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forbid any movement upon Ken- tain a strict and impartial neutucky soil, or occupation of any trality in the contest between the port or place therein, for any said contending parties : purposes whatever, until author- “We therefore have thought ized by invitation or permission fit, by and with the advice of our of the legislative and executive Privy Council, to issue this our authorities."

Royal Proclamation : The Confederate States re- “And we do hereby strictly solved to allow no cotton to be charge and command all our exported to the North during the loving subjects to observe a strict struggle, knowing how depen- neutrality in and during the dent the manufacturers there aforesaid hostilities, and to abwere upon the South for the sup- stain from violating or contraply of that material, and hoping vening either the laws and statutes that the distress thereby occa- of the realm in this behalf, or the sioned would tend to make the law of nations in relation thereto, war unpopular with a numerous as they will answer to the conand influential class in the trary at their peril. Northern States. The Congress “ And we do hereby further accordingly passed an act de- warn all our loving subjects, and claring

all persons whatsoever entitled " That from and after the 1st to our protection, that if any of of June next, and during the them shall presume, in contempt existence of the blockade of any of this our Royal Proclamation, of the ports of the Confederate and of our high displeasure, to States of America by the Govern- do any acts in derogation of their ment of the United States, it duty, as subjects of a neutral shall not be lawful for any per- sovereign, in the said contest, or son to export raw cotton or cotton in violation or contravention of

from the Confederate States the law of nations in that behalf of America, except throngh the

they will in no wise obseaports of the

Confederate tain any protection from States."

against any liabilities or legal On the 13th of May, a Royal consequences; but will, on the Proclamation was issued by the contrary, incur our high disQueen of the United Kingdom, pleasure by such misconduct.” commanding all her subjects to The Emperor of the French observe a strict neutrality in the also declared, by a proclamation war that was raging in America. or notice in the Moniteur, his It stated :

resolution“ to maintain a strict " Whereas hostilities have un- neutrality in the struggle between happily commenced between the the Government of the Union Government of the United States and the States which propose to of America and certain States form a separate Confederation." styling themselves the Confede. He also declared that no vessel rate States of America :'

of war

or privateer of either And whereas we, being at of the “ belligerent parties peace with the Government of would be allowed to enter or stay the United States, have declared with prizes in the French ports our Royal determination to main- longer than twenty-four hours, Vol. CIII.

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and he prohibited the sale of Government for instructions how prizes there. All Frenchmen were he was to deal with them, and he likewise prohibited from enlisting received from Mr. Cameron, the or taking service either in the Secretary of War, directions not land army or on board vessels of to surrender them to their mas. war or privateers of either of the ters, who had joined the rebels. two belligerent parties.

Mr. Cameron said :The State of Maryland did not " The department is sensible venture to oppose the passage of of the embarrassments which the Federal States' troops through must surround officers conductits territory, and, on the 15th of ing military operations in a State May, Baltimore was occupied by by the laws of which slavery is two thousand men under General sanctioned. The Government Butler, who immediately pro- cannot recognize the rejection by claimed martial law, as the city any State of its Federal obligawas in a very disaffected state. tions, nor can it refuse the perThe Maryland Legislature passed formance of the Federal obligaresolutions condemning the con- tions resting upon itself. Among duct of the President, but in these Federal obligations, howfavour of adhesion to the Union. ever, no one can be more imThe chief importance of this portant than that of suppressing small State consisted in its being and dispersing armed combinathe highway between the North tions formed for the purpose of and Washington, which would overthrowing its whole constituhave been completely isolated if tional authority. While, thereMaryland had seceded or been fore, you will permit no interable to exclude the Federal States' ference, by the persons under troops.

