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the provocations which the Pied- due to his own obstinacy in permontese had received by the mas- sisting to govern upon the arbisacres of their fellow-soldiers and tary principles of his father. of harmless country people by
The discussion then termi. bands of brigands. In regard to nated. the elections, it could not be de- A few days later, Mr. Pope nied that the people were sub- Hennessy, one of the members jected to influences of various for King's County, took occasion kinds; but the system of the ple- of the motion for going into a biscite was certainly preferable to Committee of Supply, to call the that of old, when provinces were attention of the House of Comtransferred from one Government mons to what he termed the acto another without the pretence tive interference of the Secretary of consulting the people at all. of State for Foreign Affairs, in Lord Wodehouse next defended promoting Piedmontese policy Lord John Russell's course on and to the effect of that policy, the Savoy and Nice question, in increasing the national burdens stated what steps had been taken, in Piedmont, in the decline of its but in vain, to obtain a military trade and commerce, the waste of frontier for Switzerland, reas. the population in predatory war, serted the policy of England in and the consequent decay of agriItaly to be that of non-interven- culture, contrasting this state of tion, and concluded by claiming things with the flourishing conthe gratitude of Italy for the dition of the Papal dominions in sympathy of England.
all these particulars. In stating Lord Malmesbury expressed the facts from which he deduced his surprise that information on the tests of the prosperity of the very interesting topics, such as different parts of Italy, he charged the blockade of Gaëta, the cor- Lord John Russell with deliberespondence with France for pre- rately concealing important deventing the blockade, and the spatches relating to the trade of position of Admiral Mundy, had Tuscany and Naples, and then been so scantily supplied by the entered upon a criticism of Lord Government. He then charged John's Italian policy, as developed Lord John Russell with incon- in his despatches, in connection sistency between his despatches with details of the military opeand his policy-for while, accord- rations in Southern Italy, and of ing to his despatches, he was op- alleged atrocities committed by posed to the unification of Italy, Sardinian officers. He discussed he, by the policy he had adopted, the subject of the elections in brought about that very uni- Italy, and the manner in which, fication which he had depre- as he said, the Piedmontese had cated.
dealt with the elections, as showLord Llanover gave a positive ing the little value to be attached denial to the sweeping assertions to them. He appealed to acts on of Lord Normanby in regard to the part of Lord John Russell, the feelings of the Italian people which, he contended, amounted towards England, and insisted to interference in Italian affairs, that the misfortunes which had in spite of his professions of neubefallen the King of Naples were trality; and he reproached him
with a breach of international relied upon foreign bayonets; law, and with destroying the con- and the attack made by Mr. Henfidence of European statesmen nessy upon the elections was in the honour and integrity of founded upon a misconception. the British Foreign Office. In justifying the policy of Lord
Mr. Layard observed that this John Russell, he made an apt subject was one of the greatest and somewhat remarkable quoimportance, and deserved to be de- tation from a work of Sir George bated in that House, but he did Bowyer, published in 1848. Innot think it should be brought on dependently of authorities, howin this way. His opinion was, ever, we were bound, he observed, that the policy which had been to consider the wishes of the peopursued by Her Majesty's Go- ple of Italy, who, evincing a vernment in regard to Italy was wonderful moderation, had dein accordance with the sentiments termined to be subjects of the of the large mass of the English King of Sardinia. Italy united people; and he did not believe would be a strong Power, and that Mr. Hennessy had obtained though disunited it might be his information regarding the French, united Italy never would Pope from the most trustworthy be French. As regarded this portion of his subjects, who de- country, all the support we sired the cessation of his tem- should give