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Yes, we will go to Rome. Shall Throughout the whole of the Rome, politically severed from year, the Neapolitan portion of the rest of Italy, continue to be the dominions of the new King the centre of intrigue and con- of Italy was in a very unsettled spiracy-a permanent threat to and unsatisfactory state. Brithe public order? To go to gandage was rife in the mounRome is for the Italians not tainous districts, and a system of merely a right, it is an inexorable perpetual agitation was kept up necessity. But how are we to go by Bourbon and Papal emissathere? The King's Government ries, who succeeded in creating will be open and precise upon serious disturbances in several that even more than upon any places. It was necessary to use other subject. We do not wish a strong military force to preto go to Rome by insurrectional serve order; and even at the end movements-unreasonable, rash, of the year the disaffection was mad attempts—which may en- so widely spread as to cause condanger our former acquisitions siderable apprehension for the and spoil the national enterprise. future destiny of this part of the We will go to Rome hand in Kingdom of Italy. hand with France."

CHAPTER IX.

AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY.— Imperial Ordinance creating a new Reichs

rath-New Council of State-Promulgation of Provincial Statutes (ircular with respect to Hungary-Opening of the Reichsrath and Speech of the Emperor-Address of the Upper House - Speeches of M. Deak and Count Andrassy in the Hungarian Diet-Address of the Diet rejected by the Emperor-Second Address and Imperial Rescript -Excitement in the Hungarian Diet-Address in Answer drawn up by M. Deak-- Baron Vay resigns the Chancellorship of HungaryDissolution by the Emperor of the Diet-Resolution not to Pay Taxes

-Hungary placed under a Military Dictatorship. Russia.-Manifesto of the Emperor Alexander, declaring the Emanci

pation of Serfs.

ON the 27th of February, seve

N the 27th of February, seve- “3. For our Kingdoms of Bo

ral Imperial decrees were hemia, Dalmatia, Galicia, and published at Vienna relative to Lodomeria, with the Grand Duchy the Constitution of the Empire. of Cracow and the Duchies of They were preceded by an ordi- Auschivitz and Zator; for our nance, signed by the Emperor and Archduchies of Upper and Lower his Ministers, which stated :- Austria, for our Duchies of Car

“1. The annexed law relative niolo and Bukovina, for our Markto the formation of the Reichs- gravate of Moravia, for our Duchy rath, which is to represent the of Upper and Lower Silesia, for Empire, we hereby sanction, and our Markgravate of Istria, with at the same time declare it to be a Gorice, Gradiska, and Trieste, State and fundamental law in and and for our Province of Voralfor all our kingdoms and lands. berg, we have issued statutes and

2. In respect to the King- electoral ordinances, which we doms of Hungary, Croatia, and hereby declare to be State and Slavonia, and to the Grand Prin- fundamental laws. The law recipality of Transylvania, it is our lative to Dalmatia cannot, howintention that their former con- ever, be carried out until the restitutions shall be restored in lations between that kingdom and accordance with our above-men- the Kingdoms of Croatia and tioned diploma, and within the Slavonia have been definitively limits of the same. The neces- settled. sary orders for such restoration “4. In order that Styria, Cawere contained in our autograph rinthia, Salzburg, and the Tyrol letters of the 20th of October, 1800. may enjoy the same privileges

66

as the above-mentioned provinces, tocratic families which have very we have issued new statutes for extensive landed property will be those provinces.

members of the Upper House. “5. We have ordered our Mi. In such families the dignity will nister of State to draw up a pro- be made hereditary by the Emvincial constitution on a similar peror. basis for our Lombardo-Venetian “4. All Archbishops and BiKingdom, and directed him to shops who have princely rank are lay it before us at a fitting time. members of the Upper House. In the meanwhile the congrega- • 5. The Emperor reserves to tions of that kingdom will have a himself the right of making disright to send the appointed num- tinguished ecclesiastics, scholars, ber of members to the Reichs- and scientific men members of rath.

the Upper House for life. “6. By these presents we make 6.6. The House of Deputies known to the world that the fun- will be composed of 343 memdamental laws now published do bers; that is, 85 for Hungary, form the constitution of our em- 54 for Bohemia, 20 for the Lompire. And we do hereby promise bardo-Venetian kingdom, 5 for and vow that we will, under the Dalmatia, 9 for Croatia and Slaprotection of the Almighty, invio- vonia, 38 for Galicia, and Lodo. Tably follow and uphold all the meria, 18 for Lower Austria, 10 laws now promulgated, and we do for Upper Austria, 3 for Salzburg, engage our successors inviolably 13 for Styria, 5 for Carinthia, 6 to follow and uphold them, and to for Carniola, 5 for the Bukovina, vow so to do in a manifesto which 26 for Transylvania, 22 for Mo. they shall publish on their acces- ravia, 6 for Upper and Lower sion to the throne.

Silesia, 12 for the Tyrol and "7. We do ordain that this Voralberg, and 6 for Istria, Gopatent, with the fundamental rice, Gradiska, and Trieste. laws accompanying it, shall as- 67. The members of the sume the form of an Imperial Reichsrath are to be elected by diploma, which shall be deposited the Provincial Diets. The elecin the archives of our House, tions to be direct. If, for any Court, and State."

reason, the Diets should not send This was followed by a “Fun- members to the Reichsrath, the damental Law for the Represen- Emperor will order the appointed tation of the Empire," of which number of members to be elected the principal articles were the by the districts, towns, and corfollowing:

porations. “1. The Reichsrath forms the “8. The Emperor will choose representation of the Empire. the President and Vice-PresiThe Reichsrath is composed of a dents of each Diet from among House of Peers (Herrenhaus) and its members. All other functiona House of Deputies.

aries are to be elected by the " 2. The Princes of the Impe. Diets. rial House are, when of age, • 9. The Reichsrath will be members of the Upper House by convoked annually. right of birth.

