Page images


of the 9th June, measured 1:17 ceased to make sensible progress. inches. The Greenfield Valley, The Peace gave rest to men's Dear Saddleworth, is situated at minds and leisure to cultivate the the foot of an extensive range of elegant and useful arts, and, stimubills. On the 22nd June, the lated by the wealth which the cesfloods came down with such vio sation of war released, the art of lence, that the valley was flooded. horticulture in England made rapid The cottages were inundated, and progress. In 1822 the Society the inmates driven to the upper formed their garden at Chiswick, floors. In one cottage a woman

and collected within that centre and two children were surprised every useful production of every by the rising torrents and clime, and thence distributed to drowned.

every part of the United KingMorayshire and Banffshire dom, to the British colonies, and appear to have been severely to foreign nations, all useful fruits visited by thunder and rain improved by scientific cultivation. storms.

The result of their operations These summer storms

within the last 30 years has been very severe in France. At Paris the introduction into England of much damage was done, and in by far the larger part of the highlysome of the provinces the hail- prized occupants of modern garstorms were so destructive, as to dens. In 1827 was given the first have a material effect in lessening of those fétes, or more properly the corn production of that country, exhibitions of horticultural proand necessitating the large impor- duce, which have left such delighttutions which have proved so great ful memories.

Of late years a drain upon the currency of the the more gorgeous exhibitions of Empire. Within eight days, 33 flowers in places of more easy eases of death by lightning in access have deflected the visitors various parts of France are re- from the Chiswick fêtes, and the corded.

true use of the ground—the proOPENING OF THE ROYAL HOR- motion of horticulture—had not TICULTURAL SOCIETY GARDENS. been remunerative. The Council The famous Horticultural Society felt that to be of public utility the of London, whose efforts for the objects of the Society must be promotion of that science have placed higher than the mere probeen 80 beneficial, and whose ductions of choice fruits-ihat fêtes have been for long one of horticulture must be raised from the chief attractions of the Lon the rank of a useful to that of an don season, have changed their educational art; and that for this name and locality, and will hence- purpose it was essential that the forward have a still larger sphere Society's gardens should be reof utility, and be occasions of moved to some site near London. greater and more refined enjoy- The Commissioners of the Exment.

hibition of 1851 had purchased The Society was founded in with the surplus fuuds of that 1804, and was incorporated in wonderful undertaking, a very fine 1809. During the long war the estate at Kensington Gore, which arts of peace bad languished, and they proposed to devote to the borticulture in particular had purposes of educational art, and


on which the Exhibition of In- mer were followed by the long dustry and the Arts has since frost of the winter, and to that been erected. The Commissioners succeeded the impediments consedeeming the developed designs of quent upon the strike in the buildthe Horticultural Society to come ing trade. These difficulties and within these principles-namely, those inherent in an undertaking to encourage the arts and sciences of this kind appeared to postpone as applied to productive industry- the completion of the works to an leased to the Council of the Hor- indefinite period. But the energy ticultural Society 22 acres of of the Council triumphed over their land,

upon most liberal every difficulty, and the formal terms; the rent to be contingent opening of the Gardens by the on the income of the Society, but Prince Consort was fixed-rather with the conditions that they rashly-for the 5th of June. should expend not less than When that morning broke the 50,0001. on the ground, the Com- grounds were saturated with heavy missioners binding themselves to rains, lawns were still unturfed, enclose it with an ornamental paths ungravelled, steps arcade costing at least an equal wanting to the terrace, scaffolding sum.

The institution was now was still standing, the awnings entirely remodelled under the and benches were not erected ; auspices of the Prince Consort, even painting and plumbing work who, carrying into this science was yet to be done. The process that combination of beauty and of gravelling and turfing, of reutility which was the characteristic moving and setting up, was conof his accomplished mind, had tinued until the very moment that taken a deep interest in the under the public were admitted. None taking. A new charter was granted, who entered the grounds on the by which the old Society was re- afternoon of the ceremony could embodied under the title of "The have supposed it possible that as Royal Horticultural Society,” with they poured in at one entrance the the Prince Consort as President. workmen of all trades were quit

As it was thought essential to ting them at another. None success that the Society's gardens who passed under the exquisite should be open, in perfect order, medieval arcade, with its twisted during the time of the Exhibition columns of terra cotta, filled with of 1862, the building for which glass between, would have supwas rising on the adjacent ground, posed thut the glaziers had been and to which, considered in an at work there almost up to the educational sense, it was in the time of opening.

