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ria; and Seleucus, all that remain. high-priest, or perhaps God himed, including seventy two satrapies. self, though he defiled the sanctua

That the “ little horn” is Antio. ry, and depopulated the sacred city, chus Epiphanes, there can be no


“all these things were finish. reasonable doubt. The passage, ed,” when the sacrilegious wretch Dan. 8: 8, 9, settles the whole died in the distant East by the visiquestion, as it seems to us. Instead tation of God. He was permitted of it, i. e. the great horn, 8: 8, out to wear out the saints of the Most of the nation, i. e. Greece, v. 23, High, “until a time, and times and came up four notable horns, v. 8, the dividing of time," i. e. for the four kingdoms, v. 22, and out of space of three years and a half. In one of these horns, v. 9, came forth May, 168 B. C., Antiochus sent his a little horn, and in the latter time confidant, Apollonius, with twenty of their kingdom, a king of fierce two thousand men to plunder Jerucountenance shall stand up, v. 23. salem. On the 25th of December, Nothing can be more to the point sacrifices were offered in the temthan this. The Greek descent of ple to the statue of Jupiter OlymAntiochus through the four king. pius, which had been erected there. doms, is plainly affirmed. Marks Just three years after this last event, so characteristic, also, are given, the temple was purified by Judas that he is pointed out, as it were, Maccabæus, i. e. Dec. 25, 165 B.C.; by the finger. The three of the three years and a half having elaps. first horns, whom he plucked up ed, while Antiochus had complete by the roots, were, according to control of Jerusalem. This same the opinion of Grotius, “ Seleucus period is referred to in Dan. 7: 25, Philopater, slain by Epiphanes or and 12: 7.* The 1290 days in by his order, Demetrius, the son of Dan. 12: 11, seem to be an exact Seleucus, the lawful heir of the specification of what was before throne, and Ptolemy Philometer, designated in general terms in Dan. from whom he took Egypt.” Oth- 7: 25, and 12: 7, i.e. by the words ers suppose, that Heliodorus, who “time, times and an hair.” In the usurped the Syrian throne, for a 12th verse of ch. 12, he is proshort time after the death of Se. nounced blessed, who cometh to leucus Philopater, is referred to as the 1335 days, i. e. to the death of one of the three kings. That the Antiochus. If we suppose that character of Antiochus Epiphanes Apollonius captured Jerusalem in was essentially different from that the latter part of May, 168 B. C., the of his predecessors, may be seen 1335 days would end about the by the historical notices of him on middle of February, 164 B. C. It a previous page. He sought ut. was at this last date, or about that terly to extirpate the saints, i.e. the time, that the great persecutor mis. Jewish church, to abolish the Sab- erably perished at Tabæ, on the bath, and all the sacred “times” of borders of Persia. the Jews. He made his boasts of We will now subjoin a brief exunderstanding enigmas, dark sen- planation of the somewhat detailed tences,' and by his craft and power, predictions in the eleventh chapter. went on prosperously for the most The last twenty five verses relate part, till he suddenly perished with. entirely to Antiochus Epiphanes. out hand,' by a terrible sickness, Ptolemy Lagus, “the king of the and not by human intervention. south,” reigned in Egypt. One of Though he had cast down some of

“his princes,

Seleucus Nicator, the host and of the stars, i.e. the reigned over a “great dominion,' holy people, and magnified himself against the prince of the host, the * See Prof. Stuart's Hints, p. 89, 2d ed.

