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ditable deficiency as regards regis- sult of these figures, that since tration. In all divisions of the 1851 the actual increase by births Empire the information sought was of the inhabitants of these islands rendered with an intelligent will- was upwards of 4,000,000. This ingness which proved that the considerable addition to our numancient prejudices, anile and reli- bers is due solely to the wonderful gious, against David's sin of nuni- progress of England and Wales, bering the people have altogether whose population has risen in disappeared. The press enforced the last decade from 17,927,609 the national uses of the inquiry to 20,061,725, an increase of with an intelligence which raised 2,134,116. Scotland also has a direct interest in the public advanced in the same period mind; the pulpit lent its aid, and by 172,587 persons, or from the general spread of education 2,888,742 to 3,061,329. As a subhad removed many personal dis- traction from this evidence of inqualifications--one of which, an crease and well-being, Ireland unwillingness to betray want of exhibits the great decrease of skill in writing and spelling, had 787,842, her population having fallheretofore been a great obstacle. en from 6,552,385 to 5,764,543. Moreover, there exist under our Taking the increase of England Government no counteracting mo

and Scotland, and deducting the tives—there is no dread that the decrease in Ireland, the general returns can be used for military result is that, from 1851 to 1861, conscription, nor for purposes of there has been an actual increase taxation, nor with any other object of 1,609,900* in the population than the public good. It may of the United Kingdon. In like then be asserted that the British manner the rate of increase per Census of 1861, obtained with the cent. in England for the decennial popular concurrence, is superior period is 12 per cent., but by the both in truthfulness and accuracy decrease in Ireland the net into those obtained by the most crease of the United Kingdom is despotic and centralized Govern- reduced to 6 per cent. ments.

The vital statistics of England It will be seen by reference to are so much more complete than the Tables that the total popula- those of Scotland and Ireland, tion of the British Islands is that it is from her returns only 29,334,788. As the numbers in that any safe comparisons can be 1851 were 27,511,926, there has drawn. The first Census in 1801 been an actual increase of near ascertained the population of Engtwo millions, after a vast emin land and Wales number gration of the same amount has 9,156,171. These numbers have been deducted. It is matter of undergone a progressive increase speculation what, if the emigrants in every decennial period ; but had stayed at home, the result as while the figures representing the regards our numbers would have addition at each return are probeen; on the one side is to be taken gressively of higher value, the the natural increase by births, on centesimal proportion of increase the other the detracting effects of

* The discrepancies in these figures the pressure of an augmented arise from the deductions being made from population ; but this is a certain re

uncorrected returns.


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on the four returns since 1821 has from the rural districts into the uniformly diminished. Thus in

Thus in wealthier manufacturing districts, the period between 1801 and and by the emigration to foreign 1811 the addition to the popula- lands being chiefly from the fortion existing at the former date In 631 registrars' districts, was 1,298,358 or 14 per cent.; 248 have decreased in population, between 1811 and 1821, 1,718,135 The great metropolis has received or 16 per cent. This is the during this period an addition to greatest ratio of increase in this its myriads of 440,798 or 19 per country recorded. The return of cent., nor can the epithet “overpeace and the application of capi- grown” be applied to it with any tal and skill to the purposes of com- propriety, since its growth has merce, and the prosperity thereon been the result of natural causes, consequent, no doubt gave a great which seem to be still active ; nor stimulus to marriages and births ; can it be said why it should stop as emigration was undoubtedly the at 2,803,034, more than why it chief cause of the subsequent re- ought to have stayed its increase lative decline. For in 1831, at the limit of half a million as in though the addition to the popu- the reign of Charles the Second. lation was larger than in 1821, The relative proportions of the being 1,879,322, the ratio of in- sexes is one of the most singular crease had fallen to 15 per cent. ; problems of vital statistics. In in 1841, to 14 per cent.,

all three divisions of the empire 1,983,212 persons; in 1851 to more males are born than females. 13 per cent., or 2,018,972 per. This preponderance of the sturdier sons; and in 1861 12 per cent., sex holds good, in England, up or 2,169,576 persons. Or in the to the age of 17, when the profirst 30 years of this century the portions turn the other way, and rate of increase was 53 per cent., thereafter there are more women and in the second 30 years 44 per than men in the proportion of 106 cent. ; but taking the whole 60 to 100, the total excess of the years the increase was not less gentler kind amounting to the than 121 per cent.; or in other large number of 544,021. Genewords the population of 1801 had rally speaking, this superabunddoubled itself in the year 1853 ; ance is distributed over the kingand the 9,000,000 of the first dom ; but in Derbyshire, Durham, Census had added to themselves Stafford and Glamorgan, the men 11,000,000 of new people in the exceed the women ; and the reason last.

