting possession, &c.] I will give this land to thy seed after thee, for an everlasting possession. Gen. xlviii. 4. If the servant shall plainly say I love my master, my wife and my children, I will not go out free; then his master shall bring him (the servant) unto the judges; he shall also bring him unto the door, or unto the door-post, and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl, and he shall serve him for ever. Exod. xxi. 6. Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant: it is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever. Exod. xxxi. 16, 17. For their (Aaron's and his sons') anointing shall surely be an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations. Exod. xl. 15. And this shall


be an everlasting statute unto you, to make an atonement for the children of Israel for all their sins once a year. Levit. xvi. 34. And he (Phinehas), the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, shall have it, and his seed after him, even the covenant of an everlasting priesthood. Numb. xxv. 13. When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel. Deut. xxxii. 8. Although my house (said David) be not so with God, yet he hath made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things and sure. 2 Sam. xxiii. 5. But the mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting, upon them that fear him, and his righteousness to children's children. Ps. ciii. 17. And for this cause, he is the Mediator of the new testament; that by the means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions, that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance. Heb. ix. 15.

Their God.] And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God, and ye shall know that I am the Lord your God. Exod. vi. 7. And I will walk among you and be your God, and ye shall be my people. Levit. xxvi. 12. And because he loved thy fathers, therefore he chose their seed after them, and brought thee out in his sight with his mighty power, out of Egypt. Deut. iv. 37. For thou art an holy people unto the Lord, thy God; and the Lord hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all the nations that are upon the earth. Deut. xiv. 2. And the Lord hath avouched thee this day to be his peculiar people. Deut. xxvi. 18. Ye stand this day, all of you, before the Lord your God, that he may establish thee to-day, for a people unto himself, and that he may be unto thee a God. Deut. xxix. 13.

9 Keep my covenant, &c.] All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth, unto such as keep his covenant, and his testimonies. Ps. xxv. 10. But the mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting, to such as keep his covenant. Ps. ciii. 18. For thus saith the Lord unto the eunuchs that keep my sabbaths, that choose the things that please me, and take hold of my covenant; even unto them will I give in mine house, and within my walls, a place and a name better than of sons and of daughters; I will give them an everlasting name, that shall not be cut off. Isa. lvi. 4, 5.

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