to the Italians was poral rule. He specified various a moral support and cordial syminstances of the arbitrary charac- pathy. ter of the Papal Government ex- Sir G. Bowyer replied to Mr. ercised by the Legates. He Layard, whose statements as to maintained that the Pope was the atrocities said to be comresponsible for the abuses in the mitted by brigands he met by Legations, and he opposed to contradiction. He occasioned the tales of atrocities charged some surprise by asserting that against the Piedmontese by Mr. there had been no massacre at Hennessy, accounts of still fouler all at Perugia, where none were acts of barbarity perpetrated by killed but soldiers in fair fight. agents of Rome. Speaking from He vindicated the doctrine he personal observation, he bore tes- had laid down in the quotation timony to the favourable changes made by Mr. Layard, in in the appearance of the country swer to whose observation that in Ferrara and Bologna, and the the King of Sardinia had not condition of the people, since the relied on foreign bayonets, he alteration in the Government, asked, whether the revolution in and he avowed his disbelief of the Italy had not been initiated by statements quoted by Mr. Hen- French bayonets. He preferred nessy. He traced the vices of a long series of charges against administration in the Roman the king of Sardinia, comparing States to the fact that it was ex- disadvantageously his conduct ercised in all its parts by eccle- with that of the gallant young siastics. He insisted that the King of Naples, fighting in desuccess of the King of Sardinia fence of his rights against piracy had been the result of the will of and rebellion. He denounced the people of Italy; he had not the policy of the Foreign Office
as fatal to the interests of this office was såse in the hands country, and as a policy which, of the present Secretary. in the end, must lead to war. had, he said, followed the acts of
Mr. James, declining to dis- the Foreign Secretary with a cuss the statistics of the finances critical eye, and though there and trade of Piedmont and the had been shortcomings, they had Papal States, cited by Mr. Hen- been corrected. He examined nessy as tests—though he denied the course pursued by Lord John they were certain tests-of their Russell in Italian affairs in relacomparative prosperity; or to
or to tion to the French alliance, and to follow Sir G. Bowyer in his English policy, which was one of discursive speech, proceeded to strict non-intervention, with an examine the accusations brought expression of moral sympathy against the conduct of Sardinia towards Italy. With regard to and the Italian policy of Her King Victor Emmanuel, conMajesty's Government. He vin- sidering his conduct apart from dicated the character and the the cession of Savoy, he approved proceedings of Garibaldi, so un- his policy, and rejoiced in the justly stigmatized as a “pirate,” position he held, as guardian of and drew a fearful picture of the liberties of Italy. Liberty, the “ paternal ” government of he was happy to say, was at Naples, which, by its system of length dawning upon that country espionage and its prisons, tyran- under a constitutional Sovereign, nized, he said, over the intellect the political being coupled with a of its subjects and the freedom religious movement. Difficulties of thought. He defended Lord were, however, to be overcome; John Russell against charges they were not at Gaëta, nor at made by Mr. Hennessy, and upon Venice, nor at Messina ; they the evidence of official returns, to were at Rome, which was the the accuracy of which he pledged great obstacle to the pacification himself, exposed that gentleman's and consolidation of Italy. errors on the subject of the The Chancellor of the Exelections. With reference to the chequer observed that Sir. G. Pope, he believed that his tem- Bowyer had raised a broad issue ; poral power, which, he said, was he had asserted that a revolution gone, was the bane of his spiri. which the people of England tual influence, rendering him looked upon with wonder, was responsible for acts of cruelty the result of a wicked conspiracy, and injustice. The foreign policy carried on by an unprincipled of Her Majesty's Government King and a cunning Minister; had been, in his opinion, clear, that the people of Naples, gounambiguous, and just; it re- verned by benignant laws wisely flected infinite credit upon them, administered, were devoted to and recommended itself to the their Sovereign; and he (Mr. feelings of the people.
