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the eagle. The rapidity with which no beasts could stand before him, Nebuchadnezzar achieved his con- neither was there any that could dequests, the terror which his name liver out of his hand, but he did acinspired, and his proud bearing to- cording to his will and became ward the conquered nations, are of great.' “ The ram which thou ten alluded to by the Hebrew pro- sawest, having two horns, are the phets. But this splendid career of kings of Media and Persia,” 8: 3, victory was soon over. With the 4, 20. " And now will I show thee death of Nebuchadnezzar, the for the truth. Behold! there shall stand tunes of the empire speedily wa- up yet three kings in Persia; and ned. A boundless luxury took the the fourth shall be far richer than place of martial vigor. The wings they all, and by his strength, through of the eagle were clipped. The his riches, he shall stir up all against Medes and Persians began to narrow the realm of Greece," 11: 2. the Babylonian boundary. At the As silver is inferior to gold, so same time, the Chaldeans lost their the Medo-Persian kingdom never Koordish fierceness. “ The bitter attained to the glory of the Babyloand hasty nation, whose horses were nian under Nebuchadnezzar. The swifter than leopards, and more reign of Cyrus, its best king, was fierce than evening wolves,” could short. Its tranquillity was often innot remain unaffected in the soft and terrupted by internal dissensions and effeminate metropolis. A man's foreign wars. Still, it was a king, heart was given to them. One of dom of vast extent, and under some the successors of Nebuchadnezzar of its monarchs, very prosperous. lifted up the head of Jehoiachin out It was faithfully represented, espeof prison, and spake kindly to him. cially in its Median part, by the The arts of peace, and the interests symbol of a bear. The hosts under of the learning then in vogue, re- Cyrus poured down from the moun. ceived more attention. The words tains upon the great Mesopotamian of the prophet seem, however, to plain, like a ravenous and hungry refer mainly to the gradual decline bear. “They shall hold the bow of the empire.

The might of the and the lance, they are cruel and lion was exchanged for the weak. will not show mercy, their voice ness of man.

shall roar like the sea.” The phrase, Second. The second monarchy " and it raised itself up on one side, is the Medo-Persian. It is thus, fig. probably refers to the position of a uratively, represented, “ The breast wild beast when resting from the and the arms of the image are of pursuit of its prey. The represensilver." " And after thee shall arise tation of a beast lying on one of its another kingdom inferior to thee,” fore-feet, and standing on the other, Dan. 2: 32, 39. “ And behold! an. is seen on the Babylonian bricks. other beast, a second, like to a bear, Others, like Jerome, explain it as and it raised itself up on one side, follows, “ The animal raised itself and it had three ribs in its mouth, up, and attacked the one part, or between its teeth, and they said un. side, which was nearest, i. e. the to it, Arise, and devour much flesh,” Chaldean kingdom.” But the fol7:5. “ Then I lifted up mine eyes lowing clause, “ it had three ribs in and saw and behold! there stood its mouth," appears to symbolize the before the river a ram with two Medo-Persian empire, resting from horns, and the two horns were high, its wars, and preparing to enjoy but one was higher than the other, their fruits, rather than going forth and the higher came up last. I saw to conquer. The “ three ribs” apthe ram pushing westward, and pear to designate the three quarters northward, and southward, so that of Asia, where the Persians had achieved their principal victories— in comeliness or stature. He formthe more so, as in ch. 8: 4, the ram ed an alliance with the Carthaginis represented as pushing westward, ians, by which they engaged to atand northward, and southward. Cy- tack the Sicilian and Italian Greeks. rus reduced under his dominion all