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from the Euphrates to the Indus, v. v. 13. The Egyptian king was, at 5. In process of time, Antiochus the same time, harassed by an at. Theos, the grandson of Nicator, tack from Philip, king of Macedoand Ptolemy Philadelphus, "joined nia. Factious Jews, "robbers of themselves together.” The latter thy people,” revolted from him and gave his daughter Berenice in mar- joined Antiochus, thereby becoming riage to the former. Yet this alli. the means, through the oppressions ance was of no ultimate benefit to which the Jews suffered from Antieither of the parties. Laodice, a ochus Epiphanes, of “establishing” previous wife of Antiochus, in her the prophetic “vision," v. 14. Anjealousy, caused the death of her tiochus marched with a large army husband, of the Egyptian wife, and and “cast up a mount” against Si. of their two sons, and placed her don, and took the city, notwithstandown son, Seleucus Callinicus, on the ing the “chosen people” which throne. Antiochus Soter, the son Ptolemy sent to its aid, v. 15. Ac. of Nicator, is passed by, as he had cordingly, Antiochus did according no connection with the affairs of the to his will, and gained complete posJews, v. 6. “But out of a branch session of the “pleasant land,” v. of her roots," i. e. of Berenice's, 16. And he set his face that he stood up one in the place of Phila- might gain entire control of Ptoledelphus, i. e. his son Ptolemy Euer- my's kingdom. He formed a league getes, who marched with an army with him, and gave him in marriage to avenge the death of his sister, his daughter Cleopatra, “ to destroy attacked the fortresses of Callinicus, it," i. e. the kingdom of Ptolemy. and prevailed against him, and car: But the crafty device did not sucried back to Egypt many captives, ceed. Instead of carrying out the forty thousand talents of silver, and designs of her father, she continued a large number of images, which steadfast in the interests of her hus. Cambyses, king of Persia, had taken band, v. 17. Antiochus then took from Egypt. Then he desisted sev. possession of many islands, and of eral years from war with the king the coasts of Asia Minor. Soon, of the north, v. 8. The king of however, a “prince,” Lucius Scipio, Syria having in vain attempted to defeated him in a great battle at invade Egypt, and having suffered Magnesia. In addition to the “re


. shipwreck, returned in trepidation proach" inflicted on him by this to Antioch, v. 9. His two sons, Ce. event," he caused it to turn on him. raunus and Antiochus the Great, self.” Men called him “King An. renewed the war with a large army. tiochus the Great." The Romans After the death of Ceraunus, it was compelled him to evacuate Asia continued by Antiochus. In a short Minor. Loaded with a heavy tribtime, “ he returned,” i. e. recom- ute, he resorted to cruel exactions, menced the war, and the hostile and even the robbing of temples, in kings were stirred up even to his order to procure the means of paytower," the fortress of Ptolemy ating it. But by attempting to plun- . Raphia, near Gaza, v. 10. Ptolemy der the temple of Elymais, he proPhilopater, the son of Euergetes, voked the people to an insurrection, gained a great victory over Antio- in which he was slain, together with chus at Raphia, v. 11; but his heart the soldiers who attended him, v. was lifted up with pride, and he 18, 19. His son, Seleucus Philomade no good use of his victory, v. pater, was “the raiser of taxes." 12; for “after some years," in the In a few days,” he was destroyed, time of Ptolemy Epiphanes, the son not in anger, nor in battle," but of Philopater, Antiochus renewed by poison, v. 20. The “ vile perthe war with greater vigor than ever, son,” Antiochus Epiphanes, came