Gladstone) wished to try, in the Sir R. Peel complained of the face of the House of Commons, invectives of Sir G. Bowyer by reference to unquestioned directed against the British evidence, whether these allegaForeign Office, expressing his tions
true, faithless opinion that the integrity of that shadows, the fictions of those
who had made it their work to bourhood of Rome a desert, trample down the liberty of the whereas a large portion of the people. Mr. Gladstone then Campagna was highly productive entered upon a melancholy his- as pasture land, and the worst tory of the sufferings of the portion was no worse now than people of Naples since the time in former times. He alleged when the late King audaciously that the Pontifical Government violated the Constitution he had had not been backward in introdeliberately sworn to maintain. ducing railways and electric teleHe then adverted to the Govern- graphs, and rewards for the enment of the States of the Church, couragement of industry; that distinguishing between the per- the shipping had increased ; that, sonalcharacter of the Pope and his whenever tranquillity prevailed, Administration, - that execrable the 'Papal finances improved ; system of which, he observed, that taxes were moderate, and the Pope was both the instru- that laymen were largely emment and the victim. He de- ployed, although Rome was said tailed various cases of executions to groan under priestly tyranny. and outrages in the Romagna, He denied that the temporal long before the late revolution; power of the Pope was coming to acts which, whether perpetrated its end. Providence, he said, by their own Government or by watched over it as necessary for à foreign soldiery, would justly the exercise of his spiritual power; exasperate the most patient and he asked what the Pope had people. He established by docu- done that he should be robbed mentary proofs the fact of wan- of his dominions ? He denied ton and deliberate murders at that the policy of Lord J. RusPerugia, and read details of par- sell was non-intervention, since ticular instances of illegal exe- he was doing everything in his cutions in Modena, the pet State power to damage the cause of of Austria, under the lates pa- the Pope, who attributed much ternal” Government. Italy, be of his suffering to the machinaobserved, which had long yearned tions of the English Governfor unity, owed much to Eng- ment. land, and a heavy debt of grati- Mr. Roebuck observed that tude to France. But neither most of those who had spoken Eugland nor France, nor even upon this question had misVictor Emmanuel, had made taken it altogether.
What was Italian unity; it was the policy wanted was to learn, not so much which had been pursued by as to the past, as what the GoAustria towards Italy that had vernment meant to do in settling made her what she was.
Italy. He looked at the quesMr. Maguire disputed the ac- . tion as an Englishman, and he curacy of the statements made asked what ought to be the policy by Mr. Layard as to the condi- of England towards Italy? He tion of the Papal States, con- was for an united Italy, he wanted tending that some parts were as to see Italy under one Governhighly cultivated as any other ment-from the bottom of the parts of the civilized world. Mr. Peninsula up to the Mincio, Layard had termed the neigh- wholly Italian.' He found on
the north-west of Italy a great pathies in common, and would Power-France; on the north- not coalesce, He contended that east another great Power-Aus- the rules of international law tria; and on the east of her had been violated by the approanother great Power — Russia. bation given by our Government What, then, were the hopes of to the invasion of the Papal termaking Italy an united Italy? Up ritory by the Sardinian troopsto that hour, since the iron des- a precedent which might herepotism of Rome, Italy had never after be pleaded to our prebeen one.
We had been told juuice. that France had done great Lord J. Russell said that Mr. things for Italy. Yes; but had Hennessy and Sir G. Bowyer, as she not done something for her- well as Mr. Monsell, had raised a self? had she not advanced to false issue-whether the Governthe crest of the mountains, and ment of the King of Sardinia could she not now pour her was better than the Governments troops into Italy? Were there of the King of Naples and of the not 40,000 French at Rome? Pope, and whether Her Majesty's Ought there not to be, then, Government were justified in some counterpoise to the power giving their support to the King of France ? Ile had no desire of Sardinia against those princes. to see an united Italy a vassal The people of Naples might be of France; was there not a
wrong in preferring the rule of danger of this, and how was it to the King of Sardinia ; but this be prevented ?. The only part did not touch the policy of Her of İtaly held by Germany was Majesty's Government, which Venice and the Quadrilateral, was, not to interfere so as to and he pressed on the Govern- prevent the people of Italy from ment the danger of the course choosing what Government they they were pursuing, by endea- pleased. After all he had heard, vouring to exclude Austria from it seemed to him that a GovernVenetia. Austria had now a ment more abominable than that constitution
which, on of the King of Naples never expaper, was as liberal as
in Europe; and in the and our policy ought to be to Legations there was no protecprotect Austria, as she had no tion for life and property, while interest opposed to England. every care was taken that men Austria at the present time was should not the intellect not the Austria of the past, and, which God had given them; looking to the possible contin- what wonder, then, that the gency of an
alliance between people should prefer to live unFrance and Russia, we might der another ruler ? But the have to cast about for friends, question was not whether the and our policy ought to be to Sardinian Government was precultivate the friendship of Aus- ferable or not to the Governtria.
ments it displaced. Were it ever Mr. Monsell believed it would so distasteful to the people conbe impracticable to unite the cerned, was it for the English different States of Italy, the in- Government to say, “We are habitants of which had few sym- determined to oppose your