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10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and 11 Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Out of that land went

forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and 12 Calah, And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a 13 great city. And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Leha14 bim, and Naphtuhim, And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom 15 came Philistim,) and Caphtorim. And Canaan begat Sidon his

God his strength, but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and strengthened himself in his wickedness. Ps. lii. 7.

10 The beginning, &c.] Go up against the land of Merathaim, even against it, and against the inhabitants of Pekod, waste, and utterly destroy after them, saith the Lord. Jer. 1. 21. And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod. Thus shall he (the ruler of Israel) deliver us from the Assyrian, when he cometh into our land. Micah v. 6.

Babel.] Therefore (on account of the confusion of languages) is the name of "it" ("the city") called Babel. Gen. xi. 9. At that time (of Hezekiah's recovery) Merodach-baladan, the son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent letters and a present to Hezekiah. Isa. xxxix. 1. Be in pain and labour to bring forth, O daughter of Zion, like a woman in travail; for now shalt thou go forth out of the city, and thou shalt dwell in the field, and thou shalt go even to Babylon; there shalt thou be delivered, there the Lord shall redeem thee from the

hand of thine enemies. Micah iv. 10.

Calneh.] Is not Calno as Carchemish? Isa. x. 9. Pass ye unto Calneh and see; and from thence go ye to Hamath the great; be they better than these kingdoms? or their border greater than your border (O house of Israel)? Amos vi. 2.

Shinar.] As they (the families of the sons of Noah) journeyed from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. Gen. xi. 2. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel, king of Shinar, that these kings made war with Bera, king of Sodom. Gen. xiv. 1. The Lord shall set his hand again a second time to recover his people from Shinar, from Hamath. Isa. xi. 11. And the Lord gave Jehoiakim, king of Judah, into "his" ("Nebuchadnezzar's ") hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God, which he carried into the land of Shinar. Dan. i. 2. Whither do these bear the ephah (which the women lifted up, denoting wickedness)? And he (the angel) said unto me, to build it an house in the land of Shinar. Zech. v. 10, 11. 11 Went forth Asshur, (or He went out into Assyria).] Thus shall he (the ruler in Israel) deliver us from the Assyrian. Micah v. 6. The Kenite shall be wasted, until Asshur shall carry thee away captive. And ships shall come from the coast of Chittim, and shall afflict Asshur. Numb. xxiv. 22. 24. We (the ad

versaries of Judah) do sacrifice unto him (your God) since the days of Ezerhaddon, king of Assur. Ezra iv. 2. Assur also is joined with "them" ("the enemies of Israel"). Ps. lxxxiii. 8. Haran, and Asshur, and Chilmad, were thy (Tyrus') merchants. Ezek. xxvii. 23. Asshur is there (in Egypt), and all her company (to destroy it.) Ezek. xxxii. 22. Asshur shall not save us (Israel). Hosea xiv. 3.

Nineveh, &c.] So Sennacherib, king of Assyria, departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh. 2 Kings xix. 36. and Isa. xxxvii. 37. Arise (Jonah) go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it (said the Lord), for their wickedness is come up before me. Jonah i. 2. and chap. iii. The burden of Nineveh; the book of the vision of Nahum, the Elkoshite. Nahum i. 1. But Nineveh is of old like a pool of water, yet they shall flee away. Nahum ii. 8. And he will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like a wilderness. Zeph. ii. 13.

13 Ludim, &c.] See 1 Chron. i. 11, 12. Come up, ye Lydians, that handle and bend the bow. Jer. xlvi. 9. Ethiopia and "Lybia" (or “Phuť”) and Lydia, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the men of the land, that is in league, shall fall with them (Egypt) by the sword. Ezek. xxx. 5.

14 Pathrusim, &c.] The Lord shall set his hand again the second time, to recover the remnant of his people from Assyria, and from Pathros. Isa. xi. 11. The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Jews which dwell in the land of Egypt, and in the country of Pathros. Jer. xliv. 1.

