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been displayed by the officers medical staff attached to the in command in embarking and forces. It was the first time that landing their troops in the high- a medical officer had been sent est state of efficiency. On the out solely for sanitary purposes, 1st of August, the troops under and the appointment had been General Grant landed in China productive of great benefits to and occupied the forts of the the army. Already Her Majesty Peiho. They subsequently, after had expressed her sense of the encountering unexpected hard- services which had been renships, advanced through a diffi- dered by the troops in China, cult country, the obstacles of and it now remained for their which were much lessened by Lordships to express their
approthe gallantry of the Sikh ca- bation by giving their assent to valry. The Taku Forts were the motion. next attacked, and after a short Lord Derby said that he felt it but gallant resistance, carried in incumbent upon him to express the most successful style. He his satisfaction at the perfect deemed it necessary to dwell on organization of the expedition to these points, because, since the China, reflecting, as it did, the capture of Pekin and the signing greatest credit upon the departof the treaty, people were inclined ments concerned with it, and to forget the difficulties which especially upon their chiefs, Lord had been overcome. Lord Her- Herbert and the Duke of Cambert next referred to the action bridge. Although the campaign which took place before Tien- in China could not compare tsin, and vindicated Sir Hope either in magnitude or in inGrant from the charge that he terest with late events in India, had forced hostilities on the Chi- yet when he remembered how nese at this period, when they much had been done by a comwere particularly desirous of paratively small force, how that peace. Between the military and force had passed through a thicklynaval services he was delighted inhabited country, advanced to to state that there had been the the gates of the capital, and there most cordial co-operation.
In dictated its terms of peace, he terms of indignation he pro- could not refrain from thinking ceeded to detail the horrible bar- such vast results achieved by barities inflicted by the Chinese such inadequate means read on the unfortunate gentlemen more like a page of romance than whom they had captured by a a fact of history. Having highly foul act of treachery. This atro- eulogized the various operations, cious crime necessitated some he complained of the meagre sort of punishment, one which information which had been laid should fall upon the instigators before the House by the Governof it, and not upon an unoffend- ment, and insisted that more ing people, and the punishment papers should have been preselected had been the destruction sented to their Lordships on the of the Summer Palace of the merits of officers whom they were Emperor. From these topics he about to thank for their services. passed to speak in terms of great No words, however, could be too approval of the commissariat and high to mark their sense of Sir
H. Grant's and Admiral Hope's had been followed in organizing services. He should have been the late expedition, and the result glad to have heard something had been the most perfect succoncerning the reported diffe- He warmly eulogized the rences of opinion between Gene- services of the froops engaged, ral Montauban and Sir Hope and the officers in command, for Grant, because he thought that the energy and gallantry which the instance reported redounded they had displayed throughout much to the credit of Sir H. the whole of the Chinese expeGrant, who, on his own respon- dition. In conclusion, he vindibility, and in spite of General cated the destruction of the SumMontauban's protest, determined mer Palace against the strictures to attack the North Fort. As to of Lord Derby. the forces engaged, whatever they Lord Clyde was understood to had to do they did it well, gal- allude in terms of high praise to lantly, and successfully. He re- the conduct of Sir Hope Grant. gretted that the navy had not, Lord Grey said, that although by taking a more prominent part he was still of opinion that the at the scene of their former war with China was unjust, yet, disaster, satisfied their own minds our army and navy were that they had avenged their old not responsible for the policy of defeat. He then commented on the Government, and as he was the admirable discipline and sub- fully convinced that both services ordination of the troops-quali- had done their duty most effities which had been proved by ciently, he should support the the kindly acts and friendly bear- present motion. He thought, ing of the population through however, that the whole question which they had passed. He re- of the Chinese war demanded frained from saying anything in discussion, and declared his inreference to the treaty, as the tention, if Her Majesty's Governmotion before the House was one ment did not afford an opporof a purely military character. tunity for so doing, of bringing As to the destruction of the forward a motion himself for that Summer Palace, although he ad- purpose. mitted that it was amply justified The Duke of Somerset exby the barbarities which had been pressed his approbation of the practised by the Chinese, he services of the navy, and read a thought that it was neither a letter from Sir Hope Grant, in necessary nor a politic act. In which that officer spoke in the conclusion he cordially assented highest praise of the efficiency of to the motion.