He set in motion against Greece all middle and western Asia to the Hel. the east as far as India, and all the lespont; Cambyses subdued Egyptwest as far as Spain, where the Carand Ethiopia on the south ; Darius thaginians hired some mercenaries. Hystaspes brought into subjection From Xerxes, the prophet passes on the nomade Scythians among the to Alexander the Great, not noticing, Caucasian mountains on the north. as it was not important to his purThe ram with two horns, standing pose, the eight Persian kings who on the bank of the Eulæus or Cho- reigned subsequently to Xerxes. aspes, (which washed the walls of Third. The third kingdom is the Susa, the Persian capital,) was the Grecian or Macedonian. It is deMedo-Persian empire. Its united scribed under the following symbols. strength was well symbolized by “The belly and the thighs of the the ram. The two horns are the image are of brass,” Dan. 2: 32 ; Medians and Persians, the horn be- " And another third kingdom of ing the well known emblem of pow. brass, which shall bear rule over all er and pride. The higher horn, the earth,” 2 : 39; “ After this I bewhich came up last, is evidently the held, and lo! another beast, like a Persian part of the monarchy, which leopard, which had upon the back gradually oveshadowed its northern of it four wings of a fowl ; the beast sister. It pushed its conquests over had also four heads, and dominion Mesopotamia, Syria and Asia Mi- was given to it,” 7: 6; “And as I nor, on the west; Colchis, Arme- was considering, behold! a he.goat nia, Iberia, and to the Caspian Sea, came from the west, on the face of on the north; and Judea, Egypt, the whole earth, and touched not Ethiopia and Libya, on the south. the ground; and the goat had a Xerxes attempted the subjugation of notable horn between his eyes. Europe. No animal, i. e. no nation, And he came to the ram that had Syrian, Arabian, etc. could offer any two horns, which I had seen standeffectual resistance.

ing before the river, and ran unto The revelations which were made him in the fury of his power. And to Daniel, as recorded in the elev. I him come close unto the ram, enth chapter, were evidently in the and he was moved with choler third year of Cyrus, comp. 10: 1. against him, and smote the ram, “ The three kings that should stand and brake his two horns, and there up yet,” 11: 2, were the immedi.

was no power in the ram to stand ate successors of Cyrus, i. e. Cam. before him, but he cast him down byses, the Pseudo-Smerdis, and Da- to the ground, and stamped upon rius Hystaspes. The fourth king is him, and there was none that could Xerxes I, the son of Atossa, the deliver the ram out of his hand. daughter of Cyrus. The immense Therefore, the he.goat waxed very riches of Xerxes are alluded to by great, but when he was strong the various authors. The Persians used great horn was broken.”

- And to say, writes Herodotus, that, after the rough goat is the king of GreXerxes, Pythius the Lydian was the cia, and the great horn that is berichest of men. The splendor of tween his eyes is the first king,” 8: his preparation for the Grecian war 5—8, 21. “And a mighty king is well known. Herodotus observes, shall stand up, that shall rule with that there was not one man among the great dominion, and do according to millions of his army equal to him his will," 11: 3.

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The invincible force of the Ma- Fourth. The fourth kingdom is cedonian empire is illustrated by that of the successors of Alexander. the brazen part of the image. The It will be necessary to quote continleopard is a beautiful but extremely uously the more important passages savage animal, small in size yet of which relate to this kingdom. We great strength, and not afraid to shall then subjoin a brief commengrapple with larger animals. The tary. That the Roman empire is slaughter which he sometimes com- not intended by the prophet as the mits is almost incredible. The four fourth kingdom, it is believed will wings on the back are generally re- be made evident. We do not rely, garded as an emblem of the rapidi- in any great degree, on a common ty of Alexander's movements. They argument, viz. that the Roman domay, however, be taken in connec- minion cannot be referred to, inastion with the “four heads” possesso much as it did not strictly succeed ed by the animal, that seem to be the other great monarchies. The mentioned in anticipation of the Euphrates was the eastern boundafourfold division of Alexander's em- ry of its realm. Its efforts to subpire. The he-goat, also, is not an due the Parthians, and other central unapt figure to represent the bound. Asiatic nations, signally failed. It ing movement of the son of Philip. never conquered a large portion of In the year 334 B. C. he crossed the what had been the Persian empire. Hellespont, and in 329, he had In order to establish our position, “ broken the two horns," i. e. sub- however, we choose to rely on the dued Media and Persia, and in fact declarations of the prophet himself. every thing that stood in his way, The following are the principal from the Hellespont to Sogdiana, passages." His legs (those of the and from the cataracts of the Nile image) are of iron, his feet part of to the mouth of the Indus. “He iron and part of clay. And the touched not the ground.” He made fourth kingdom shall be strong as frequent forced marches to a great iron ; forasmuch as iron breaketh distance, and often hurried on his in pieces and subdueth all things; soldiers for a week, without giving and as iron that breaketh all these, them a day for repose.

