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the observance of those treaties place pursuant to a convention which had been so often violated, with the British Government in and expressed a hope that the

consequence of the calamitous Central Government would, from events in that country, of which the information which had been

an account has been given in given to Prince Kung, exercise a a former volume of this work. just control over the acts of the 'Lord Stratford de Redcliffe prolocal Governments.

posed the following resolutions Lord Ellenborough entirely to the House of Lords on this agreed with what had fallen from subject on the 10th of May :Lord Grey, as he thought we had “1. That the House would view acted with great injustice towards with deep regret any circumChina, and, on account of recent stances leading to a continuance, barbarities committed by the Chi- however brief, of the occupation nese, should probably act with of Syria by foreign troops bemuch more. Was, he asked, this yond the 5th of June next enfourth campaign of Sir J. Bow- suing, the period now fixed for ring's war finished ? The few their complete withdrawal by the troops we had left at Tien-tsin Convention agreed to at Paris on would, from their paucity, pro- the 15th of March ; 2. That the voke an attack, and, if attacked, House considers the late calamiof course, there would be another

tous events in Syria as not to be war. In regard to the article of attributed to causes exclusively the treaty on the emigration of local, but also, and chiefly, to the coolies, be attacked its injustice general state of the Turkish emand doubted its policy. It had pire, more especially in point of identified us with other foreign- revenue and administration ; 3. ers formerly mixed up in this That the House is deeply imodious traffic, and obtained for pressed with the urgency of obus the title of “man-stealers." taining from the Ottoman Porte He looked upon the expedition a prompt adoption and strict enup the Yang-tse as the best forcement of such measures as means for restoring strength and may best afford, in the spirit of stability to the Chinese empire, the Sultan's Hatti-humayoun of because by exploring that river 1856, a reliable security against we should be brought into col- the recurrence, from any cause lision with the rebels, and in whatever, of those sanguinary consequence should do our best conflicts.” to put them down, and so open In supporting these resoluup the trade which they were now tions, the noble lord expressed obstructing

his conviction that France After some remarks from Lord would not hesitate to withGrey in reply, the motion, which draw her troops according to was for the production of certain agreement, but, at the same time, papers, was agreed to.

he thought it highly expedient Another question of foreign that the policy of Her Majesty's policy which became the subject Government should be supported of Parliamentary discussion was, by the voice of Parliament, in the occupation of Syria by the order that no change might take French force, which had taken place with regard to the period

of occupation. The presence of that the only assistance which a foreign army, he contended, would be serviceable to the Turkwas not now necessary in Syria ish Government was a loan, and for the tranquillity of the country, he trusted that no Minister would and, by holding military posses- propose such a thing at the sion of the key of Egypt, was present time. The weak point of incompatible with European in Turkey was her want of money. terests. Having briefly entered Earl Grey thought that the preinto the causes of the massacres, sent ill-condition of Turkey was which were not so much of local due to her bad Government, and origin as due to the general mal- the constant interference of the administration of the Turkish great Powers in herinternal affairs empire, and especially to the em- for the last 30 years. He objected barrassed state of its finances, he to the resolutions, because he pressed upon the House the ne. thought their real meaning was cessity of affording to Turkey all assistance to Turkey. the assistance, moral or other

Lord Granville having apwise, which the interests of the pealed to Lord Stratford to with. country would allow, and thought draw his resolutions as no practhe Government ought to urge tical good would result from their her to carry out the reforms she adoption, they were accordingly had promised.

withdrawn. Lord Wodehouse considered On the same evening Sir that it would be very inexpedient James Ferguson brought the to pass the first resolution, as it affairs of Syria under the conwas one which seemed somewhat sideration of the House of Comdiscourteous to France, who had