Philistim, &c.] And (Mizraim begat) Pathrusim and Casluhim (of whom came the Philistines) and Caphtorim. 1 Chron. i. 12. For the Lord will spoil the Philistines, the remnant of the country of Caphtor. Jer. xlvii. 4.

Caphtorim.] The Caphtorims, which came forth out of Caphtor, destroyed them (the Avims) and dwelt in their stead. Deut. ii. 23. See Jer. xlvii. 4. preceding commentary. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? And the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir? Amos ix. 7.

15 See 1 Chron. i. 13.

Sidon, &c.] Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea, and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon. Gen. xlix. 13. And the Lord delivered them into the hand of Israel, who smote them and chased them unto great Zidon. Josh. xi. By

first-born, and Heth, And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and 16 the Girgasite, And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, 17 And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and 18 afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. And 19 the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and

Be thou ashamed, O Zidon, for the sea hath spoken, even the strength of the sea, saying, I travail not. Isa. xxiii. 4.



Heth, &c.] Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt, unto the great river, the river Euphrates; the Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Rephaims, and the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites. xv. 18-21. And Abraham stood up from before "his dead" (" Sarah"), and spake unto the sons of Heth. Gen. xxiii. 3. And the field, and the cave that is therein (in Hebron), were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a burying-place by the sons of Heth. xxiii. 20. I am come down to bring them up out of that land (Egypt), unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey. Exod. iii. 8. Behold I drive out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite. Exod. xxxiv. 11. This is the land that shall fall unto you for an inheritance, even the land of Canaan. Numb. xxxiv. 2. These are the kings of the country which Joshua, and the children of Israel, smote on this side Jordan, on the west; all the kings thirty and one. Josh. xii. 7-24. And David sent and enquired after the woman; and one said, is not this Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah, the Hittite? 2 Sam. xi. 3. And he (that remaineth after the pride of the Philistines is cut off) shall be as a governor in Judah, and Ekron as a Jebusite. Zech. ix. 7.

16 Jebusite, &c.] The Jebusites dwell with the children of Benjamin, in Jerusalem, unto this day. Judges i. 21. Go up (David), rear an altar unto the Lord in the thrashing floor of Araunah the Jebusite. 2 Sam. xxiv. 18. See Zech. ix. 7. preceding commentary.

17 Hivite, &c.] And when Shechem, the son of Hamor, the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her (Dinah, Jacob's daughter), he took

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smitten all the host of Hadadezer, then Toi sent Joram his son to "salute him" (or, " ask him peace"). 2 Sam. viii. 9, 10. And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, and from Hamath, and placed them in the cities of Samaria, instead of the children of Israel. 2 Kings xvii. 24. And the men of Hamath made Ashima. 2 Kings xvii. 30. Is not Hamath as Arpad? (saith the Assyrian). Isa. x. 9. Hamath, Berothah, Sibraim, which is between the border of Damascus and the border of Hamath. And the border from the sea shall be Hazar-enam; the border of Damascus and the north northward, and the border of Hamath. Ezek. xlvii. 16, 17. And Hamath also shall border thereby (in the land of Hadrach and Damascus). Zech, ix. 2.

19 Border of the Canaanites, &c.] Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan. Arise, walk through the land in the length of it, and in the breadth of it; for I will give it unto thee. Gen. xiii. 12. 17. Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt, unto the great river, the river Euphrates. Gen. xv. 18-21. (The borders of the land of Canaan). See Numb. xxxiv. 2-15. Ask thy father and. he will shew thee; when the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people, according to the number of the children of Israel. Deut. xxxii. 7, 8. The country which Joshua gave unto the tribes of Israel for a possession, according to their divisions, in the mountains, and in the valleys, and in the plains, and in the springs, and in the wilderness, and in the south country, &c. Josh. xii. 7, 8, &c. See Joshua, chapters xiv. and xxi. throughout.