With his shall it break in pieces and bruise. cavalry he pursued his enemy night And whereas thou sawest the feet and day; and, on one occasion, he and toes, part of potters' clay and followed Darius eleven days without part of iron, the kingdom shall be intermission over a distance of three divided ; but there shall be in it of hundred and forty English miles, the strength of the iron, forasmuch But “the notable horn" was broken as thou sawest the iron mixed with in the height of its power. He sud- the miry clay. And as the toes of denly died at Babylon in the spring the feet were part of iron and part of 323 B. C., and in the thirty sec- of clay, so shall the kingdom be ond year of his age. Alexander is partly strong and partly broken. called the first king of Greece, as his And whereas thou sawest iron mixed predecessors, and Philip among the with miry clay, they shall mingle the rest, had no connection with the themselves with the seed of men; Asiatic monarchies or the Jews, and but they shall not cleave one to were besides comparatively obscure. another, even as iron is not mixed “Shall do according to his will.” with clay.” Dan. 2: 33, 40–43. "Alexander," says the historian Cur. “ After this I saw, in the night-vistius,“ is the only mortal who had for- ions, and behold! a fourth beast, tune herself in his power. Indeed, dreadful and terrible, and strong exthrough her favors, he appeared to do ceedingly; and it had great iron with the world just what he pleased.” teeth ; it devoured, and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue long shall be the vision concerning with its feet; and it was diverse the daily sacrifice, and the transfrom all the beasts that were before gression of desolation (or of the it, and it had ten horns. I consid- desolater] to give both the sanctuary ered the horns and behold! there and the host to be trodden under came up among them another little foot? And he said unto me, unto horn, by whom there were three of two thousand and three hundred the first horns plucked up by the days, then shall the sanctuary be roots; and behold! in this horn cleansed."

Now that the great were eyes like the eyes of man, horn] being broken, whereas four and a mouth speaking great things.” stood up for it, four kingdoms shall “ Thus he (the interpreting angel] stand up out of the nation, but not said, The fourth beast shall be the in his power. And in the latter fourth kingdom upon earth, which time of their kingdom, when the shall be diverse from all kingdoms, transgressors are come to the full, and shall devour the whole earth, a king of fierce countenance, and and shall tread it down, and break understanding dark sentences shall it in pieces. And the ten horns out stand up. And his power shall be of this kingdom are ten kings that mighty, but not by his own power; shall arise ; and another shall arise and he shall destroy wonderfully, after them; and he shall be diverse and shall prosper, and work on, and from the first, and he shall subdue shall destroy the mighty, and the three kings. And he shall speak holy people; and through his poligreat words against the Most High, cy, also, he shall cause craft to and shall wear out the saints of the prosper in his hand, and he shall Most High, and think to change magnify himself in his heart, and times (sacred seasons) and laws; in prosperity shall destroy many; and they shall be given into his he shall, also, stand up against the hand until a time and times and the Prince of princes, but he shall be dividing of time,” 7:7, 8, 23—25. broken without hands,” 8: 8-13, “ And for it (the great horn) came 22–25. “And when he [Alexanup four notable ones toward the der] shall stand up, his kingdom four winds of heaven. And out of shall be broken, and shall be divi. one of them came forth a little ded toward the four winds of heavhorn, which waxed exceeding great en; but not to his posterity, nor toward the south, and toward the according to his dominion which he east, and toward the pleasant land. ruled; for his kingdom shall be And it waxed great, even to the plucked up, even for others besides host of heaven; and it cast down those,” 11: 4. “ It shall be [i. e. some of the host and of the stars to the end of these wonders] for a the ground, and stamped upon them. time, times and a half; and when Yea, he magnified himself even to he shall have finished dashing in the prince of the host, and by him pieces the power of the holy peothe daily sacrifice was taken away, ple, all these things shall be accomand the place of the sanctuary was plished.” 66 And from the time cast down. And the host, besides that the daily sacrifice shall be tathe daily sacrifice, was given over ken away, and the abomination that to impiety (or into the hands of the maketh desolate set up, there shall impious), and it [the horn] cast be a thousand two hundred and down truth to the ground, and it ninety days. Blessed is he that practiced and prospered. Then I waiteth and cometh to the thousand heard one saint (or angel] speak- three hundred and five and thirty ing, and another saint said unto days," 12: 7, 11, 12. that certain saint which spake, How We have purposely omitted the