He asked whether Her already expressed her intention Majesty's Government intended of withdrawing her forces from to urge the adoption of the plan Syria. He could not agree with of Her Majesty's Commissioner the second resolution, as, in his for the government of Syria upon opinion, the events in question the Sublime Porte, and moved were principally due to local for a copy of the final recomcauses, although it could not be mendations of the International denied that the Turkish adminis- Commission for the future gotration was in some respects open

vernment of the Lebanon. He to censure. In regard to the accompanied the motion by a third resolution, Turkey was not copious exposition of the Syrian deficient in good laws, but in an question, and of his view of the efficient executive; and it would policy of France regarding Syria, be the object of Her Majesty's which, he contended, had been Government, by judicious advice, most detrimental to the good to press upon that country the government of the country; the necessity of introducing reforms, object being, he said, to enespecially in finance.

courage it to lean upon France. The Marquis of Clanricarde He discussed various suggestions, stated his belief in the sincerity including the plan of the Interof the French Government's in- national Commission, for settle. tention to withdraw their troops ment of the affairs of the Lebanon, from Syria, but he was convinced so as to reconcile the interests of

mons.

Druses, Maronites, and Greeks, was inconsistent with the honour and indicated the course which and good faith of this country. he thought England ought to Lord Dufferin had said that the pursue.

Marionites and Druses could live Lord J. Russell stated the in perfect harmony, if left alone. present position of affairs in Syria It was the Turks who were to be and the views of Her Majesty's controlled, and the French troops Government of the best solution ought not to be removed from of the difficult question as to the Syria till some improved system head of the Government of the of Government had been introLebanon, respecting which dif- duced. ferences of opinion had existed Mr. Freeland laid all the among the

Commissioners, blame of the late unhappy events whose final report had been for- in Syria upon the Ottoman warded to Constantinople. He Government. hoped, he said, that means might Late in the session Lord Stratbe found to improve the con

ford de Redcliffe again brought dition of the people of the Le- the condition of Turkey under banon. There was this difficulty, discussion in the House of that the Russian Government Lords, by a motion for papers considered itself bound to take relative to the financial and under its special protection the administrative reforms introsubjects of Turkey belonging to duced since the late Sultan's Hatthe Greek Church, while the ti-humayoun in 1856 The noble French Government patronized lord prefaced his motion by vindithe Roman Catholic subjects. cating the policy of this country The object of Her Majesty's Go- towards Turkey during the reign vernment was to secure good of the late Sultan against some government to all without dis- remarks of Lord Hardwicke in a tinction. With regard to the recent debate. It was of the evacuation of Syria by the French greatest importance, he consitroops, he had, he said, every dered, to England, in a commerreason to rely upon the good cial point of view, that the refaith of the Emperor of the forms so often promised should French. It was

not in his be duly carried out, while polipower to produce the papers tically the preservation of the moved for.

Turkish Empire, which had been Mr. Layard urged that, if it a matter of solicitude for more was desired that Syria should than two centuries to this counbe well governed, the responsi- try, depended upon a thorough bility should be left to the Porte, Administrative Reform. Recent since if any other plan were accounts from Turkey justified taken up and it should fail, no the idea that the present Sultan, one would be answerable. He by his acts and proclamations, denied that there was any sys- was fully alive to the importance tematic oppression of the Chris- of economical reform. In spite tians by the Turkish authorities. of the admitted danger to which

Mr. Monsell differed from Mr. the Turkish Empire was exposed Layard, whose position, he said, from a long-continued system of

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mal-administration, he contended fairs without the interference of
that Turkey had exhibited de. foreign Powers, and expressed
cided progress, to an extent fully his pleasure at hearing the state-
to justify the policy of England. ment of Lord Wodehouse to that
In order, however, to carry out effect.
the reforms which had been Recent events in Poland hav-
promised, there must be a steady, ing revived the public interest
friendly, but sufficient pressure and sympathy with that people,
upon the Turkish Government. the feeling of the public found
In addition to these reasons for an organ in the Earl of Har-
supporting our old policy in rowby, who, in the latter part of
Turkey, we were bound by every July, brought forward a motion
principle of honour to give her for an address to the Crown for
our full and vigorous support in copies of correspondence between
case of need, and to help her to our Government and those of
carry out the reforms which she Russia and other countries on
had undertaken.