is obvious—these are great mining The addition to population as and iron founding districts, in represented in figures, since 1851, which the stalwart labour of men has not been equally distributed. is required, who are, therefore, The increase has been in the cities drawn thither from other localities. and great seats of manufacturing In Scotland the proportion of feand mining industry; but there males to males is still greater than has been a decrease in the agri- in England, being as 111.5 to cultural districts. There has pro- 100; in Ireland it is as 1051 to 100. bably been no distributive diminu- In the whole United Kingdom tion in births; the variations arise the surplus of females is 573,520. from two causes, the emigration This great difference is no doubt

referable in a great degree to not yet been sufficiently investi emigration ; but there would seem gated. Her population, which in to be some constant causes at 1841 was returned at 8,175,124, work to establish this dispropor- was reduced by famine and emition as a law, since it is known gration in 1851 to 6,552,385 ; that the number of living females and in 1861 was found to be still exceeded the number of living further diminished to 5,764,543, males in times when emigration or by the loss of 787,842 persons ; had not attained any operative 12 per cent. This great reduction proportions.

is, however, not due to the causes The ratio of increase in Scotland which destroyed the population in is and has long been less than that the famine period ; on the conof England. The physical condition trary the figures would indicate of the country will in some degree a great increase in prosperity, account for this, but it is chiefly and in consequence of the repro. due to emigration—the poor but ductive powers of the community; hardy and intelligent Scots seek, for had the numbers of births in a continuous outflow, the re- merely balanced the number of wards of industry in every other deaths, the population would have clime under the sun. The dis- been reduced by emigration by proportion of the sexes has been 1,230,000, that being the numalready referred to; the excess of ber of the natives of Ireland who females is in numbers 167,299, emigrated to foreign countries in and this is equally remarkable the interval between 1851 and both in the urban and rural dis- 1861. The progress of Ireland tricts. One consequence has been in material well-being is evidenced a low marriage ratio ; another, a by the returns relative to the large ratio of illegitimate children; dwellings of the people; for a third, not sufficiently noticed although the inhabited houses

a consequence, is that the have decreased 52,990, the rate actual increase of the population of decrease is but 5 per cent., is small, being but 6 per cent. while that of the population is 12 (notwithstanding a very large Irish per cent.; and further, the numimmigration), whereas in England ber of houses building shows an it is 12 per cent. The increase, increase of 1179, or

more than small as it is, is confined to the 50 per cent. over 1851. When manufacturing and commercial it is considered that the cabins districts; in these there is a con- cleared away were hovels unfit for gestion of the population; while any human being, that the dwellin 12 out of the 33 Scotch ings now building are of a very counties the inhabitants have not superior character, and that many only failed to increase by excess of the continuing cottages have of births over deaths, but have been repaired with a view to dediminished to the extent of cency and comfort, this short re31,825; Argyll, Inverness, and turn will yield very satisfactory Perth, mountainous districts, lose evidence of the great improve8000, 9000, and 5000, of their ment which is daily making in people.

the comfort and prosperity of Ireland presents features of Ireland. One much controverted very marked interest, which have subject this Census has put finally



at rest—the relative numbers of The French Empire, with the the Protestants and Roman Ca- limits which it maintained under tholics. It is now definitively the Restoration, contained in 1856, ascertained that of the 5,792,055 86 departments, having & popuinhabitants of Ireland, the Roman lation of 36,039,364. In 1862 Catholics are 4,512,000 or 78 per the same departments contained cent.; the numbers of the Es- 36,713,166 persons; an increase tablished Church 682,000 or 12 of no than 673,802, or per cent. ; and the Protestant 1.86 per cent.

in five years. Dissenters 586,563 or 10 per Within that period, however, the cent.; all other denominations French Empire has had an abonly 8414. In Leinster, Munster, normal addition to its subjects of and Connaught the superiority of 669,059, by its annexation of Roman Catholics is immense ; and Savoy and Nice, which are formed they have the majority even in into three new departments. With Protestant Ulster.