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to the throne by “ flattering” Eume. Mattathias at first had but a “ little nes, king of Pergamus, and his help," though many professed thembrother Attalus, v. 21. The forces selves, hypocritically, to be his of the Egyptians were broken” friends, v. 34. It was a time of by him, yea also, Ptolemy Philome- sharp trial, v. 35, and many came ter, with whom he had made a coy- out of the fiery persecution like enant, v. 22. He pretended that he gold from the furnace. The rehad come to Egypt, solely for the mainder of the chapter, v. 36 to 45, good of Ptolemy, to set the affairs describes the impiety of Antiochus, of his kingdom in order for him. his neglect of the idols of his faHe attacked suddenly (not peace. thers, his worship of Jupiter Capitoably] “the sattest places of Egypt, linus, “ the god of forces,” his disand scattered among his soldiers the regarding the “ desire of women," prey, and devised assaults upon Al. i. e. some goddess worshiped by exandria, and other places, v. 23, Syrian females, his setting up the 24. In v. 25, the conflict between worship of Jupiter" in the most the two kings is described, in which strong holds,” another war with the Ptolemy was worsted, because per. king of Egypt, the escape of the sons in his own court plotted against Idumeans, etc. from his grasp, his him. Even those who fed at his fury on hearing of the revolt of the table, v. 26, conspired against him. Armenians and Parthians, and the In the mean time, the army of placing of his camp between the Antiochus came on like an inun- Mediterranean and Jerusalem,“ the dation, and many of Ptolemy's sol- seas and the glorious holy moun. diers fell down wounded. Under tain.” But his end had now come. the garb of friendship, v. 27, both The thrones were set. The An. kings tried to circumvent each oth- cient of Days ascended the judg. er, but neither accomplished his ob- ment seat. A fiery stream issued ject, for the end of these wars was from before him. Thousand thoudeferred till the time appointed by sands ministered unto him, and ten God. Then Antiochus returning to thousand times ten thousand stood his own land, plundered Jerusalem before him ; the judgment was set on the road, and desecrated the and the books were opened. The temple, v. 28. Afterward he went sentence went forth. The beast back to Egypt, v. 29, 30, but his was slain, and his body was destroy. designs did not prosper, for the Ro- ed, and given to the burning flame. mans sent embassadors, and forbade The bloody persecutor of God's his further progress. He returned people, received the just reward of "grieved,” and wreaked his ven- his deeds. geance on the Jews, and set up his Then followed the glorious days “abomination" in the temple, v. 31, of the Messiah. The Son of Man the apostate Jews helping him, but came in the clouds of heaven, and the “people of God,” like Matta- there was given him an everlasting thias, v. 32, being strong, did val. dominion. The stone that smote iantly. These pious Jews confirm the image, became a great mouned many in their allegiance to the tain, and filled the whole earth. true God, v. 33, though multitudes Thrice blessed he who shall behold perished by the sword, in the flames, on earth the perfect accomplishment and in captivity, for some time. of this vision.

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Those were stirring times in old neighbors of those continental king. England two hundred years ago. doms, in which the power of the The controversy between Charles I. sovereign had swallowed up, in and the Long Parliament had been whole or in part, those old Gothic submitted to the dire arbitrament of institutions which had once mainwar; and each of the three king- tained the spirit of liberty. doms of the British empire was But from the reign of Henry VII, convulsed with the progress of a England had been outgrowing her bloody revolution. Let us briefly ancient ill-defined system of feudal recollect the occasion, the elements, government. The peerage, once so and the progress of that controversy. powerful against the throne, had

The ancient feudal system of gov- been greatly depressed by the conernment in England, had answered fiscations and slaughters of the wars a purpose during the middle ages. between the houses of York and By a rude balancing of powers, it Lancaster; and the policy of the had secured the barons against the avaricious and unwarlike Henry VII, sovereign, and had prevented the while it enriched the crown, gave crown from becoming absolute, opportunity for industry and the while at the same time it had lim- arts of peace to enrich those towns ited the authority of the barons by which were the seats of trade, and making them, to some extent, de brought forward those “ middling pendent on the king. It had guard. classes," which, during the long era ed by charters and prescriptive of feudal violence, had hardly berights the corporate liberties of gun to exist. The invention of cities and boroughs, and had thus printing, the revival and expan. encouraged industry and the pro- sion of commerce, the discovery of gress of civilization. It had re. America, were indications of the cognized the church as one great commencement of a new order of power in the state, a power in a things. great measure independent of the In the following reign, the recrown and of the peerage ; and the formation as introduced into Eng. political rights of bishops and mi. land by the monarch—throwing off tred abbots, of the universities and the old allegiance of the church of the clergy, were acknowledged as England to the church of Rome, definitely as those of lay barons or transferring all the powers of the of burgesses. It had accustomed pope to the king, abolishing the the entire people to the idea of be. monastic institutions, and seizing ing governed by laws and not by on no small portion of the immense arbitrary power. It had fixed in possessions of the clergy-disturbed the popular mind the notion, that still farther the old balance of pow. laws were to be made by the par- ers in the state, by bringing the liament with the consent of the king, bishops and the entire ecclesiastical and not by the king without the system into an immediate and abparliament, and that the laws were solute dependence on the crown. of the nature of a compact between At the same time, in consequence the sovereign and his subjects. It of this very arrangement, so inaushad trained the English to regard picious in itself to English liberty, themselves as a free people, and to England was unavoidably placed in glory in their freedom as the great communication with the true refor: distinction between them and their mation which had been commenced

