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the bishops' votes in Parliament. ish—a system almost as different On this point the commons insisted, from the Scotch as it was from the and the lords refused to recede, and hierarchy of Rome itself. Instead so the bill was lost. This sealed of resting upon the divine right of the fate of the bishops. It became presbyteries and assemblies, it was more apparent than ever, that the to rest upon the law of the land, prelacy on which their consciences and was to be introduced and settled were fixed was their secular pomp by parliamentary commissioners, and power, and not merely their none of whom were to be clergy. spiritual rank as a distinct order of men. Every county in England Christ's ministers. As soon as this was to be a distinct diocese or determination of the lords was as- church, except Yorkshire, which certained, a bill was introduced into was to be divided into three. In the house of commons for the abol. each diocese there was to be a staishing and taking away of archbish- ted presbytery of twelve theologians. ops, bishops, deans, archdeacons, Over every presbytery there was to and their offices, out of the church be a president, of the nature of a of England. The mover of this bishop. Each superintendent or bill said on presenting it to the bishop, assisted by some of his presspeaker, “ I never was for ruin, as bytery, was to have power to ordain, long as there was any hopes of resuspend and deprive ministers, and formning, and I now profess that if to excommunicate offenders. No those hopes revive and prosper, I superintendent was to be translated will divide my sense upon this bill, from one diocese to another. There and yield my shoulders to under- was to be a diocesan synod annualprop the primitive, lawful and just ly, and a national synod once in episcopacy.” Scotch presbyterians three years. This system instead never talked in such a strain. of being presbyterianism, was noth

The bill for the abolition of the ing but a reformed episcopacy, an hierarchy having had its second episcopacy much like that which reading on the day on which it was was prevalent in the second and introduced, was referred to a com- third centuries. Such a system, we mittee of the whole for considera- venture to say, was, at that time tion. Fifteen days afterward, (June certainly, far better suited to the 11,) it was taken up in the commit. structure of English society and to tee, to be discussed by parts. On the genius of the English people, the first day the preamble was vo- than the presbyterianism which the ted; on the second it was resolved Scotch were so anxious to impose that the abolition of the several offi- upon their neighbors. ces of archbishops, bishops, chan- The

of this bill was arcellors and commissaries, should be rested by a movement on the part one clause of the bill; on the third of the king, which made it necessathe abolition of deans, archdeacons, ry for the Parliament to give all prebendaries and canons, was agreed their attention for a while to other on, with the proviso that a compe- matters. Charles seeing the close tent maintenance should be secured alliance between the parliamentary to the incumbents of such offices leaders and the commissioners from except in cases of personal delin Scotland, an alliance occasioned by quency. Proceeding thus from one the identity of their interests, had particular to another, the house at determined to concede to the Scotch last on the 17th of July voted to every thing they might ask, and adopt a new form of church gov. thus winning them over to his side, ernment, to be substituted for that to deal with his English subjects which they were proposing to abol. separately. With this design he an.



nounced his determination to make The house of commons being a journey into Scotland. The Par- thus diverted by the progress of liament saw the reach of his design, events from the bill for reforming and proceeded in all haste to secure the government of the church, and the conclusion of the treaty between knowing very well that while the the two kingdoms, and the disband- bishops retained their places among ing of both armies, and to adopt oth the lords no measure of that kind er measures, made necessary at that could be carried, were watching for crisis. After the king had proceed- some opportunity to effect their reed on his journey, commissioners moval from the house of peers. from Parliament followed him, os- Thirteen of the twenty six bishops tensibly to superintend the ratifica. were impeached for their share in tion of the treaty, but really to watch the late unlawful canons, but the imhis movements and to see that a peachment was not prosecuted. At good understanding was kept up the close of the year 1641, twelve with the Scotch. The result was of the bishops, alarmed at the inthat the Scotch became in their own sults which they daily experienced view, and in fact, of more conse- from the rabble, signed a paper ex. quence than ever; and their hope pressing their purpose to absent of being able to impose their own themselves from their seats, and propresbyterian uniformity upon the testing against the validity of any English people was greatly strength- thing that might be done in their abened.