As thou comest to Gerar.] And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered every where, before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, even as the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, as thou comest unto Zoar. xiii. 10. And Abraham journeyed from thence toward the south country, and dwelled between Kadesh and Shur, and sojourned in Gerar. Gen. xx. 1. And there was a famine in the land; and Isaac went unto Abimelech, king of the Philistines, unto Gerar. Gen. xxvi. 1.


Gaza.] Then went Samson to Gaza, and saw an harlot, &c. Judges xvi. 1. took I the cup at the Lord's hand, and made all the nations to drink; all the mingled people; and all the kings of the land of the

20 Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha.

These are the sons of

Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, 21 and in their nations. Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were 22 children born. The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and 23 Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram. And the children of Aram; Uz, 24 and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. And Arphaxad begat Salah; 25 and Salah begat Eber. And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; 26 and his brother's name was Joktan. And Joktan begat Almodad,

Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Azzah, &c. Jer. xxv. 17. 20.

Sodom, &c.] The Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah (for) the men of Sodom were wicked, and sinners before the Lord exceedingly. Gen. xiii. 10. 13. And it came to pass that these (four kings) made war with Bera, king of Sodom, and with Birsha, king of Gomorrah, &c. Gen. xiv. 1, 2. Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grievous, I will go down now and see, &c. Gen. xviii. 20, 21. Then the Lord rained upon Sodom, and upon Gomorrah, brimstone, and fire from the Lord out of heaven. And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground. Gen. xix. 24, 25. How shall I give thee up, Ephraim? How shall I deliver thee, Israel? How shall I make thee as Admah? How shall I set thee as Zeboim ? Mine heart is turned within me, my repentings are kindled together. Hos. xi. 8.

20 See verse 6.

Ham, &c.] And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. And they said, go to, let us build us a city, whose top may reach unto heaven. And the Lord said, behold the people is one, and they have all one language, and this they begin to do. Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech. Gen. xi. 1. 4. 6, 7.

21 Shem.] Blessed be the Lord God of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant. Gen. ix. 26. These are the generations of Shem, &c. and Terah lived seventy years and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran. Gen. xi. 10. 26. Eber, &c.] And ships shall come from the coast of Chittim, and shall afflict Eber. Numb. xxiv. 24. See verse 2.

22 See Gen. ix. 26. and 1 Chron. i. 17. 27. Elam, &c.] And it came to pass in the days of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, that these (four kings) made war with Bera, king of Sodom. Gen. xiv. 1, 2. And the Lord shall set his hand, to recover the remnant of his people from Assyria; from Elam, &c. Isa. xi. 11. Go up, O Elam; besiege, O Media (against Babylon). Isa. xxi. 2. And Elam bare the quiver, with chariots of men, and horsemen,

&c. Isa. xxii. 6. Then took I the cup at the Lord's hand, to all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of the Medes, &c. Jer. xxv. 25. The word of the Lord that came to Jeremiah, the prophet, against Elam; I will set my throne in Elam, and will destroy from thence the king and the princes; but it shall come to pass in the latter days, that I will bring again the captivity of Elam, saith the Lord. Jer. xl. 34. 38, 39. And how hear we every man in our own tongue, Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites? Acts ii. 9.

Lud.] I will set a sign among them, and I will send those that escape of them unto the nations to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow. Isa. lxvi. 19.

Aram.] And he (Balaam) took up his parable, and said, Balak the king of Moab hath brought me from Aram, out of the mountains of the east, saying, Come, curse me Jacob, and come, defy Israel. Numb. xxiii. 7.

23 Uz.] There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job. Job i. 1. (Then took I the wine cup of his fury) to all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of Uz, &c. Jer. xxv. 20.

24 Salah.] And Arphaxad lived five and thirty years, and begat Salah. Gen. xi. 12

25 The name, &c.] And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg. And Peleg lived after he begat Reu two hundred and nine years, and begat sons and daughters. Gen. xi. 16. 19. Which was the son of Ragan, which was the son of Phalec, which was the son of Heber, which was the son of Sala. Luke i 35.


