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grass towards a point of great dan sure-seekers in one common symger. The elder girl ran to the pathy. The Epping Hunt belongs spot, but only in time to see her to past history; the Fairlop Oak is disappear over the fatal point. no more, and its fair is denounced Some people in the road below as senseless and immoral; and observed the child making every Greenwich Fair is sunk to the effort to cling to the stunted bushes; lowest point of ruffianism. The but, after being caught for a few festival day thus vacant of its anmoments in some trees, she was tique charms, has been occupied seen to fall head-foremost from by the Volunteers, and thus fielda prominent piece of rock, days, sham fights, and rifle-shootand to strike another point in her ing, have taken their places among descent. A young man, with great the sports and pastimes of the difficulty, mounted to the spot English people. where the unfortunate child was The officers of the metropolitan lying, and brought her to the road rifle corps, justly proud of the perbeneath. She died soon after her formances of their regiments in admission to the Bristol Infirmary. Hyde Park and Wimbledon, be
In January, another fatal accident came ambitious of testing the happened in the same neighbour- proficiency of the force in comhood. The body of William Blan- bined movements upon a large ning, a journeyman shoemaker, of scale. Some desired that the value Bristol, was found at the foot of of the unpaid army should be tried the Lion's Head Cliff. This rock by the sudden assembly of a large rises 300 feet above the level of force upon some distant point. the sea, and the unfortunate man's Others were of opinion that, howhead had been beaten to pieces ever well the corps could act when against the different points of the assembled in one field, the organirocks. No particulars of the acci. Zation which would alone enable dent were ascertained.
such a force to move at a distance In the same month, a youth of was altogether wanting-had not, about 14 years of age, son of indeed, even been attempted. These the Rev. D. Pitcairn, while stroll- latter, therefore, were of opinion ing on the beach at Torquay, was that the design was premature, and crushed to death by a mass of rock was likely to end in discouraging which, loosened no doubt by the failure; and, while they desired to action of the recent frosts, became put a large force of Volunteers in detached from the cliffs above. motion, were of opinion that the
VOLUNTEER REVIEWS.—Of the field of operations should be near hold the Volunteer system has home. The authorities of the taken upon the English people, a
Guards withheld their noticeable evidence is to be found countenance from both schemes, in their appropriation of Easter but did not oppose either; the Monday to its purposes. This officers and corps who wished to universal holiday of the middle take part were simply left to make class, though its amusements are their own arrangements.
They generally desultory, has not been were probably of opinion that the without its peculiar features; but want of organization was a valid, something was wanting which though not the only objection; should bind the masses of plea- that the commanders and officers
of regiments were not equal to the spect the evolutions of the force ; required movements, nor the men and before these dignitaries the yet sufficiently trained to execute corps assembled marched in open them efficiently. They thought it columns of companies. This inwould be wise to leave them to spection over, a sham fight took their own devices, and thus dis- place in the hills and hollows of cover for themselves both what the Downs adjoining the racethey could, and what they could course. The spot is well calculated not do. The leader of those who to try the skill of the commanders desired a quasi-military expedition and the steadiness of the men, but was Lord Ranelagh, the colonel of the force was not large enough to the efficient South Middlesex. occupy the position. A very large Lord Bury, colonel of the not less number of spectators, estimated at efficient Civil Service Corps, 60,000 to 80,000, had mustered headed the other party. Under around the grand stand to view the the discouraging circumstances spectacle; but the advance of the referred to, the well-meant scheme brigades in attack took them out almost failed. But there seemed of sight in the hollows of the hills no sufficient reason why each party beyond, and the spectators saw but should not have a field-day on its little, except the smoke which rose own plan, and such was the from the invisible combatants beresult.