on the continent by Luther and the reformation can hardly be conZuingle, and which was there assert- sidered as having made much pro. ing in the boldest manner, the prin- gress during the reign of Henry ciple of private judgment and of VIII. For though the timid, supthe supreme and sole authority of ple, and crafty Cranmer was arch. the Scriptures, as opposed to the au- bishop of Canterbury, having mountthority of the church ; and the prin. ed to that place by his diligent and ciple of justification by faith, as op- able subserviency to the tyrant's posed to justification by the church, wishes in respect to his divorce of by ceremonies and observances, Catherine, and retaining his mitre or by any human endeavors. Be. by a meaner compliance in respect side this, the very change which to the divorce and condemnation of the king made in seizing on the Anne Boleyn-and though the he. pope's supremacy, while it was roic Latimer was for a season bishhighly acceptable to at least a large op of Worcester-and though by portion of the people, as relieving the influence of the Protestant party England from a hated dependence at court, anxious for their newly on a foreign power, and from great acquired church property, and theretaxes and contributions which had fore disposed to take

fore disposed to take away all posgone to fill the coffers of the pontiff sibility of a reconciliation with at Rome, or had been expended in Rome, some preachers of the rethe support of idle and often profli- formed religion enjoyed an irregugate monks—could not but lead on lar and perilous toleration, the auto other changes in the popular thorized doctrines and ritual of the mind. The doctrine of the pope's church suffered no material change, supremacy being rejected by public save in the one great point of bring. authority as resting on nothing but ing the clergy to a complete de. prescription, it was a matter of pendence on the king. course for the people to inquire, The actual reformation of the whether other doctrines, once ven- church of England, so far as it was erable, rested on any better foun. reformed, is to be ascribed, under dation. The Scriptures being trans- God's providence, to the accident lated into the vulgar tongue for the that the immediate successor of Henpeople to read, why were not the ry VIII. was a boy in his tenth year; people to judge as to the meaning of and that those who had the guar. what they read ? England having dianship of his person, and who become a Protestant kingdom, why swayed the government in his name, should not the people become a Pro. were committed either by their in. testant people ? and why should not terest or by their conscience, on the the church of England be reformed side of a thorough reformation. The in doctrine and discipline, accord. king's supremacy over the church, ing to the Scriptural standard, like in the hands of this reforming junto the churches with which she agreed of nobles and bishops, was employ. in protesting against Rome Alled to great effect for six years.

? these tendencies towards a progres. Then was that Latimer, Ridley, sive and thorough reformation, were Coverdale, Hooper, Rogers, and the increased by the fact, that the per- like, obtained not only liberty to sonal quarrel between Henry VIII. preach the gospel, but high places and Luther, brought the reforming of honor and influence in the eccleecclesiastics of England into imme- siastical establishment. Then it was diate connection with the divines of that Peter Martyr and Martin Bucer Switzerland, rather than with those were, by the government, invited in. of Saxony, with Zurich and Geneva, to England from Switzerland, and rather than with Wittemberg. Still, placed in the chairs of theology at


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