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CHAPTER VIII.

FRANCE.-Opening of the French Chambers, and Speech of the Emperor

--Address of the Senate in answer— -Speech of Prince Napoleon-
State of French Finances-M. Achille Fould made Minister of Finance
--His Report to the Emperor-Letter from the Emperor to the Minis-
ter of StateSpeech of M. Fould in the Senate in defence of his

Financial Measures.
ITALY.Retirement of the French Squadron from Gaeta

Reasons given in the “Moniteur " for this step-- Capitulation of Gaeta The British Government refuses to recognize the Ambassador of the ex-King of Naples-Meeting of the first Parliament of Italy Royal Speech-Victor Emmanuel declared King of Italy-Protest on behalf of the Pope by Cardinal Antonelli - Recognition of the new Kingdom of Italy by Great Britain and France-Death of Count Cavour - New Ministry formed under Baron Ricasoli His Speech in explanation of their Policy - Questions of Venice and RomeUnsettled state of the Neapolitan Territory.

account The peace of Europe was this conflict

, of which an year for will be found in the later pages few weeks at the commence- of this volume. ment, by the prolongation of the On the 4th of February, the struggle kept up by the King of Legislative Session of the French Naples at Gaeta, and afterwards Chambers was opened by the by an obscure contest carried on Emperor, who delivered the folby Turkey against Montenegro, lowing speech :which led to no decisive result. 6. Messieurs les Sénateurs, It was on the other side of the “ Messieurs les Députés, Atlantic that the din of arms was “The Speech at the opening heard, where the North and the of each session sums up in a South rushed into a fratricidal few words the past events and war, and the great Republic of the projects of the future. Up the United States was shattered to this day that communication, by a secession of one-third of restricted in its nature, has not the population, occupying an put my Government in relations extent of territory almost as large intimate enough with the Great as Europe. The interest of the bodies of the State, and these public was chiefly centred in the bodies were thus deprived of the varying phases of that mighty means of strengthening the GoIf they

vernment by their public adhesion pared with care and mature deor assisting it by their advice. liberation by a Council composed

“ I have decided that every of enlightened men, who give year a general statement of the their advice on all measures to situation of the Empire should be be taken. placed before you, and that the “ The Senate, guardian of the more important diplomatic de fundamental compact, uses the spatches should be laid before conservative power of its own your bureaux.

initiative only in grave circum“ You can also in your Address stances, and not only examines express your opinions on the the laws on the sole consideration facts of the day, not, as formerly, of their constitutionality, but conby a simple paraphrase of the stitutes a true court of political Speech from the Throne, but by appeal, and is composed of a the free and loyal expression of number of members that cannot your opinion.

be exceeded. That improvement initiates “ The Legislative Corps, it is the country more fully into a true, does not mix itself in all the knowledge of its own affairs, and details of administration, but it makes better known to it thuse is elected directly by universal who govern as well as those who suffrage, and does not count in sit in the Chambers; and, not- its body any public functionary. withstanding its importance, this It discusses the laws with the change does not alter in any most complete freedom. way the spirit of the Constitu- are rejected, it is a warning of tion.

which the Government takes Formerly, you are aware, notice, but their rejection does the suffrage was limited. The not shake the Government nor Chamber of Deputies possessed, arrest the progress of affairs, it is true, more extended privi- and does not oblige the Soveleges, but the large number of reign to take for councillors the public functionaries who formed men who have not his confidence. part of it gave to the Govern- Such are the principal difment a direct power of action on ferences between the present its resolutions. The Chamber of Constitution and that which prePeers also voted the laws, but ceded the revolution of February. the majority could be at any * Exhaust, gentlemen, during moment deposed by the addition the vote the Address all of new members. Finally, the points of discussion according to laws were not always discussed the proportion of their importaccording to their real merit, but ance, that you may have the following the chance which their power afterwards to devote youradoption or rejection would have selves entirely to the affairs of in maintaining or upsetting a the country; for if these points Ministry. From that there en- demand a profound and consued little sincerity in delibera- scientious examination, the other tion, little stability in the pro- interests in their turn impatiently gress of the Government, and expect prompt decisions. little useful work accomplished. On the eve of more detailed

“ To-day all the laws are pre- explanations, I will limit myself

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to recalling to mind, summarily, ing to violate personal rights and that which has been done at justice. home and abroad.