those very gunboats which last The Duke of Cambridge sup- year the House had been inported the motion, and observed formed were entirely rotten. He that whenever it became unhap- defended the destruction of the pily necessary for this country to Summer Palace, and expressed go to war, measures ought to be his conviction of the necessity of adopted on the largest and most that act. He trusted that after complete scale in order to bring this exhibition of our power the that war to a satisfactory and treaty would be effectually carried rapid conclusion. This course out. VOL. CIII.
The Marquis of Bath protested though the commander of the against the destruction of the French forces did not acquiesce Palace as an unnecessary and in the act, Her Majesty's Governbarbarous act of demolition. ment cordially approved their
Lord Ellenborough dwelt in conduct. terms of eulogium upon the ser- Mr. Disraeli, in terms of high vices of Lord Elgin, who, he eulogium, seconded the motion. said, had gone to China at much Mr. Scully adverted to the depersonal inconvenience,and whose struction of the Summer Palace, conduct had been marked by and argued that no greater provofirmness and decision.
cation had been given by the The resolution unani. Chinese to us than to the mously agreed to. On the French, who had not concurred same evening, in the House of in the act, and said that, if it was Commons, Viscount Palmerston not justifiable, it was an act of moved similar resolution. barbarism and vandalism, of which " These brilliant services,” he the nation should disclaim the observed, “had been performed, responsibility. under circumstances of consider- Sir J. Elphinstone, while able difficulty, with the greatest warmly agreeing in the opinions possible skill, gallantry, and in- expressed as to the brilliant sertrepidity. Not a mistake had vices of the army, avowed that been made; there had been no he doubted whether the treaty deficiency in providing troops would be efficacious. and stores, and in transporting Mr. White took exception to them to the scene of operations, Lord Palmerston's statement that while the most perfect harmony the war had originated in the rehad prevailed between the British fusal of the Chinese to ratify the and French forces. The obsta- treaty of Tien-tsin.
He concles, though great, had been over- tended that they had not refused come; the period of the ser
to ratify it; that they had rativices had been comparatively fied the American treaty, and short, but the success had been that the British Goverment had complete, without a single check, virtually acknowledged the ratifiin spite of the large number of cation. Tartars and Chinese opposed to Lord J. Russell justified the the allied troops." He gave a suc- destruction of the palace as a fit cinct narrative of the operations atonement for the barbarous which had resulted in the rati- treatment of the captives by the fication of the treaty; and with Chinese authorities. Lord Elgin respect to the destruction of the
was of opinion that if he had Emperor of China's Summer Pa- demanded the surrender of the lace, Lord Elgin and Sir Hope perpetrators of the outrages, the Grant had thought very properly, Chinese would have had no diffilie said, that this act was a fit re- culty in complying with the detribution for the outrages com- mand, and the lives of some mitted by the Chinese, and the miserable subordinates would barbarous cruelties perpetrated have been sacrificed, while the upon captives taken in violation real offenders would have escaped. of the law of nations, and, al. The reason why General Montau.
ban and Baron Gros had not ac- were embodied in the present, quiesced in the act was, because and then proceeded to explain they thought it would strike such the alterations he had introduced terror into the Chinese that the into the present Bill. treaty would be broken off.
posed to adhere to the plan of The motion was then agreed appointing a Chief Judge, but to to.