On the reception of this paWhile the king was in Scotland, per, the lords, who had been their fast a bloody insurrection was commen- friends, were indignant, and comced in Ireland. Thousands upon municated it to the commons with thousands of the Protestant popula. an expression of their displeasure. tion of that unhappy country were

The twelve protesters were impeachmassacred by the insurgents. A ed of treason and confined in the chill of horror at the announcement Tower. Another bill for preventing of so great and sudden a butchery, clergymen from exercising temporan through England and Scotland. ral jurisdiction, which had passed If the papists in Ireland were capa. the commons sometime before, and ble of such atrocities, who could had lain unnoticed in the house of tell how soon the papists of England lords, was called up by a message might strike some sudden and secret from the commons. After some de blow equally dreadful? Suspicions lay the bill was passed, and on the which history has not to this day 14th of February, 1642, it was sanccompletely removed, rested upon tioned by the king. the king, as to some extent implica- But before the date just named, ted in the plans of the Irish insur- and while the affair of the twelve gents. The panic of affright, of bishops was in progress, the king horror, of indignation, which seized had taken that fatal step which may upon the public, prepared all minds be regarded as the commencement for the most desperate measures. of the war between him and the The king returned in haste from Parliament. rom the time of his Scotland, having pleased the people return from Scotland, the commons there by his concessions, but not had been suspicious that some athaving gained their confidence. And tempt would be made to subdue his next plan was to raise an army them, or break them up by violence. for the suppression of the Irish rebel. The guard with which they had surlion, which he might afterwards use rounded themselves on the breaking for the suppression of the English out of the Irish insurrection, had Parliament.

been removed; and to their repeat

ed expostulations the king had an- that badge of the speaker's authoriswered by offering to surround them ty, is removed; the members are with a guard of his own appointing- all standing uncovered; the king the very thing against which they from the speaker's chair, but withwere most desirous of protection. out sitting down, looks earnestly Under these alarms, they had pro- over all the benches, to discover the ceeded so far as to order halberts to individuals whom he has come to be brought into the house, that in seize. What a moment was that! case of any sudden attack, they. The king himself was not deficient might defend themselves. At last, in personal courage, and his followon Monday the 3d of January, 1642, ers at the door were rash enough the first business day of that year, and desperate enough for any bloody the king sent a sergeant at arms to work. That old chapel of St. Stethe bar of the house, to demand of phen never saw a more exciting mothe speaker five of the most distin- ment. There are arms within reach guished members of that body, and of the members, and at a moment's to arrest them of high treason. The warning the house may flash with proceeding was entirely irregular, the glitter of steel. As the king's dispensing with all those legal for- eye traverses those benches, it is malities without which there is no met by glances as keen and fearsecurity for justice; the king had less as his; and many a voice that no more right to arrest any man by is afterwards to cheer, as with a such a process than to kill an of. clarion tone, the wheeling squadrons fender with his own hands. Of at Edgehill and at Marston Moor, course the individuals thus demand. can hardly suppress itself from uted-one of whom was the illustri- tering defiance. Cromwell is there ous Hampden-were not surrender the Cambridgeshire farmer, with ed. The house appointed four of that ill fitted country-made coat, with their members—one of whom, Lord that soiled neckcloth, with that Falkland, afterwards died in battle slouched hat held in a hand clenchfor that monarch-to inform his ma- ed with indignation ; and perhaps it jesty that the matter was of great is the excitement of this very moconsequence, and that they would ment that is waking within him the take it into serious consideration, mighty energies of which the world holding the members ready to an- as yet has no suspicion. The first swer any legal charge made against act of violence on the part of the them. The next day, the king put king or his followers—the first movehimself at the head of his house. ment towards seizing the person of hold guard of gentlemen pensioners, any member, will make that floor a and of an armed array of some baitle-ground; and Cromwell is one hundreds of courtiers and disbanded so little imposed upon by the chimesoldiers and officers, who had been ra of royalty, that in a fight he the night before enlisted and equip. would strike the king himself as ped for the undertaking; and with quick and as hard as he would this force he marched from his pal- strike a peasant. But the commons ace of Whitehall to the door of the have had information of the king's house of commons. Leaving his designs and movements; and to prefollowers without, he enters with on- vent the conflict which might take ly one or two attendants. Having place, and at the same time to baffle cast one glance towards the place the king most completely, the five where Pym was usually seated, he members whom he expected to take proceeds to the speaker's chair ; the by force out of their seats, have been speaker drops upon his knee; the sent away. The king, not seeing king mounts the platform; the mace, them, addresses a few words to the

is no


“ Well,” says

house, and says, “I have come to On the 22d of August, the king know if

any of those persons that I made a formal commencement of have accused for treason are here." war, by setting up his standard at “I have come to tell you that I Nottingham. must have them wheresoever I can Of course, while these measures find them.” He then calls two of were in progress, the good will of the accused persons by name,“ John the Scotch nation grew more imPym! Denzil Hollis!" But there portant to the Parliament. And

He turns to the the more nearly balanced the parspeaker. Are any of those per- ties were in England, the more did sons in the house? Do you see that nation enjoy the hope of impoany of them? Where are they?” sing their admired uniformity upon The speaker on his knees replies their neighbors. Their commissionthat, in that place, he has neither ers offered to mediate between the eyes to see nor tongue to speak, but king and Parliament.