the subject of Poland. The late
Lord Wodehouse said that transactions, he said, had caused
considering the recent change in people to ask whether the state
the reigning Sovereign of Turkey, of affairs in that unfortunate
and the declaration of the Sultan country were such as was con-
that he was disposed to inaugu- templated by the Powers who
rate his reign with salutary re. signed the Treaty of Vienna, and
forms, it would be better to wait the publication of the papers
and see whether the Sultan per asked for might tend to check
severed in the course he had the tyranny which the Poles suf-
commenced, than for the British fered under.
Government to deprive him of Lord Wodehouse, having ad-
the credit which would be due to verted to the effect the extinction
him by tendering unseasonable of Polish independence had had
and premature advice. Judging on the general position of Eu-
from the actual measures of the ropean nations, and particularly
new Sultan, it did not appear of Germany, said he looked upon
that he intended to confine him- the recovery of Polish indepen-
self to words. Already important dence as an impossibility, consi-
economical changes had been dering the overwhelming forces
made, and he thought it would which could be brought against
be wiser to allow the subjects of Poland by three powerful nations.
the Sultan to understand that the The attitude of the Poles during
reforms inaugurated were not the late events at Warsaw had
pressed on him by foreign shown great moderation, and
Powers, but were his own spon- gave promise of better days.
taneous acts. He would not ob- Russia would doubtless, as li-
ject to the motion, if modified so beral ideas progressed, give the
as not to include the correspon- Poles greater liberty of action,
dence with the present Sultan. as well as those institutions to

Lord Hardwicke repeated his which they were entitled by the opinion that Turkey should be Treaty of Vienna. He had no allowed to conduct her own af- objection to accede to the mo

!

tion, so far as the correspondence of seven or eight years ago, he with Russia was concerned. said, they had great reason to

Lord Ellenborough, in an elo- congratulate themselves. He quent speceh, passed a high eulo- hoped, however, that nothing gium on the Poles for the said in that House would encoupatience and dignity with which rage them to attempt impossithey had borne their misfortunes bilities. at home and upheld the military After a few remarks from Lord reputation of their country Stratford de Redclyffe and the abroad, and expressed at the Marquis of Breadalbane, the same time his astonishment that motion, in a modified form, was Russia should not have done her agreed to. utmost to conciliate so great and The last topic of foreign policy noble a people. It was for the which it will be necessary to interest of Russia to conciliate notice in this chapter is the the Poles, for as long as they administration of the Ionian were discontented, the action of Islands, which was brought under Russia was paralyzed in Central consideration in the House of Europe—a circumstance almost Commons on the 7th of May by as injurious to Europe as to Mr. Maguire. The hon. gentle. Russia itself. How could Russia man's motion was in form for extricate herself from such a the production of correspondence position? By a frank reconcili- relating to the mission of Mr. ation, and by restoring to the Gladstone as Lord High CommisPoles self-government. The prin- sioner Extraordinary to those ciple which had led Naples, islands in 1858, and also to the Lombardy, and Flanders to assist subsequent administration of the Charles V., the Hungarians to Government by Sir Henry Storks, support Maria

Theresa, and the existing High Commissioner. Hanover to aid England, had Mr. Maguire described in his been self-government, and he speech the character of the thought the application of that Ionian people, their strong feaprinciple to Poland would be tures of identity with the people attended with like results. It of Continental Greece, and the was not by keeping the people intense sentiment of nationality, poor that quiet would be pre- amounting to a passion, which served in Poland, but by de- had taken possession of the veloping wealth, for poverty con- Ionian mind. He then adverted spires, but wealth only asks for to the circumstances which had quiet. In conclusion, he hoped subjected the islands to the the Emperor of Russia would authority of Great Britain ; to frankly offer his friendship to the government of Sir Henry Poland, and that the Poles would Ward, which he taxed with severeceive such an offer with equal rity; to the recommendation of frankness.

Sir John Young, that the islands Lord Malmesbury expressed should be abandoned; and to his concurrence in the valuable the special mission of Mr. Gladadvice given by Lord Ellen- stone, who was sent to inquire borough. If the Poles contrasted and report upon the state of their present condition with that affairs in the islands. He (Mr.

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