“ Events difficult to foresee " At home, all the measures have arisen to complicate in that have been taken tend to Italy a situation already suffiincrease the agricultural, com- ciently embarrassing. mercial, and industrial produc- My Government, in accord tion. The dearness of all things with its Allies, has believed that is the inevitable consequence the best means of obviating the of the increasing prosperity, but greatest dangers was to have at least ought we to seek to

recourse to a principle of our render articles of first necessity policy of non-intervention, which the least dear. It is with that leaves each country master of its view that we have diminished the destinies, localizes questions, and duties on l'aw materials, have prevents them from degenerasigned a Treaty of Commerce ting into European conflicts. with England, have projected or I certainly do not ignore the contracted other treaties with fact that this system has the inneighbouring countries, and facili- convenience of appearing to autated everywhere the means of thorize many annoying excesses, communication and of transport. and extreme opinions would pre

“ To realize these economical fer, the one that France should reforms we have

renounced take part with all kinds of revo90,000,000f. of annual receipts, lutions, the other that she should yet the Budget will be presented put herself at the head of a geto you in equilibrium, without neral reactionary movement. I its having been necessary to have shall not allow myself to be recourse to the creation of new turned aside from my course by taxes or to the public credit, as either of these opposing inI announced to you last year. fluences. It is enough for the

“ The changes introduced into grandeur of the country that it the administration of Algeria should maintain its right, where have vested the superior direc- it is indispensable, to defend its tion of affairs in the population, honour where it is attacked, to themselves. The illustrious ser- lend its assistance where it may vices of the Marshal placed at be invoked in favour of a just the head of the colony are guarantees of order and prosperity. “ It is thus that we have main

Abroad, I have endeavoured tained our right in causing the to prove in my regulations with acceptance of the cession of foreign Powers that France sin- Savoy and Nice. These procerely desires peace; that, with- vinces are at the present day irout renouncing a legitimate in- revocably united to France. fluence, she does not pretend to “ It is thus that, to avenge our interfere anywhere where her in- honour in the extreme East, our terests are not at stake; and, flag, united with that of Great finally, that if she entertains Britain, has floated victoriously sympathies for all that is noble from the walls of Pekin, and that and grand, she does not hesi- the cross-emblem of Christian tate to condemn everything tend- civilization-again surmounts in

cause.

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the capital of China the temples and

and not to allow itself to of our religion, closed for more be moved by imaginary alarms. than a century.

Let us look, therefore, at the “ It is thus that, in the name future with calmness, in the full of humanity, our troops have confidence of our power, as of gone to Syria, in virtue of a our loyal intentions. Let us deEuropean convention, to protect vote ourselves,

without exagChristians against a blind fanati- gerated anxiety, to the developcism.

ment of the germs of prosperity “ At Rome, I have thought it that Providence has placed in necessary to augment the garri- our hands." son when the security of the In the Address of the Senate Holy Father appeared to be me. in answer to this speech the naced. I despatched my fleet to question of Italy was thus alluded Gaeta at the moment when it to: seemed the last refuge of the “If we now cast our eyes on King of Naples. After leaving the Italian Peninsula we are, like it there for four months I your Majesty, struck with the have withdrawn it, however events of which it has been the worthy of sympathy a Royal nis- theatre since our last session. fortune so nobly supported might Two interests of the first order appear.

which the Emperor wished to The presence of our ships conciliate have clashed, and obliged us to infringe every day Italian liberty is struggling with that principle of neutrality which the Court of Rome. To prevent I had proclaimed, and gave room that conflict your Government for erroneous interpretations. In- has tried all that political skill deed, you know that in politics and fair dealing could suggest. people do not believe in purely To one you pointed out the disinterested acts.

