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essence of their nationality. The turbulence of the Scottish nation. restoration of the bishops, after their A service-book was prepared, with office had long been virtually abol. a few variations from that of Eng. ished, to ecclesiastical power and land, some of which were calculacivil dignities, was particularly of. ted to make it more obnoxious to fensive to the nobility and to the Protestant minds; and without conpeople.

sulting either the Parliament of the It seems like a judicial infatua. kingdom, or the general assembly, tion, that in such a state of things, or any of the synods of the kirk, Charles, even under the advice of the king attempted to introduce it so narrow and short-sighted a mind simply by his absolute authority. as Laud, should venture on the Sunday, the 23d of July, 1637, was mad enterprise of reinstating in the the day fixed upon for beginning church of Scotland, the system of the use of this new liturgy in all doctrine, worship and government, the churches in Scotland. On that which in the dialect of Oxford is day, an immense concourse appear. now called “Catholicity.”

Catholicity.” From ed at St. Giles's church in Edinthe beginning of his reign, this ill. burgh, where archbishops, bishops, taught and ill-advised king had and high officers of the kingdom, maintained a constant quarrel with were to aid by their presence in his English subjects. Having found securing for the new book a favorsuccessive Parliaments sternly bent able reception. The dean began on the redress of grievances, and his reading. Instantly there arose reluctant to afford supplies without among the populace that thronged some security for a better adminis, the old cathedral, such a tration of the laws and for a better of clapping, cursing, and crying, protection of the rights of English- that nothing else could be heard. men, he had undertaken to reign The bishop of Edinburgh ascended without Parliaments; and for twelve the pulpit to appease the tumult, years he had governed in absolute

whom,” says

Fuller in his quaint defiance of the ancient constitution way, “a stool aimed to be thrown of the realm. During those twelve at him had killed, if not diverted by years, it seemed likely that the Teu. one present, so that the same book tonic liberties of England would go had occasioned his death and prethe same way with those of France scribed the form of his burial.” and Spain. During those twelve That stool, we may say, in its para. years it was, that some four thou- bolic flight, took off the heads of sand Englishmen emigrated to Ame- Strafford, Laud, and Charles. It rica, and planted here a new and was the signal-shot of what Oxford fairer England than that which they politicians in this country, as well left behind them. During those as in England, still call “ the great twelve years it was, that such rebellion.' patriots as Sir John Eliot, were Immediately all Scotland was in wearing out their weary lives in commotion. The old “ NATIONAL prison; and such as Hampden ap- COVENANT" against popery, which pealed in vain to servile judges, the had been adopted in 1581 by King mere minions of the crown. The James and his court, and in 1590, only hope for England was, that by the nation generally, was resome occasion might arise which vised and enlarged to adapt it to should make the calling of a Par- the times, and was enthusiastically liament a matter of inevitable ne- sworn to by all classes of people. cessity. At such a crisis, Laud This covenant became a bond of and his master ran the risk of an union, a test of partisanship, an oath experiment on the jealousy and of allegiance to the liberties of the Vol. I.



kingdom and to the Presbyterian resolved to try once more the temreformation. In the progress of per of an English Parliament. the disturbances, the king was in- A Parliament was called. Its duced to call a general assembly of tables were immediately covered

a the kirk—a body which for many with petitions for the redress of years had not been permitted to grievances in church and in state. convene. The assembly, notwith- It began with the consideration of standing the efforts of the govern. grievances. The king importuned ment, and of the bishops with their the commons to begin with a grant dwindling party, was made up of of taxes, and to leave the grievances covenanters; and after seven days, to him; and because the Parliament the king's commissioner attempted was inflexible, it was suddenly dis. to dissolve it. But it would not be solved, before a single act had been dissolved. It went on, annulling, passed. rescinding, renouncing, reforming, Again the most desperate efforts with a high hand, till not a vestige were made, and all sorts of arbiremained of all that goodly fabric trary and illegal measures of episcopacy, which James and adopted, to raise money and an Charles had been so sedulously rear- army for carrying on the war against ing, and of which the new liturgy Scotland. 'The Scotch, knowing was to have been the topstone. that the great body of the English

Nothing remained but war. The nation was on their side, did not king, in the exercise of the despotic wait to be invaded, but passed the power which he had assumed, found Tweed with their army, and sudmeans to raise an army in England, denly found themselves in posseswith which to subdue his unman- sion of the three northern counties ageable subjects in Scotland. The of England.