The gravel closest affinity, the greatest exer

walks were indeed rather soft, and tions were made to lay out the some of the lawns were turfed grounds on a design which should here and there like badly-fitting combine in the greatest perfection mosaics, but, as a whole, everyeverything that was beautiful in thing appeared in perfect orderarchitectural and botanical display. and it was difficult to imagine that From the commencement the such charming completeness could Council had to contend with a ha been effected in so short a time. series of extraordinary difficulties. The weather was alternately bright The saturating rains of last sum- and gloomy. Nevertheless, in

spite of the threats of a heavy storm form or terrace of the conservatory not less than from 8000 to 10,000 the Prince stood, surrounded by persons thronged the scene. The his family and court, while Dr. members of the Houses of Lords Lindley, followed by the Council, and Commons received cards of advanced and read an address to invitation from the Council, and, the Prince, in which the history as a matter of course, their ladies of the Society, its hopes and dewere present also. With more signs, were set out at length. favourable weather the gardens His Royal Highness made a gracewould, doubtless, have been the ful reply, in which, after congratuchief source of attraction; but the lating the Council on the success wet state of the grass and paths of their exertions, the Prince exdrove the brilliant assemblage to pressed the æsthetic phase of the inspect the great feature of the undertaking, —" That which last unrivalled show of fruit and year was still a vague conception, flowers arranged in the vast con- is to-day a reality, and I trust will servatory and along the noble be accepted as a valuable attempt, vista of the arcades. Amid the at least, to reunite the science and rich and varied beauty of this art of gardening to the sister arts display, and the enlivening strains of architecture, sculpture, and of military music, the visitors painting.” The Bishop of Lonfound ample enjoyment for some don then offered up a prayer for hours. At half-past 4 the Royal the future success of the new gar-, party reached the gardens, and dens. His Royal Highness then were received by the Members of advanced to the front of the conthe Council and the Vice-Presidents servatory, and taking off his hat, of the Society. A procession was formally declared the Royal Hortithen formed, composed of the cultural Gardens to be opened. Floral and Fruit Committee of The procession then moved forthe Society, the Implement Com- ward to the east end of the termittee, the Works Committee, 'and race, where the Prince went members of the Fine Arts Com- through the formality of planting mission, the Commissioners of the a Wellingtonia gigantea. It was a Exhibition of 1851, the Council seedling specimen of those mamof the Society, and the four Vice- moth Californian trees which fill Presidents in immédiate advance the steep valley at the foot of the of the Royal party. H.R.H. the Great Yo Hamite Falls. The Prince Consort led the Princess ceremony was soon completed, and Mary of Cambridge, and was fol- the Royal party, after devoting lowed by the Princess Alice and half-an-hour to an inspection of Prince Louis of Hesse, the Prin- the flower-show in the conservacess Helena, the Princess Louisa, tory, partook of refreshments, and and the Prince Arthur, and the quitted the grounds shortly after Prince of Wales and the Duke of 6 o'clock. The old gardens at Cambridge, the last members of Chiswick will not be abandoned, the Royal party. The Duchess but will be applied to many useful. of Cambridge did not take part purposes auxiliary to the great in the procession, but remained public grounds at Kensington seated near the chief entrance to Gore. the conservatory. On the plat- THE SPRING QUARTER.—The temperature of the air during the vious year, in the proportion of spring quarter was very various. 37 to 36. The number of persons The weather continued cold during married was 41,966, considerably the first half; so much so, that in less than in 1860. Upon the many places the corn did not grow whole, the natural increase of the with that luxuriance that would population was 76,997, or 846 give promise of a fine harvest; daily. The price of wheat was but from the middle of May, the 548. 9d. per quarter against 52s. 8d. season was all that could be de- at this season last year: potatoes, sired; the crops, though the blades 130s. against 1428. Persons rewere perhaps somewhat thin in ceiving relief, 831,587 against some lands, attained a vigorous 799,434 in 1860. strength, the flower was well set, The Census of the population and it became evident that the of the United Kingdom was taken harvest, though perhaps not large, on the night of the 8th April. would be of admirable quality. The uncorrected returns showed a On the 23rd May the thermometer total of persons inhabiting Engregistered 80°, in June it reached land only, of 20,061,725 ; an in82°, and the average daily warmth crease during the 10 years since was several degrees above the the Census of 1851, of 12 per ungenial atmosphere of last year. cent. The highest point reached by the mercury in the sun was at the Royal Observatory, 108° 6'. The localities in which the highest temperatures in the shade were