this increase and addition the The Channel Islands and the population of the French Empire Isle of Man call for little remark. is now 37,382,285. The rated They have remained nearly in increase of 1.86 per cent. is an

improvement on the two previous THE FRENCH Census. -- With quinquennial periods, which gave the Population Returns of the for 1846-51 an increase of 1.08 United Kingdom and the United per cent., and for 1851-56 a rate States, in the Appendix to this below even that. CHRONICLE, will be found an ex- THE CENSUS OF THE UNITED tract from the Report of the STATES. The United States Minister of the Interior on the po- ascertain their progress in popupulation of the French Empire. As lation, as we do in England, at no minute details are given, most periods of ten years, but they of those elements of interior com- have fixed upon the periodic deparison which the English tables cade for the process. afford are wanting : but this docu- corrected Returns for the year ment presents some very remark- 1860 will be found in the Apable features, to which attention pendix to this Chronicle. They may be briefly called. Thus while present a picture of rapid inthe United States have been in- crease of population without a creasing their inhabitants by the parallel in the history of the means of immigration and abund- world; and also offer a remarkable ance at a rate to which history evidence of internal migrations. offers no approach, and the United The tabulated Returns which show Kingdom, in spite of emigration the population of the several and famine, has doubled her States, white and coloured, are strength in little more than half of singular interest at this moment, a century, France, with great when the Secession has broken material prosperity, and with an up the Union into two contending emigration so slight as to affect powers. It is to be hoped that the returns but little, has remained the civil war will not prevent the almost stationary. It must be noted acquisition of accurate returns of that the census of France is taken this which may possibly be the last every five years, not decennially. Population Return of the United States, at the moment preceding every one else had gone to bed. their disruption.

statul quo.

The un

No noise was heard during the 12. MYSTERIOUS MURDER AND night except that an inmate heard SUICIDE.—A singular case, probably Mrs. Davidson go to her bed-room of murder and suicide, has oc- about midnight. Next morning curred at Carlisle. On the morn- before going out to his work at ing of the 12 inst. a young man, six o'clock, this person saw the named William Horsley, 23 years deceased lying on the "settle," of age, was found lying dead upon but thinking he was asleep, as he a “ settle," or seat, in the kitchen had seen him many times before, of a small inn called the Pack- he did not notice that anything horse, in Water Street, kept by was the matter.

On his return Jane Davidson, about 40 or 50 to breakfast at eight o'clock, howyears of age, whose husband is an ever, he found that he was dead. agricultural labourer. Horsley had He had bled at the nose considerbeen married to a daughter of Jane ably, and much blood was on the Davidson, but his wife had been floor; his head was on the pillow, dead about 18 months. He used, and he was partly covered with a frequently to go to the Packhorse sheet. His necktie was drawn in the evening, and often stayed tight round his neck by a oncethere all night, sleeping upon the crossed knot, and on his throat settle in the kitchen. It is but was a blue mark, and a mark from too certain that Davidson had be- the tightness of his shirt collar. come enamoured of her son-in-law, Meanwhile Mrs. Davidson was and this passion was accompanied found to be very ill. She had had by a fit of jealousy, under the frequent vomitings during the influence of which she employed night, and these continued at a female neighbour named Short intervals during Friday until the to watch him. Short reported afternoon, when she died while the that Horsley was paying attentions jury were in the house viewing to a young woman. At the in- the body of her son-in-law. It quest Short made some extraordi- was sufficiently evident from the nary revelations.

She said that appearance the corpse of the woman Davidson had told her Horsley that he had been that she had been consulting a strangled; but no poison was fortune-teller, who had said that found in his stomach. But when her husband would soon die, and the body of the woman was exshe would be married again. She amined there was a considerable asked Short to go to a druggist quantity of arsenic. A dress and for her, and get her some “ dragon's apron which the woman had worn blood,” which was to be burnt in on the day preceding Horsley's the fire as a charm to prevent her death were produced. They were son-in-law from keeping company both stained with blood. From with her rival. The “ dragon's various circumstances, the cause blood " was procured on Wednes- of Horsley's death was uncertain day. On Thursday night the for, notwithstanding these susdeceased Horsley went to the picious circumstances, it was not Packhorse Inn and was left in the impossible that the strangulation kitchen with his mother-in-law might have been accidental. It and lover, Mrs. Davidson, when seemed as though he had fallen


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