low, and a battalion occasionally Lord Ranelagh and his friends gaining the crest of a hill. A sinselected the Brighton Downs as gular circumstance gave an interest the place for muster, and made to the scene, in which it might their arrangements with great otherwise have been deficient. A skill. Their metropolitan force large extent of furze caught fire, did not amount to 5000 men ; but and blazed and crackled with fitful this considerable
d'armée was vivacity, and presented in a slight assembled and conveyed to Brigh- degree a terrible incident of real ton with great speed and order. battle-fields. The circumstances On the Downs the London corps did not admit of any great test of were joined by some corps of the the powers of a volunteer army. south-eastern counties, by which The movements were advisedly as the total number on the ground simple as possible, and these were was raised to about 7000 men. executed in a manner which reThis force was divided into one ceived the praise of General Scarartillery brigade, commanded by lett, who declared himself greatly Colonel Estridge, and four infantry satisfied with the skill of the com. brigades, commanded respectively manders of brigades and battalions, by Lieut.-Colonel Faunce, Lieut.- and highly commended the whole Colonel Lord Radstock, Colonel management of Lord Ranelagh. Moorsom, and Colonel Vallency. The total absence of any arrangeThe entire army was commanded ments for the commissariat and by Lord Ranelagh. The Earl of field-equipage necessary for an Chichester, the lord-lieutenant of army on service, render any comthe county, and Major-General parison between this operation and Scarlett, the military commander a real military movement absurd ; of the district, were present, the nevertheless, the Brighton fieldlatter officially instructed to in- day proved in a very decided man
ner that a force of 10,000 Volun- Great Canal runs round the south teers, and all the regular army in of the city, and is crossed by nuthe south-eastern counties, can, on merous bridges, one of which is an emergency, be collected and called the Portobello Bridge, and conveyed to any menaced point is somewhat steep. The omnibus, upon the coast with great rapidity. due at Nelson's Pillar at 9.30 on And since, in time of war, the de- Saturday night, was proceeding fence of the country would be sys- into town, and when it had arrived tematically organized by the mili- at the crown of Portobello Bridge, tary authorities, there can be no the conductor called to the driver question that a force sufficient to to "pull up." The driver stopped, repel any desultory invasion could and two passengers got out. There be assembled at any required spot then remained in the omnibus six at a few hours' notice.
passengers—three ladies, two male The competitive field-day, under passengers, and a child. The conthe auspices of Lord Bury, was ductor gave the usual signal, “ All held on the same day on Wimble- right; but when the driver prodon Common. The force here as- ceeded to make the horses go onsembled amounted to about 4000 ward, they both got restive, and men. At the conclusion of the man- began to back in the direction of @uvres, Colonel McMurdo, the Rathmines. He turned their heads inspector-general of Volunteers, to the eastward for the purpose of made to the corps a judicious ad- making them go up the incline of dress of praise, criticism, and ex- the hill at an angle. This inhortation. These two field-days, volved the partial locking of the in truth, gave a very useful lesson fore wheels, and, the horses conto the Volunteers throughout the tinuing to back, brought the carempire ; for it was experienced riage round to the south-western that, however great the excellence side of the bridge, on the road near of particular regiments, the Queen's the old turnpike. The horses still Volunteer army had not arrived at kept backing, despite every effort perfection per saltum, and that to urge them forward, until the great industry and perseverance in hinder part of the vehicle crushed drill and exercise was required to against the wooden barrier between put the force as a whole upon an the road and the lock of the canal. efficient footing.
After some slight resistance, the Several other corps of the me- frail timber work gave way, and tropolis and the adjacent counties the omnibus rolled backwards to held their meeting on Easter Mon- the stone edge of the basin. The day, so that in the whole not fewer fierce exertion of the driver comthan 20,000 men, all in a very re- pelled the restive horses to strenuspectable state of efficiency, were ous efforts; but it was too late, the assembled in array, simultaneously, hinder wheels of the omnibus went and without any special call, in the over the sill, the driver lashed south-eastern corner of England. furiously, the conductor pulled at
6. EXTRAORDINARY OMNIBUS AC- the heads of the horses, which CIDENT AT DUBLIN.-Sıx Persons struggled frantically; but their DROWNED. —A very singular and power over the carriage was quite disastrous accident occurred at lost, and, amid a frightful shriek Dublin to a public omnibus. The from the unfortunate passengers, VOL. CIII.