JULY. marked were-Banbury, 87° 5'; Aldershott, 8505'; at Lampeter, SALE OF ARCABISHOP TENSON'S 83° 5'; the lowest, at Petersfield, LIBRARY. - This eminent divine, 22°; at Lampeter, 22° 2'. Thus who was presented to the rectory Lampeter showed a daily range of of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields in no less than 22° ; while the vari- 1680, made Archdeacon of London ation at Osborne, Guernsey, Scar. in 1689, Bishop of Lincoln in 1691, borough, and Ventnor, the variation and Archbishop of Canterbury in was from 70 to 10°. The atmo- 1694, had a peculiar affection for spheric pressure during the quarter the scene of his early labours. He did not greatly vary from the founded within its bounds a gramaverage; the rain-fall was some- mar-school, which he endowed thing below it. The cuckoo and while living, and to which, by his the swallow were observed at will, he bequeathed his library and Gloucester on the 12th April; the manuscripts. This collection was cherry and plum were in blossom peculiarly rich in works of old diabout the middle of the month. vinity and Church history. The

The season was healthy, the school, having been constituted on number of deaths, 107,721, indi- & scheme which did not permit cating a death-rate of 2.151, com- of progressive development, had pared with 2-207, the average. fallen into decay-had, indeed, beThe number of births was 184,718, come utterly useless; and as no, which is higher than the number or very few, additions had been born in any quarter of any pre- made to the library since the



founder's time, its very existence of the Holy Scriptures in the had become almost unknown. With Russian popular dialect after the these times of improvement and Vulgate--551. “Le Livre des innovation, life penetrated into Prières Communes, de l'Administhis now-forgotten institution. It tration des Sacremens et autres seemed to the trustees that the ceremonies en l'Eglise d’Anglefoundation, if properly managed, terre, traduit en François, par was capable of performing the real Francoys Philippe, Serviteur de wishes of the wise Archbishop Monsieur le Grand Chancelier de the spread of education and know. l'Angleterre.”. Black letter and ledge. They therefore proposed a woodcut capitals. Fine copy, 4to, scheme, with the sanction of the of the highest degree of rarity. Attorney-General, by which the “De l'Imprimerie de Thomas whole plan of the foundation was Gaultier, Imprimeur du Roy en reconstructed according to the best la Langue Françoise, pour les Isles models of the present time. It de Sa Majesté. Avec le privilége was a necessary part of their plan général du dit Seigneur," 1553. that the library, which was un- No copy can be traced as having doubtedly inconsistent with the occurred for sale-391. Hore purposes of an elementary school, Beatissime Virginis Marie ad Leshould be disposed of. The dust- gitimum Sarisburiensis Ecclesie hidden tomes

therefore Ritum.” 4to, printed in red and brought into light, and such was black, with beautiful woodcuts, their rarity and value that the and emblematical borders round competition for their possession each page; extremely rare ; Paris, was great, and the prices they Regnault, 1526. Íbe headings brought must have provided the of many of the prayers are in trustees with ample funds. English, as are also the form of

Among the printed books were confession, &c. — 191. Biblia “The Newe Testament, both in Sacræ Scripturæ Veteris Novæque Latine and Englyshe, eche corre- Omnia, Græcè;" original binding, spondente to the other after the the sides impressed with various vulgar Texte, commonly called S. figures, in the centres the TemptJerome's." Faythfullye translated ation and Crucifixion; folio. by Johan Hollybushe (i. e. Miles “Venet. Aldus,"1518—131. Book Coverdale). 4to. Black letter. of Common Prayer and AdminisPrynted in Southwarke, by James tration of the Sacraments—“ The Nicolson, 1538. This is the Sealed Book ;" folio, 1662; first second edition of Coverdale's edition of the Book of Common New Testament, and of very Prayer now in use—201. “Missale rare occurrence-251. “Libri Duo ad Consuetudinem Ecclesie Surum. Samuelis et Libri Duo Regum, Nuper una cum dicte Ecclesie insub titulo primi, secundi, tertii et stitutis consuetudinibusque Elimaquarti Regum, cum præfatione doc. tissime Impressum, additis Pluritoris Francisci Scorini,” in Lingu, mis Commoditatibus que in ceteris Slavonicâ ; probably unique. 4to. desiderantur;" folio, printed in red Pragæ, 1518. A volume of the and black ink, with musical notes highest degree of rarity, being, as and wood capitals, the two leaves far as can be ascertained, the only of the Canon of the Mass printed portion known of the first edition on vellum; blue morocco, edges


« PreviousContinue »