In this prosperous Scotch, on the other hand, raised state of their affairs, they renewed an army in the name of the king their addresses to the king, and one and covenant, to defend the kingdom point of their petition was, that a against English invaders. Should free Parliament might be called in the king succeed in the subjugation England, to aid in the establishment of Scotland by an English army, of a lasting peace. The king, thus England itself would thenceforward humbled and defeated, and at the be held in more complete subjec. same time assailed with clamorous tion. On the border the two armies petitions from all quarters, was com

near enough to look each pelled to agree to an arrangement other in the face; whereupon the by which an English Parliament king, perceiving no doubt that his was immediately to be summoned; army could hardly be relied on, commissioners from Scotland were suddenly agreed to a pacification, to proceed to London for the negoand both armies were disbanded. tiation and conclusion of a treaty ; But as the Scotch had no intention the Scotch army, remaining at Newof surrendering their religion or castle, was to receive eight hundred their liberty, so the king had no in- and fifty pounds a day for its suptention of giving up his designs. port; and neither that army por In a few months, by the advice the king's, was to be disbanded, till of Laud and Strafford, the war was the treaty should be concluded. renewed ; and so necessary was Accordingly, on the third day of the subjugation of the covenanters November, 1640, the Parliament, deemed, and so much confidence memorable in history as “the Long had the king and court in Strafford's Parliament," was assembled to aid power of overawing and swaying a in the work of restoring and conrepresentative assembly, that it was firming peace between the two king.


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doms. No man could expect of a carried into effect in good faith on Parliament convened in such cir- the part of the executive, would cumstances, anything else than have made the constitution of Eng. the most strenuous endeavors to re- land very much what it now is in form the constitution, by limiting respect to the securities which it the royal prerogative which recent creates for justice and liberty. Had usurpations had greatly extended, the king understood his actual posiand by obtaining such securities fortion, and submitted to it,-could he the faithful administration of the have seen that his attempt to change government, as might make the the constitution and to make himself Magna Charla no longer a dead absolute, had failed forever, and that letter. The Scotch covenanters' the only safe policy was to concur army, quartered at Newcastle, was heartily in such changes as might a security, that till the conclusion of give his subjects security for the futhe treaty between the kingdoms, ture if not indemnity for the past, this Parliament would not be sub- it would not have been difficult to ject to that sudden dissolution which satisfy the expectations of the nahad arrested the endeavors of so tion. But it soon became manifest many preceding Parliaments. Thus to the Parliament, that in dealing the Scotch felt, that England owed with the king, they were dealing to them all its hopes of liberty and with one who was capable of any reformation. Their cammissioners treachery; and that nothing could for the treaty could not but be ad- be safely trusted to his fidelity. mitted to the councils of the parlia. Funds for the great expense incur. mentary leaders.

Their manner red during the progress of the slow of proceeding, their covenant, their treaty with the Scotch, were obtainassembly, their form of ecclesias- ed in London on the credit of the tical order, the persons of their prin- Parliament. But what if this Parliacipal men, were regarded with a ment should be suddenly dissolved sort of grateful complacency. Their as preceding Parliaments had been? preachers, who came to London As the court and the Parliament be. with the commissioners, and who came more openly hostile to each performed the services of the Scotch other, and the probability of an earkirk every Lord's day at St. Antho- ly dissolution was increased, it was lin's church-an edifice assigned to found that the credit of the Parliathe commissioners for that purpose, ment was regarded as an inadequate according to a rule of international security for new loans; and the courtesy-were heard with enthu. king, in a fatal day, fatal for him. siastic admiration. From that time self and for his subjects, was induthe Scotch were excited with the ced to give his assent to a bill hasidea of bringing the English church tily carried through both houses, by to a conformity with their own; which he divested himself of the and no one influence on the pro- power of dissolving that Parliament ceedings of Parliament was without its own consent. In other inauspicious to the success of their words, for the sake of remedying a endeavors in behalf of English lib. present inconvenience, he consented erty, than the necessity of not of- to make that Parliament perpetual. fending the spirit which reigned in Thenceforward, the house of comthe covenanting realm of Scotland. mons instead of being merely a re

Improving the advantage which presentative body, was a perpetual the dilatory progress of the treaty corporation, admitted by the king, afforded them, the Parliament pro- under all the forms of law, to a partceeded to a series of reforming en nership in the sovereignty. Of a actments, which if they had been body of men possessed of such pow


ers, and entrenched in so complete but “if PRINCES commanded any an independence both of the king thing which subjects might not perand of their several constituencies, form, because it is against the laws what could be expected but that they of God or of nature, or impossible, would regard themselves as called et subjects are bound to undergo to the great work of remodeling at the punishment, without resisting, or their leisure, and to their own com. railing, or reviling, and so to yield plete satisfaction, the constitution of a passive obedience where they can the kingdom ?