the omnibus fell backwards into of this miserable catastrophe were the basin below, dragging tho a Mrs. Byrne and her child; Mr. horses and driver with it. The Gunn, a respectable pianoforte and depth from the sill to the water musical instrument dealer, of Dubwas 15 feet; the water was not, lin; a man employed in the docks ; at the moment, more than five or and Mrs. O'Connell and her daughsix feet deep, but the lower lock ter, a beautiful young woman of 18, gate was closed, and the upper the wife and daughter of a respectopen, to admit water, so that in a able solicitor of Ennis. few minutes the omnibus, which 8. THE CENSUS.—On the night was found standing in its usual between Monday and Tuesday, upright position, was completely the 8th and 9th April, the seventh submerged. The unfortunate per- decimal enumeration of the inhasons within were, of course, in- bitants of Great Britain and the stantly smothered. The driver fifth of Ireland was taken, under was dragged to the top without in- the authority of Parliament and jury. The horses struggled for a by means of a most efficient staff. considerable time, but their very The first of these important invesefforts made their fate more cer- tigations was instituted in 1801, tain; they were entangled with the in respect of Great Britain ; but harness and with each other, and in Ireland not until 1821. Since perished. The shrieks and confu- then the Census has been taken sion attendant upon such a cata- at every decennial period with strophe soon brought people around, constantly improving machinery. but rescue under such circum- As regards England the organizastances was impossible. The lock- tion has long been completed by the keeper was urged to open the appointment of a great public of lower lock gate, but he refused to ficer, the Registrar-General, under do so until he had closed the upper whose superintendence the Census gate; nor would his doing so have of 1851 was taken ; but as regards been of any avail ; for, beside that Scotland and Ireland, this of 1861 the poor people must have been is the first that has had a corresuffocated in a few moments, if sponding advantage. In 1851, in both gates had been open at the Scotland the duty was entrusted same time, there would have been to the sheriffs of the several couna rush of water which might have ties, and in Ireland to the departswept away the wreck. When the ment of the Chief Secretary ; upper gate had been closed and the but in 1855 a Registrar-General water drawn off, the omnibus was was appointed for Scotland with seen standing upright, and very the same duties as the English little injured. Amid the glare of officer, and with appropriate matorches and lanterns, two men chinery, and it was by this orgaarmed with hatchets descended nization, aided by the provincial into the lock, at the imminent magistrates, that the Census of risk of their own lives, and broke Scotland was taken. In Ireland, open the roof of the carriage. The which, to our shame be it said, is corpses of the six passengers were the only considerable country in found huddled together, and life Europe which possesses no syshad apparently been extinguished tem for the registration of births, without a struggle. The victims marriages, and deaths, the taking
of the Census was committed, First it must be mentioned that under the authority of the Chief there was a singular want of uniSecretary, to the officers of the formity as to the subjects of inConstabulary—a most efficient
efficient quiry in the three kingdoms. In body, beyond question, and by England, in 1851, the Census whom the duty was admirably Commissioners, without the authocarried out. The Census of the rity of Parliament, sought for Channel Islands and of the Isle voluntary returns with respect to of Man were taken by the Lieute- accommodation and attendance at nant-Govenors, under the autho- places of religious worship, and rity of the Home-Office. From schools, and much valuable, though the additional experience gained not altogether accurate informaby the last Census, by the greatly. tion, was obtained by this means. improved organisation of the staffs, It was proposed to insert columns and by the zeal and intelligence of for these subjects in the forms of the sub-officials, and most of all 1861, thereby making the return by the willing co-operation of the compulsory. This being objected population there seems little rea- to by many persons, and especially son to doubt that the present by the Dissenters, the proposal Population Return is
was withdrawn, and even the vorate as the nature of the opera- luntary returns were abandoned. tion will admit of. In the Appen- In Scotland, the Act provided, that dix to this Chronicle will be given beside all the information required the tables which contain the most by the English schedules, certain essential information obtained by particulars should be given rethis enumeration of the British specting rooms provided with winpeople. To these will be added a dows in each house, and as to summary of the Census of France school attendance. In Ireland, taken also in this year; and also besides the usual information as an abstract of the Census of the
to persons and houses, the heads United States taken in 1860— of inquiry included the educadocuments, especially the latter, oftional status of the people, their great interest at this crisis. religious opinions, and some vital
The many millions of returns statistics. These variations give from which the information SO rise to some curious inferences succinctly stated in the British in Scotland it is to be presumed tables is collected, require a very that the knowledge really sought laborious investigation before the was as to the number of rooms figures can be published as strictly in which there were no windowsaccurate; and this process enables a particular of vast importance as the Commissioners to make re- regards the civilization and health marks and deductions of the of the Scotch nation; while as greatest value. But as this must regards Ireland the inference is be a labour of many months an that the different sects are divided examination of these results of by such marked lines of demarcamature experience must be re- tion that the people would rather served for another volume. A proclaim than conceal their antafew phenomena that were apparent gonisms; while the columns for upon the face of the returns may, vital statistics seem a rough athowever, be noted here.
tempt to remedy Ireland's discre