your command, with the relations The Federal army under Ge- of persons held to service under neral Scott, at this juncture, was the laws of any State, you will, strongly posted in the neighbour- on the other hand, so long as hood of Washington. They also any State within which your occupied Arlington heights on military operations are conducted the other side of the Potomac, is under the control of such and all the bridges between armed organizations, refrain from Alexandria and Harper's Ferry surrendering to alleged masters were destroyed. Cairo, at the any persons who may come confluence of the Ohio and Mis- within your lines. You will sissippi, was strongly fortified, employ such persons in the serand made the base of operations vice to which they may be best in the West.

adapted, keeping an account of General Butler, command- the labour by them performed, of ing the Federal Forces at Fort the value of it, and of the expense Munroe, finding that runaway of their maintenance. The quesnegroes were, to use his own tion of their final disposition will expression, “constantly flock- be reserved for future determi. ing” to his lines, applied to the nation.”

CHAPTER XI.

IT

Civil WAR IN AMERICA CONTINUED.Proclamation of the Confederate

General Beauregard - Harper's Ferry abandoned by the Confederates -The Confederate CabinetBattle of Bull's RunSuccess of the Confederates at Springfield - Measures with regard to Slaves-- Proclamation of President Lincoln Landing of Federal Troops on the Coast of South Carolina, Resignation of General Scott-Seizure of Passengers on board the British Mail Steamer Trent-Preparation for War by Great Britain-Surrender of the Passengers - Message of President Davis to the Confederate CongressMessage of President Lincoln to the Federal CongressOperations of the Federal Marine Force during the War. T is worth while to give an dear to man—your honour and

extract from the proclamation that of your wives and daughters which General Beauregard issued -your fortunes and your lives from Camp Pickens, at Manassas are involved in this momentous Junction, on the 1st of June, and contest.” in which he called upon the The Confederate forces, under inhabitants of Virginia to “rally General Johnston, had for some to the standard of their State time occupied Harper's Ferry, and country,” and drive back and appeared resolved to defend and expel the invaders from their it to the last, but suddenly, on

the 16th of June, they began to “A reckless and unprincipled evacuate it, and finally abantyrant has invaded your soil. doned the place, after setting fire Abraham Lincoln, regardless of to the railway bridge and public all moral, legal, and constitutional buildings, and spiking such restraints, has thrown his Aboli- heavy guns as they were not able tion hosts among you, who are to remove. Harper's Ferry was murdering and imprisoning your then taken possession of by a citizens, confiscating and destroy- detachment of the Federal army. ing your property, and

The Confederate Government mitting other acts of violence changed its head-quarters from and outrage too shocking and Montgomery to Richmond in revolting to humanity to be Virginia, and the Congress met enumerated.

there on the 20th of July. Mr. “All rules of civilized warfare Davis's Cabinet consisted of the are abandoned, and they proclaim following members :by their acts, if not on their Secretary of State, Robert banners, that their war-cry is Toombs, of Georgia. Secretary • Beauty and Booty. All that is of the Treasury, Č. L. Memmin

land :

com

ger, of South Carolina. Secretary explanation of the causes, as far of War, Leroy P. Walker, of Ala- as they can be seen, which led to bama. Secretary of the Navy, the results herein stated, I trust Stephen R. Mallory, of Florida. it may not be out of place if I Postmaster-General, John H. refer in a few words to the immeReagan, of Texas.

Attorney- diate antecedents of the battle. General, Judah P. Benjamin, of When I submitted to the Louisiana.

General-in-Chief, in compliance The Vice-President was Mr. with his verbal instructions, the Stephens, of Georgia.