not yield an active one.” Another In reforming the government, and (Manwaring) used such language as especially in limiting the abused pre- this, “ The king is not bound 10 obrogative of the sovereign, one of serve the laws of the realm concernthe first things to be thought of was ing the subject's rights and liberties; the ecclesiastical constitution. The but his royal will and pleasure in church was in effect a great depen- imposing taxes, without consent of dency of the crown, quite as much Parliament, doth oblige the subject's so as the army or the navy; and as conscience on pain of damnation. things then were, far more likely Those who refuse obedience trans. than either to answer the purposes gress the laws of God, insult the of an arbitrary and usurping sove. king's supreme authority, and are reign. The multiplied tendencies guilty of impiety, disloyalty and reto tyranny in the state, and to cor- bellion. The authority of both houruption in the church, which were ses of Parliament, is not necessary involved in such an arrangement, for the raising of aids and subsidies, had become a matter of sad expe- as not suitable to the exigencies of rience. During those twelve years the state.” This bold doctrine was of systematic and settled usurpa. preached and printed just before tion, the king's prime minister in the Parliament of 1628; and after England was William Laud, at the the house of lords in that Parliament, beginning of the period bishop of as the highest judicature of the London, and at the close archbishop realm, had passed sentence upon of Canterbury. His successor in the author, and condemned him to the see of London sustained, in ad- fine and imprisonment, disabling dition to the spiritual superinten- him from preaching at court and dence of that great diocese, what- from holding any ecclesiastical or ever secular cares were involved in secular preferment, he was not only a diligent and able administration of pardoned by the king as soon as the the office of lord high treasurer of Parliament had been dissolved, but England. Nearly all the bishops, he and others who had signalized and the great majority of the ten themselves in the same way, were thousand clergymen of the establish- selected to receive from the govern. ment, had been found to be the wil. ment distinguished tokens of regard. ling tools of the usurping king, on Such were the doctrines of the the principle that the ox knoweth court; and such might be expected his owner, and the ass his master's to be the doctrines of the church so crib. When the king was resorting long as the church should continue to illegal methods of raising money, to be a dependency of the crown. the clergy were employed to preach Accordingly the whole enginery of to the people his right, by God's ap- the ecclesiastical establishment was pointment, to the property of the brought to bear in the great entersubject. Thus for example, one of prise of subverting all the limits of them (Sibthorp) preached that “if the monarchy, and of making the princes”—not the laws of the land king's power absolute. Of the can made according to the constitution— ons which under the advice of Laud,

and with corrections from his pen, a right and property in their goods were attempted to be imposed upon and estates; and these two are so the church of Scotland, the first far from crossing one another, that pronounced an excommunication they mutually go together for the against all who should affirm the honorable and comfortable support power and prerogative of the king of both.” That is, in fewer words, not to be equal with that of the though the king by the law of God, Jewish kings. And in 1640, just nature and nations, has a right to before the emergency which occa- levy taxes, the subjects have a right sioned the Long Parliament, a con- to what is left of their goods and vocation of the clergy of all Eng. estates after the king has taken what land, in a session the lawfulness of he judges to be necessary for the which was, at the best, very ques- uses of government.

Thus in the tionable, adopted a body of canons controversy between a usurping king additional to those previously estab- and a people who for ages had glolished by law, the first of which ried in the idea of their freedomlaid down a doctrine “concerning in the controversy whether the king's the regal power” which deserves power was absolute and the immeto be distinctly commemorated, as diate gift of God to him, or a powshowing to what a depth of political er circumscribed by the laws of the baseness the clergy had been brought land, and bounded by the existence by the dependence of the church of coördinate powers—in the conon the king. The canon ordains troversy whether the king had a and decrees that “every parson, right to “tribute and custom, aid vicar, curate, or preacher,” shall and subsidy,” without a grant from once every quarter publicly read on Parliament, the church, which even Sunday in the place where he serves, in the darkest ages of popery had “ the following explanation of the been to an honorable extent the anregal power: That the most high tagonist of tyrants and the friend of and sacred order of kings is of Di. the masses, deserted the cause of VINE RIGHT, being the ordinance of right and law and liberty, and beGod himself, founded in the prime came the handmaid, of royal usurlaws of nature and revelation, by pation. Who can wonder that the which the supreme power over all patriotic party were bent on some persons civil and ecclesiastical, is searching and thorough reformation given to them: That they have the of the ecclesiastical establishment ? care of God's church, and the pow. It is common with a certain class er of calling and dissolving coun- of writers, to speak of the Long cils both national and provincial: Parliament as made up of men hosThat for any persons to set up in tile from the first to every sort of the king's realms an independent episcopacy, and determined to incoercive power, either papal or pop- troduce into England the same sysular, is treasonable against God and tem which was then so triumphant the king; and for subjects to bear in Scotland. Nothing could be fararms against their king, either offen- ther from the truth. The great bosive or defensive, UPON ANY PRE- dy of the house of commons were TENSE WHATSOEVER, is at least to undoubtedly Puritans, as the word resist the powers ordained of God; was then used by the court party, and though they do not invade, but that is, they were opposed to archonly resist, St. Paul says they shall bishop Laud's opinions and practireceive damnation : And though trib- ces; but that they came together ute and custom, aid and subsidy be with a preconceived determination due to the king by the law of God, to introduce presbyterianism, there nature and nations, yet subjects have is no evidence. On the contrary, a

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