“ 10. In accordance with Arti3. The chiefs of certain aris. cle 2 of the diploma of the 20th VOL. CIII.

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of October, 1860, the following “19. The Ministers, Court matters are to be within the Chancellors, and chiefs of censphere of action of the Reichs- tral departments, have a right to rath :-(a) Matters connected with take part in all debates, and to military conscription. (b) Matters bring forward their propositions connected with the currency, pub- in person or by means of one of lic credit, coinage, banks empow. the deputies. They have also a ered to issue notes, customs, right to make themselves heard commercial matters, post, rail- on all occasions. They have also roads, and telegraphs. (c) All a right to vote if members of the those financial matters which one or the other House.

the empire at large; * 20. The sittings of both such as the budget, the State Houses are public, but they can balance-sheet, the results of the be held in secret if the President manipulations of the finance de or 10 members demand the expartnient, the raising of new pulsion of the public, and the loans, the conversion of State House, after the public has quitdebts, the sale, change or mort- ted the hall, agrees to the propogage of the real property of the sition.” State ; the augmentation of the By an IMPERIAL PATENT the present taxes, and the imposition Permanent and Enlarged Reichsof new ones. The present taxes rath were dissolved, and a Staatsto be levied until repealed in a rath (Council of State) was formed, constitutional way. The National with respect to which the followDebt is under the control of the ing were the chief provisions :Reichsrath.”

• 1. The Staatsrath is to be “ 15. The members of the composed of a President and House of Deputies are not to re- several Councillors. ceive instructions from their con- “ 2. The President to have the stituents.

rank of a Minister, and to be ** 16. The members of the present at the Council of MiReichsrath must give their votes nisters, but not to have a vote. in person.

“ 3. The Emperor will nomi*17. The functions of the re- nate the President and the Counpresentatives of a province in the cillors. Reichsrath cease on the very day " 4. The Staatsrath will be that a new Provincial Diet is formed of distinguished men, formed, but such representatives taken from the different procan be re-elected. If a member vinces. dies, or becomes incapable of per- " 5. The Staatsrath will let forming his duties as a member the Emperor and his Ministers of the Reichsrath, a new member have the benefit of its special must be elected.

knowledge and experience. “ 18. The Reichsrath can be “6. The opinion of the Staatsprorogued, or the House of De- rath can either be taken by the puties dissolved by the Emperor. Emperor or by his Ministers. In case of a dissolution a new 7. The President has to deChamber must be formed in ac- cide whether all the members cordance with the instructions of the Staatsrath shall examine contained in paragraph 7. into and report on any given question, or whether certain coun- “ In order that inatters which cillors shall do so.

concern the empire at large may “ 8. Each member of the be managed in a constitutional Staatsrath has a right to express way, the Hungarian, Croatian, his opinions separately, and with and Transylvanian Diets will perfect freedom.

have to send representatives to s 9. When any subject is the Reichsrath. When such under examination, the Minister matters are settled, the Hunto whose department it belongs garian, Croatian, and Transylhas a right to be present in the vanian deputies will return to Council of State, and to take their respective Diets, and the part in the discussion.

smaller Reichsrath will legislate “ 10. The President of the for the other (German and SclaStaatsrath has to forward the vic) provinces of the empire. opinions given to the Emperor, • It is the earnest wish of the or to the President of the Coun- Government that hyper-centralicil of Ministers.

zation may be avoided in the “11. The President of the Sclavo-German provinces of the Council of Ministers can summon empire, and that the countries one, several, or all the members belonging to the Hungarian of the Staatsrath, to meet the Crown may benefit by the conMinisters in Council.”

cessions made to them on the At the same time, what were 20th of October, 1860. In the called “The Provincial Statutes statutes it is expressly said, 'that were published, regulating the no new taxes shall be imposed representation of the various and no new laws made without Diets of the Empire, of which the formal consent of the Reichsthere were named 17; such as rath. It is also decreed that the the Diet of Upper Austria, the employment of the Revenue shall Diet of Lower Austria, the Diet be discussed' in the Reichsrath. of Salzburg, the Diet of Dal- In short, the Reichsrath has atmatia, the Diet of Bohemia, the tributes which give to it the Diet of Styria, &c. In the true character of a constitutowns, with a few exceptions, the tional institution. The arrangeright of suffrage was given to ment that the interests of the persous paying yearly direct nation are in future to be repretaxes to the amount of five sented, was not made in oppoflorins, but in the rural districts sition to the former Estates, but where the elections were indirect, as a natural consequence of the the franchise was lower.

changes which things have unThe Chamber of Deputies was dergone in Austria during the to be composed of persons elected last few years." by the Diets out of districts or On the 1st of May the new circles in the various provinces, Reichsrath was formally opened so that the different nationalities at Vienna by the Emperor, in the might be properly represented; Rittersaal. He was surrounded and it was announced in a cir- by the members of the Imperial cular, which was issued by the family and great officers of State, Ministry, that,

and read the following speech :

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