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upon it, whether it would be de- general welfare of the country, sirable to raise a loan for this they increased the revenues of purpose, but the Government the Government by rendering would use their best efforts to salt cheaper, and thereby increaspromote the growth of cotton in ing the demand for it. Having India.

shown that by the opening of the On the 5th of July, the Earl Godavery all these benefits would of Shaftesbury entered more at be gained, Lord Shaftesbury large upon the subject of public proceeded to describe the capaworks in India, and the means bilities of India for supplying of promoting an increased culti- England with cotton and flax, if vation of cotton in the country. only it could be made sufficiently The noble earl moved “ that an remunerative by providing roads address be presented to Her Ma- and canals to bring it down for jesty, to assure Her Majesty that shipping from the interior. At this House had regarded with the same time that the promotion great satisfaction the progress of of cotton cultivation would benefit public works in various parts of India, it would do more than anyIndia, and to beseech Her Ma- thing else to put an end to jesty that, with a view to confer slavery in America.

If it were further benefit on that country, once proved to the natives that she will be pleased to take into cotton-growing would return a her immediate and serious con- profit, and that a steady demand sideration the means of extending for

it would be kept up, they were throughout it as widely as possible sufficiently alive to their own the best systems of irrigation and interests not only to grow cotton, internal navigation.” He prefaced but to use the best inventions for his motion by dwelling upon the cleansing and preparing it. importance of an adequate supply conclusion, he showed by statisof cotton to this country, and the tics the enormous increase in the expediency of encouraging the value of property in districts progrowth of cotton in India and perly irrigated. In those disAustralia. The principal requi- tricts the revenue had increased, sites for promoting the growth of famine had disappeared, and apro. cotton in India were an extensive fit of 118 per cent. for many years system of irrigation to fertilize had been yielded on the original the soil, and a system of inland outlay. By developing these navigation for carrying the pro- works, the Government, he was duce to the coast. India, from convinced, would increase their its conformation, presented great revenue, augment the comfort of facilities both for the purposes of the natives, and obtain a better irrigation and the construction of market for our own manufaccanals, labour being plentiful and tures. cheap. In addition to other ad- Lord Lyveden expressed an vantages, these works were ex. opinion that the public works tremely profitable, they protected were not being pressed forward the districts they traversed from as quickly as before the Mutiny. famines and floods, and, at the Lord Overstone thought that same time that they promoted the it would be better to leave such works to private enterprise, espe- ready greatly burthened by the cially as he had heard that they expenses of the Mutiny; that had proved highly remunerative. they were now pledged to the He therefore moved the previous amount of 67,000,0001. on acquestion.

count of public works, and had The Marquis of Clanricarde still further engagements impendblamed the Government for the ing. Under these circumstances dilatory manner in which they the Government did not feel had set about these works. Al justified in entertaining proposals though they had been proved to be for a further advance. highly remunerative, the Govern- Lord Shaftesbury having made ment had hesitated to borrow a few remarks, and recognized money for the completion of these the difficulty of carrying out the works, while they had not scru- motion which he had brought pled to borrow for the unprofit- forward, the previous question, able fortifications at home. as proposed by Lord Overstone,

The Duke of Argyll said that was adopted. the revenues of India were al

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CHAPTER VII.

MISCELLANEOUS MEASURES.-Law of Bankruptcy and Insolvency.

Progress of the Attorney-General's Bill for the Consolidation of this branch of the Law in both Houses Important alterations made in the Select Committee of the House of LordsThe Law Lords are much divided in respect to some provisions of the Bill -- An Amendment is carried by Lord Chelmsford against the opinion of the GovernmentSome of the alterations meet with disfavour in the House of Commons, and the further progress of the Bill becomes doubtfulControversy between the two Houses The Lords persist in retaining certain Amendmonts which the Commons disapprove of-The Government ultimately make a concession to save the Bill, and the Measure becomes Law.-Consolidation of the Criminal Law-Seven Bills arc introduced by the Law Officers of the Crown, founded on the Report of the Criminal Law Commission, to amend and consolidate the Statutes relating to Indictable Offences The Bills are referred to a Select Committee in the House of Commons, and are eventually passedFurther progress in the purgation of the Statute Book by the Repeal of Obsolete Acts.—MARRIAGE WITH A DECEASED WIFE's SisteR.-A new Bill to legalise these Unions is introduced by Mr. M. Milnes - Mír. Walpole enters a Protest against the Principle of the Níeasure— Upon the Second Reading being moved, AIr. Hunt moves an Amendment, and a Debate takes placeSpeeches of Mr. Denman, Mr. Whiteside, Sir M. Peto, Mr. Pease, and other MembersThe timendment is affirmed, on a division, by 179 to 172, and the Bill is dropped. — Other Law Reforms.-Alteration in the Law regulating the makiny of Wills by British Subjects Abroad-Two Bills, proposed by Lord K’ingsdown and the Attorney-General, are enacted for this purpose.-- Post OFFICE Savings' BANKS.--A measure for affording increased security and convenience to depositors in Savings' Banks through the medium of the Post Office, is proposed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer-The Bill meets with general support, but is opposed by Lord Monteagle in the House of LordsIt is passed into a Law.-NATIONAL EDUCATION.— The Report of the Royal Commissioners on this subject is presented to Parliament, and occasions much interestThe Earl of Shaftesbury, in the House of Lords, takes exception to part of the Report containing animadversions on the Ragged SchoolsHis Speech - He is answered by the Duke of Newcastle, who vindicates the Report, and refers at some length to the Evidence taken on the subject- A general Debate on the Recommendations of the Report takes place in the House of Commons,