long passage, 11:5—45, which re- Some of the remarks just made, lates to the successors of Alexander. will apply to the fourth beast, deWe shall briefly explain it on a scribed in ch. 7: 7, 23. In relafollowing page.

tion to the Jews, the strong delineaThe passage, above quoted, from tion is true to the letter. Its ferothe second chapter, accurately fore- city and its voracious appetite were shadows the power and weakness exhibited in its subjecting to its king, of the fourth kingdom. Taken to province after province and king. gether, and considered as one em- dom after kingdom. It was dif. pire, ruled by Greek princes, it ferent from the preceding king. held an iron sceptre. The generals doms by the sudden and numerous of Alexander, like those of Napo- changes which it underwent, and leon, had been trained in an excel- the terrible atrocities which it comlent military school, and some of mitted. That the “ten horns" are them were wise, as well as warlike to be understood as indicating indi. men. Egypt never had better sove. vidual kings, and not kingdoms, apreigns than the first three Ptolemies. pears from the fact, that immedi. But though no one of Alexander's ately after these ten, another was successors, nor all of them together, to arise, that was not a kingdom, attained the might and glory of but a particular king, designated some other monarchs, yet they were by the “ little horn" of 8:9, and most intimately connected—which the king of " fierce countenance,” is a material fact-with the cove- in 8: 23. The ten kings are, unnant people of God. It is on this questionably, to be sought in the account, that such preëminence is Syrian and Egyptian line of kings, given to them. Yet the parts of who, for a longer or shorter time, these kingdoms were like a con- held Palestine in subjection. These glomeration of iron and clay; they were, according to history, Antinever coalesced.

Constant wars

gonus, who took possession of Ju. and frightful assassinations stain this dea in 314 B. C.; Demetrius Politurbulent period. There were too orcetes, to whom the regal title was many great warriors, who were given by his father, Antigonus, 306 nearly on an equality. One con- B. C. ; Ptolemy Lagus, to whom trolling spirit, like that of Alexan. Palestine fell, on the fourfold divider, was needed. Their marriage sion of the empire, 301 B. C.; Ptolconnections for political purposes, emy Philadelphus ; Ptolemy Euerpredicted in v. 43, were numerous. getes ; Ptolemy Philopater; Ptole

v Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, married my Epiphanes; Ptolemy PhilomeAntigone, the daughter of Ptolemy I. ter; Antiochus the Great; and Se. Her mother, Berenice, the widow leucus Philopater. These ten kings of Philip, a Macedonian, became a were in possession, at various times, wife of Ptolemy, though he had of Palestine from the death of Alexpreviously married Eurydice, a ander the Great to the time when daughter of Antipater and a sister Antiochus Epiphanes ascended the of Cassander. Antiochus Theos Syrian throne. The“ four horns" of married two wives, Laodice and the he-goat, Dan. 8: 8, 22, are the Berenice, both daughters of Ptolemy kingdoms of Seleucus, Ptolemy, CasPhiladelphus. Cleopatra, daughter sander and Lysimachus, who made of Antiochus the Great, was con- a permanent treaty in 301 B. C., nected in marriage with Ptolemy Cassander taking Macedonia and Epiphanes. But these alliances, for Greece ; Lysimachus, Thrace, Biththe most part, only caused fresh ynia and some of the adjoining provdisturbances. The iron could not inces; Ptolemy, Egypt, Libya, Ara. mix with the clay.

bia Petræa, Palestine and Cælosy.

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