continue the Commissioners of The ineffectual attempt of the Bankruptcy; to abolish the ComAttorney - General, Sir Richard missioners of the Insolvent Bethel, in 1860, to carry through Debtors' Court, and to permit a Parliament his comprehensive majority of the creditors to remeasure for the Amendment of move the case out of the Bankthe Laws of Bankruptcy and In- ruptcy Court into the County solvency, has been related in the Courts. He next explained the preceding volume. On the with- course of proceeding proposed drawal of that Bill, Her Majesty's by the Bill. One great object Government undertook to intro- was to enable a bankrupt's estate duce another for the same object to be administered and worked at the earliest period in the en- out, without the necessity of suing session. In fulfilment of going into bankruptcy at all, by that engagement, the Attorney- a very simple mode of proceedGeneral, on the 11th of Feb- ing. He described the powers ruary, moved for leave to bring and functions with which he proin the altered Bill which he had posed to clothe the creditors and prepared, expressing a hope that the official assignees respectively, he had succeeded in so framing and the nature of the discharge the measure as to entitle it to to be given to the debtor. He greater favour than his former proposed to abolish the distincBill had experienced. He began tions of the certificates given to by adverting to the confusion bankrupts, and to set forth cases which now existed in bankruptcy of misconduct which would warbetween the judicial and admis. rant the judge, of his own motion, trative functions of the law, and in either refusing the certificate one object of the last Bill, as of or suspending the order of disthe present, was to separate these charge, or committing the banktwo functions. Another feature rupt to prison for a term not exof the late as well as the present ceeding twelve months (unless measure was to restore to the the bankrupt desired to be tried creditors in bankruptcy the power by a jury), without any appeal of settling their own affairs. from the sentence of the chief Another evil which the late Bill judge. These forms of procedure was intended to meet, was the applied to trader-debtors. In the vast expense of proceedings in case of non-traders, he urged at bankruptcy, the various sources some length the impolicy of the of which he pointed out: to re-existing law in requiring a term duce this expense was likewise of imprisonment before an insolan object of the present Bill. He vent could obtain relief from the enumerated other objects contem: court, a provision which was no plated by the late Bill which advantage to the creditor or the
community, while it was the Daughter's character, and the ungreatest injustice to the non- paralleled brilliancy of her reign, trader. It was, therefore, a boon the realization of her highest to all parties to place the law of maternal hopes. Immediately insolvency on the same footing upon her demise, motions were as the law of bankruptcy. The made in both Houses of Parliadifficulty was to specify the overt ment, that addresses should be acts that would constitute insol- presented to the Throne, "to vency, and he stated what he condole with Her Majesty, and considered would be criteria of to express our sincere regret at insolvency sufficient to cast upon that melancholy event; to assure a debtor the obligation of giving Her Majesty that we shall ever up his property to his creditors, feel the warmest interest in whatwho should not, in that case, be ever concerns Her Majesty's doentitled to more than an equal mestic relations; and to declare distribution of the property pos- our ardent wishes for the happisessed by the debtor at the ness of Her Majesty and of her time, and they should not be family." allowed to retain the power of The Address in the Upper pursuing him through life. He House was moved by Earl Granexplained various other details of ville, who said :the Bill, and, in conclusion, ex- “ Your lordships are all aware pressed a confident expectation that the Duchess of Kent, at a that the portion of it which pro- very early age, and after a brief vided for private arrangements period of domestic happiness by means of deeds of composi- with her second husband, the tion would be found most bene- Duke of Kent, was left in this ficial, ensuring economy and ex- country the guardian of that illuspedition.
trious Lady under whose rule we Most of the legal members of are now living. Since that melanthe House, including Mr. Wal- choly event, with the exception pole, Mr. Malins, Mr. Mellor, of the loss of her eldest son, a and Mr. Roebuck, as well as Mr. few years ago, her life has been Turner and other members re- one of great prosperity and sucpresenting commercial consti- cess. From the moment of her tuencies, expressed, with certain arrival in this country she enreservations, a favourable opinion joyed the greatest popularity of the scheme, which was accord- among all classes of the people ingly then introduced in the down to the close of her existform of a Bill. The further ence the other day. She had proceedings with respect to this the gratification of seeing her measure will be related in a suc- first family gain general esteem ceeding chapter.
and respect by their conduct, and On the 16th of March, Her of seeing one of her grandRoyal Highness the Duchess of children distinguish himself, at Kent died, full of years and the risk of bis life, in the naval honours, having enjoyed a large service of the country which she share of public respect, and seen, had adopted. She had further in the admirable qualities of her the satisfaction of beholding her