on the Jotion of Sir John PakingtonHe enters fully into the subject, and is followed by Mr. Henley, Mr. Lowe, and other MembersOn moving the Vote for Irish Education, Mr. Carduell explains the results of the System, and the Intentions of the Government- A Resolution, directed against the Irish National System, is moved by Mr. Isaac Butt-Obserrations of Mr. Lefroy, Mr. McEvoy, Mr. Cardwell, Sir Hugh Cairns, Mr. More O'Ferrull, Lord John Russell, Mr. Monsell, and Sir George LeuisMr. Butt's Resolution is negatived by a large majority - Revision of the Liturgy--Lord Ebury presents à Petition in favour of this object, and offers some Remarks The Bishop of London, in answer, refers to the subject of Subscription to the Articles, and Revision of the Liturgy-The Business of the Session being concluded, the Prorogation takes place by Commission on the 6th of August, The Royal Speech.Results of the Session.

N the first chapter of this vo- ability shown in the Bill in deal

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was

given of the introduction of Sir cult matters, and pointed out R. Bethell's Bill for the consoli. some clauses wliich he consi. dation of the Law of Bankruptcy dered defective. and Insolvency. The prolonged Mr. Bovill objected that, conand often interrupted discussions trary to what the country had a which took place on this mea- right to expect, the Bill did not sure during its progress through attempt to consolidate the bankboth Houses of Parliament ex- rupt law, and every one would tended nearly to the close of the be embarrassed by the state in session. The debates in both which the law would be left. He Houses were, as might be ex- condemned the retention of the pected, chiefly sustained by mem- Commissioners of Bankruptcy bers of the legal profession. On (alleged last year to be useless), the second reading being moved when a Chief Judge, with 50001. on the 14th of February, Mr. a-year, to be appointed, Roebuck took exception to some

whose duties were now performed of the proposed enactments. He satisfactorily by the Lords Jusobjected that, in appointing a tices. Messengers and official Chief Judge, the Bill merely assignees were to be retained ; created additional expense, and so that there was no substantial that it did not provide for uni- alteration, but additional expense. formity of decision. It professed He stated other objections to the to abolish the distinction be- machinery of the Bill, admitting, tween insolvency and bankruptcy, at the same time, that it contained but did not do so; it was only an some valuable provisions. alteration of the law, but altera- Mr. Hadfield believed that the tion was not reform. The Bill commercial community would be would make the administration grateful for the measure. of the bankrupt law more expen- The Attorney-General vindisive. It was an attorney's Bill, cated the course he had taken and would advance their in- in confining his Bill principally terests.

to what was new, and in not Mr. Moffatt commended the re-enacting what was already in

the Statute Book. He replied Lord Chelmsford thought that to the objections of Mr. Bovill the Bill, without considerable aland Mr. Roebuck. He frankly terations, would hardly acquire admitted that there were many the confidence of the country. things in the Bill regarding In his opinion, the Attorneywhich different opinions would General, in drawing up this Bill, exist, and, in Committee, he had listened too much to the should be happy, he said, to re- Mercantile Law Amendment Soceive and consider whatever cri- ciety, who represented one party ticisms might be offered upon on bankruptcy, and, consequently, them.

had run entirely counter to the After some remarks from Mr. views of the other. By so doing, Malins, Mr. James, Mr. J. Ewart, the interests of the smaller esand other members, the Bill was tates had been sacrificed to the read a second time.

larger, and the machinery which Having passed through the re- this Bill proposed to introduce maining stages in the House of would be found far too cumbrous Commons, with little alteration for smaller bankruptcies. In the in its details, the Bill was sent to case of the larger bankruptcies, the Upper House, where it un- there would be a struggle for the derwent a more searching scru- post of creditors' assignee, while tiny, and was considerably mo- in that of the smaller, the credified. The Lord Chancellor ditors would decline to appoint moved the second reading on the an assignee, and the estate would 16th of April. The noble and be left to the official assignee. learned lord stated that he anti. There was also some danger of cipated no opposition on the part a collision between the creditors of the House to the measure, as and the official assignees, and in he believed that the objections that case what would become of formerly entertained against it the estate ? The result of the by their lordships had been met present measure, with its proby the Bill before them. Having posed system of accounts and traced the course of legislation checks, and the addition of the in respect to bankruptcy in this creditors' assignee, instead of dicountry, he dwelt upon the ad- minishing, would increase the mitted evils of the present sys- the expenses, and lead, by collitem-unnecessary delay and ex- sion between the assignees, to a cessive official charges — evils complete dead-lock. In regard which caused the trading classes to the abolition of the distinction to shun the Court of Bankruptcy between traders and non-traders, and to settle cases by winding he strongly objected to the retrothem up privately. Briefly touch- spective clauses, and hoped that ing upon the state of the law of the House would agree to the insolvency, the abolition of the amendments which he intended distinction of traders and non- to introduce to prevent such traders, and the proposed altera- an effect. Having strongly contions, he proceeded to explain demned the idea of adding a the object of the Bill, and en- jurisdiction in bankruptcy to the tered at some length into its various duties of the county various details,

court judges, he expressed a fer

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