course of the law of nations, to " Such is a rapid explanation of the other a compromise. There the general state of affairs. Now you separated from unjust aggresthat apprehensions are dissipated sion; here you were afflicted at and confidence consolidated, why impolitic resistance. Everywhere should not commercial and in- you were affected by noble misdustrial affairs renew their ac- fortune and painful ruin. In fine, tivity?

all equitable roads were opened, "My firm determination is not and you only stopped short beto enter on any conflict where the fore the employment of force. cause of France is not based For by armed intervention ideas upon right and justice. What, of conciliation are not realized. therefore, have we to fear? Can Your Majesty, moreover, has not a united and compact nation forgotten that at other periods numbering 40,000,000 of souls the fault committed by France anticipate either being drawn was to pretend to govern Italy into a struggle the object of which after having emancipated it, and she does not approve, or being you desired to disengage French provoked by any menace ? policy from what had been an

“ The first virtue of a people embarrassment, not thinking that is to have confidence in itself, because it was necessary to inter

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fere in favour of Italy oppressed confidence in the monarch who by a foreign Power, it was neces

the papacy with the sary to interfere in constraining French fag, who has assisted the will of emancipated Italy. at its trials, and who has conThis system of non-intervention, stituted himself the most vigithe best to prevent a general lant and most faithful guardian conflagration, will close the field of Rome and of the Pontifical of our ancient rivalry with Aus- Throne."* tria; and if, notwithstanding At the sitting of the Senate sinister predictions, an European on the 1st of March, a remarkable war does not break out in Spring, speech was made by Prince Nait is because your Majesty, con- poleon in reply to some attacks tent with a prudent and firm at- by the Marquis de Larochetitude, has resisted the induce- jaquelein on the policy of the inents of ardent passions, while Government. He said :you did not yield to the exigen- Gentlemen, there atcies of reaction. And this peace tacks which reflect honour, and will be as valuable a blessing to I leave the care of replying to Italy as to us, for Italy will not the outrages which you have be understood by the world, heard, to liberal opinion in which is regarding her, unless Europe, to Italian patriotism, she proves that she will not agitate Europe by her liberty • A statement was published in the after having so long disturbed it Constitutionnel, showing the cost to the by her misfortunes. Let her French Government of the Army of Occurecollect, above all, that Catholi- pation at Rome :

Cost. cism has intrusted to her the

Troops. Francs. Head of the Church, the repre- 1849 19,185 2,029,000 sentative of the greatest moral

1850 13,777 7,822,000 force of humanity. The religious

1851 10,198 5,423,000

1852 interests of France demand of

9,858 5,291,000 1853

8,784 4,950,000 her not to forget it. The pleasing 1854 9,358 5,962,000 recollections of Magenta and of 1855 6,910 4,316,000 Solferino lead us to hope that

1856 5,423 3,082,000

1857 she will take it into consideration.

5,600 2,946,000

1858 5,628 2,936,000 But our firinest hope is in the

1859 7,404 3,787,000 tutelary, and indefatigable hand of

1860 7,000 3,500,000 your Majesty. Your filial affection 1861 19,000 9,480,000 for a sacred cause—which you do not confound with that of the in

128,125

61,524,000 trigues which borrow its mask has been unceasingly remarked evident that these figures do not repre

The Constitutionnel added :-“It is in the defence and maintenance sent the entire expense, inasmuch as they of the temporal power of the do not include the cost of clothing, arms, Sovereign Pontiff And the and ammunition. It is known, by the Senate do not hesitate to give Budget of the Minister, that each soldier

costs 1000f., and that 1000 men cost their full adhesion to all the acts

1,000,000f. According to this calcu. of your frank, moderate, and per- lation, the cost of keeping a French severing policy. For the future army in Rome since 1849 amounts to we shall continue to place our 128,125,000f.

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