In his days, &c.] See verse 32. When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel. xxxii. 8. And (God) hath made of one blood all nations of men, for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their ha bitations. Acts xvii. 26.

26 Joktan.] And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah.

1 Chron. i. 20.

and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, And Hadoram, and 27 Uzal, and Diklah, And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, 28 and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan. 29 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar, a 30 mount of the east. These are the sons of Shem, after their fami- 31 lies, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations. These 32 are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.


AND the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. 1 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they 2 found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. And 3 they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn

28 Sheba.] And Jockshan begat Sheba and Dedan. Gen. xxv. 3. And when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon, concerning the name of the Lord, she came to prove him with hard questions. 1 Kings x. 1. 29 Ophir and Havilah.] And they came to Ophir, and fetched from thence gold, four hundred and twenty talents, and brought it to king Solomon. 1 Kings ix. 28. Jehoshaphat made ships of Tharshish to go to Ophir for gold.

1 Kings xxii. 48. Then shalt thou lay up gold "as dust" (or, " on the dust"), and the gold of Ophir as the stones of the brooks (said Eliphaz to Job). Job xxii. 24. It (wisdom) cannot be valued with the gold of Ophir, &c. Job xxviii. 16. Upon thy right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir. Ps. xlv. 9. I will make a man more precious than fine gold, even a man, than the golden wedge of Ophir. Isa. xiii. 12. See commentary on verse 7, under "Havilah"). And they (the generations of Ishmael) dwelt from Havilah unto Shur. Gen. xxv. 18. And Saul smote the Amalekites from Havilah, until thou comest to Shur. 1.Sam. xv. 7.

30 Mount of the east, &c.] Balak, the king of Moab, hath brought me from Aram, out of the mountains of the east (said Balaam). Numb. xxiii. 7.

31 See verse 20.

32 See verses 1. 20. 31.

Are the families, &c.] And he (Lamech) called his (son's) name Noah, saying, this same shall comfort us concerning our work, and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the Lord hath cursed. Gen. v. 29.

Nations divided, &c.] See verse 25. And God blessed Noah, and his sons, and said unto them, be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth. These are the three sons of Noah, and of them was the whole earth overspread. Gen. ix. 1. 19. And (God) hath made of one blood all nations of men. Acts xvii. 26.

CHAP. XI.- Was of one language.] In that day shall five cities in the land of Egypt speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the Lord of Hosts. Isa. xix. 18. For then will I turn to the people a pure language, that they may call upon the name of the Lord to serve him, with one consent. Now when this (the descent of the Holy Ghost) was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language. Acts ii. 6.

2 From the east, &c.] And Lot journeyed east. Gen. xiii. 11. And David went up, and all Israel, to Baalah, that is to Kirjath-jearim, which belonged to Judah, to bring up thence the ark of God the Lord, that dwelleth between the cherubims, whose name is called on it. 1 Chron. xiii. 6.

Shinar.] See verse 9. And the beginning of his (Nimrod's) kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Acchad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Gen. x. 10. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel, king of Shinar (the battle of four kings against five came to pass, &c.) Gen. xiv. 1. The Lord shall set his hand, again a second time, to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Elam and from Shinar, &c. Isa. xi. 11. And the Lord gave Jehoiakim, king of Judah, into his (Nebuchadnezzar's) hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God, which he carried into the land of Shinar, to the house of his God; and he brought the vessels into the treasure-house of his god. Dan. i. 2. Then said I to the angel that talked with me, whither do these bear the ephah (denoting wickedness); and he said unto me, to build it an house in the land of Shinar; and it shall be established and set there upon her own base. Zech. v. 11.