plan of operations and estimate On the 20th of July the head- of force required, the time I was quarters of the Federal army, to proceed to carry it into effect under the command of General was fixed for the 8th of July M.Dowell, were at Centreville, (Monday). Every facility posabout eighteen miles to the south- sible was given me

by the west of Washington, and the General-in-Chief and heads of Confederate forces were in the the administrative departments neighbourhood of Manassas, in making the necessary preparadistant from Centreville about tions. But the regiments, owing, seven miles further to the south. I was told, to want of transport, west. Centreville is a village on came over slowly. Many of them the west side of a ridge which did not come across till eight or runs nearly north and south, nine days after the time fixed and the road from it to Manassas, upon, and went forward without or Manassas Junction as it is my even seeing them, and withcalled, was along this ridge, out having been together before crossing a stream called Bull's in a brigade. The sending reinRun, three miles from Centre forcements to General Patterson, ville. General M‘Dowell de- by drawing off the waggons, was termined to attack the Con- a further and unavoidable cause federates, and his original in- of delay. Notwithstanding the tention was to turn the enemy's herculean efforts of the Quarterpositions on their right, but master-General, and his favouring a reconnaissance made on the me in every way, the waggons for 18th showed that they were ammunition, subsistence, &c., and too strongly posted in that direc- the horses for the trains and the tion. The plan of attack was artillery, did not all arrive for therefore altered, and directed more than a week after the time against the extreme left. The appointed to move. I was not troops were ordered to march at

even prepared as late as the 15th half-past 2 A.M., on the morning ult., and the desire 1 should of Sunday, the 21st, in order that move became great, and it was they might reach the scene of in- wished I should not, if possible, tended action before the heat of delay longer than Tuesday, the the day What followed will best 16th ult. appear from General M.Dowell's When I did set out, on the official report of the engagement. 16th, I was still deficient in He says :

waggons for subsistence. But I · As my position may warrant, went forward, trusting to their even if it does not call for, some being procured in time to follow

66

me. The trains thus hurriedly road leading from the Warrenton gathered together, with horses, turnpike to the upper ford was waggons, drivers, and waggon much longer than we counted managers all new and unused to upon, the general direction of each other, moved with difficulty the stream being oblique to the and disorder, and were the cause road, and we having the obtuse of a day's delay in getting the angle on our side. provisions forward, making it General Tyler commenced necessary to make on Sunday with his artillery at half-past 0 the attack we should have made A.M., but the enemy did not on Saturday.

reply, and after some time it “ I could not, with every exer- became a question whether he tion, get forward with the troops was in any force in our front, earlier than we did. I wished to and if he did not intend himself go to Centreville the second day, to make an attack. and make it which would have taken us there by Blackburn's Ford. After on the 17th, and enabled us, so firing several times, and obtain. far as they were concerned, to go ing no response, I held one of into action on the 19th, instead Heintzelman's brigades in reserve of the 21st; but when I went in case we should have to send forward from Fairfax Court- any troops back to reinforce house, beyond German-town, to Miles's Division. The other briurge them forward, I was told it gades moved forward as directed was impossible for the men to in the general orders. march further. They had only “ On reaching the ford at Sudcome from Vienna, about six ley's Spring, I found that a part miles, and it was not more than of the leading brigade of Hunsix and a half miles further to ter's Division (Burnside's) had Centreville-in all a march of crossed; but the men were slow twelve and a half miles; but the in getting over, stopping to drink. men were foot-weary, not so As at this time the clouds of dust much, I was told, by the distance from the direction of Manassas marched as by the time they had indicated the immediate approach been on foot, caused by the ob- of a large force, and fearing it structions in the road, and the might come down on the head of slow pace we had to move to the column before the division avoid ambuscades. The men could all get over and sustain it, were, moreover, unaccustomed orders were sent back to the to marching, their bodies not in heads of regiments to break from condition for that kind of work, the column and come forward and not used to carrying even separately as fast as possible. the load of light marching Orders were sent by an officer to order.

There was the reserve brigade of Heintzeldelay in the First Division get- man's Division to come by a ting out of its camp on the road, nearer road across the fields, and and the other divisions were in an aide-de-camp was sent to consequence between two and Brigadier-General Tyler to direct three hours behind the time ap- him to press forward his attack, pointed—a great misfortune, as as large bodies of the enemy events turned out. The wood were passing in front of him to

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