3 Go to, let us make brick, &c.] See verse 4.7. They encourage themselves in an evil matter: they commune of laying snares privily;

them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had 4 they for mortar. And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole

they say, who shall see them? Ps. lxiv. 5. My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not : if they say, come with us, let us wait for blood, let us lurk privily for the innocent without cause my son, walk not thou in the way with them. Prov. i. 11. 15. I said in mine heart, go to now, I will prove thee with mirth; therefore enjoy pleasure; and behold this also is vanity. Eccles. ii. 1. And now go to, I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard; I will take away the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up, and break down the wall thereof, and it shall be trodden down. Isa. v. 5. They (the enemies of Israel) helped every one his neighbour, and every one said to his brother, be of good courage. So the carpenter encouraged the goldsmith, and he that smootheth with the hammer him that smote the anvil, saying it is ready for the sodering, and he fastened it with nails, that it should not be moved. Isa. xli. 6, 7. Go to now, ye that say, to-day or to-morrow we will go into such a city, and continue there a year, and buy and sell, and get gain. James iv. 13. Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you. James v. 1. (Not as the passage from Heb. iii. 13. viz.) Exhort one another daily while it is called to-day, lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin. (Nor as Heb. x. 24. viz.) Let us consider one another to provoke unto love and unto good works.

Brick for stone, &c.] And they (the Egyptians) made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field; all their (Israel's) service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour. Exod. i. 14. Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as heretofore (said Pharaoh): let them go and gather straw for themselves. Go, therefore, now, and work, for there shall no straw be given you, yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks. Exod. v. 7. 18. And "he" ("David") brought forth the people that were therein, and put them under saws, and under harrows of iron, and made them pass through the brick-kiln, and thus did he unto all the cities of the children of Ammon. 2 Sam. xii. 31. The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stones. Isa. ix. 10. I have spread out my hands to a people that provoketh me to anger, continually, to my face; that sacrificeth in gardens, and burneth incense, upon altars of brick. Isa. lxv. 3. Draw the waters for the siege, fortify the strong holds: go into clay, and tread the mortar, make strong the brickkiln (alluding to the miserable ruin of Nineveh). Nah. iii. 14.

Slime for mortar.] And the vale of Siddim was full of slime pits. Gen. xiv. 10. And when she (his mother) could not longer hide him, she took for him (the infant Moses) an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch, and put the child therein. Exod. ii. 3.

4 Whose top, &c.] Whither shall we go up? Our brethren have discouraged our heart, saying, the people is greater and taller than we; the cities are great, and walled up to heaven; and moreover we have seen the sons of the Anakims there (alluding to the murmurings of the Israelites in the fortieth year in the wilderness). Deut. i. 28. Hear O Israel (said Moses) thou art to pass over Jordan this day, to go in to possess nations greater and mightier than thyself, cities great, and fenced up to heaven. Deut. ix. 1. The tree grew, and was strong, and the height thereof reached unto heaven, and the sight thereof to the end of all the earth. It is thou, O king Nebuchadnezzar (said Daniel), that art grown and become strong; for thy greatness is grown, and reacheth unto heaven, and thy dominion to the end of the earth. Dan. iv. 11. 22.

Let us make us, &c.] And David gat him a name when he returned from smiting the Syrians in the valley of Salt. 2 Sam. viii. 13. Their inward thought is, that their houses shall continue for ever, and their dwellingplaces to all generations; they call their lands by their own names: this their way is their folly: yet their posterity approve their sayings. Ps. xlix. 11. 13. The memory of the just is blessed, but the name of the wicked shall rot. Prov. x. 7. Is not this great Babylon that I have built for the house of the kingdom, by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty? (said Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon). Dan. iv. 30. How can ye believe, which receive honour one of another, and seek not the honour that cometh from God only? John v. 44.

Lest we be scattered, &c.] So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth, and they left off to build the city, therefore is the name of it called Babel, because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth, and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth. Gen. xi. 8, 9. For lo thine enemies, O Lord, for lo thine enemies shall perish; all the workers of iniquity shall be scattered. Ps. xcii. 9. He hath shewed strength with his arm: he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts. Luke i. 51.

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