The king as the house is pleased to direct him. rejected the offer ; but the house

the king after survey of commons thanked them for their ing the house once more, “I see kindness, and persuaded the Scotch the birds are flown;" and then with to send an army into Ireland against a few words more about his inten- the insurgents there, which was in tion of doing justice, and his ex- effect relieving England and empectation of their obedience, he re- barrassing the king. In April, both tires, taking off his hat till he comes houses united in a declaration, in to the door. As he goes out, the which they professed that they insuppressed emotions of the mem- tended “a due and necessary rebers break forth in the cry of Priv. formation of the government and ilege! Privilege !

discipline of the church," " and for From that day forward, all par- the better effecting thereof speedily ties saw that the controversy must to have consultation with godly and soon be tried by an appeal to arms. learned divines.” In the same de. A week afterwards the king, in de- claration they promised, that they feat and shame, left his palace of would “ use their utmost endeavors Whitehall, in London, to return no to establish learned and preaching more till he returned a prisoner. ministers, with a good and sufficient He retired to the palace of Hamp- maintenance, throughout the king. ton court, about thirteen miles dis- dom.” Thus, without promising tant, leaving the Parliament in pos. any thing more than what all Purisession of all the influences that tans united in demanding, and with. centered in the metropolis. And out committing themselves at all for though he continued to hold inter- the Scotch discipline, they gave course with Parliament by the ex- room for the promoters of that disci. change of messages; and though pline to hope for ultimate success. he gave his assent to several bills, In accordance with this declara. and particularly to that most dis- tion, when the Parliament, as one tasteful one for taking away the of the last measures before the comvotes of bishops in the house of mencement of actual hostilities, sent lords, it was done only to gain time the king their nineteen propositions, or some other advantage; and all showing, in compliance with a remen knew that at whatever moment quest of his, the sum of all their he might feel himself strong enough, desires for the reformation and seall these enactments would be ab. curity of church and state, one solutely disregarded, or set aside as of their propositions was, that he null from the beginning. Both par should consent to such a reformaties were arming as fast as possible. tion of the church government and liturgy, as both houses should ad. soon as they can obtain the royal vise, after the consultation with dis assent.' They also declare to the vines of which they had spoken in assembly, not that episcopacy in their declaration; and that he should every sense of the word is evil, but give “his best assistance for the " that this government by archbishraising of a sufficient maintenance ops, bishops, their chancellors and for preaching ministers throughout commissaries, deans and chapters, the kingdom."

archdeacons, and other ecclesiasIn the month of May, the Scot- tical officers depending on the hier. tish council, the executive govern. archy, is evil,” and that they are ment of the kingdom, sent their resolved “the same shall be taken chancellor to London to renew the away.” They conclude with de. offer of mediation. The result was siring their brethren of Scotland to the same as before. The king re- concur with them in petitioning the jected the proposal ; while the Par- king for an assembly of divines, and liament gave it a favorable recep- to send some of their own ministers tion, and even wrote to the general whenever the assembly should be assembly of the kirk, desiring their called, in order to facilitate the atadvice and assistance in the refor- tainment of the uniformity so much mation of religion. The assembly desired. The king on the other in their reply, insist on their “ de- hand, sent a remonstrance to the sires for unity of religion, that there Scotch council, in which he assured might be one confession of faith, them that the leaders of Parliament, one directory of worship, one pubwhatever professions they might lic catechism, and one form of make, were at heart as much opchurch government," throughout the posed to presbyterianism as the British empire. They advise the Scotch were to episcopacy. But Parliament to begin with a uni- the king was one of those unfore formity of church government; for tunate persons, who are not believed there is no hope, they say, “till even though they speak the truth. prelacy be plucked up root and Whatever may have been the branch, as a plant which God hath intentions of Parliament respecting not planted." The Parliament in the presbyterianism on which their their reply, reciprocate the assem- brethren of Scotland were insisting, bly's desire of a religious unity, that they had no intention of retaining in all his majesty's dominions there the established episcopacy of Eng. may be but one confession of faith land. Accordingly, in the month and form of church government. of September, they redeemed their But careful not to entangle them- pledge on that point by passing a selves by pledges, they add, that bill “ for the utter abolishing and " though this is hardly to be ex. taking away of all archbishops, bish. pected punctually and exactly, they ops, their chancellors and commishope, since they are guided by the saries,” &c. Unlike the former bill same spirit, they shall be so direct which had been dropped in the ed as to cast out every thing that is house, it made no provision for the offensive to God, and so far agree introduction of a new system, but left with the Scots and other reformed that matter open for subsequent legischurches in the substantials of doc. lation. And that there might be time trine, worship, and discipline, that to provide a substitute, the abolition there may be a free communion in of the existing system was not to all holy exercises and duties of take effect till the 5ih of Novempublic worship, for the attaining ber, 1643. The way was thus open whereof, they intend an assembly for Scotland to unite with the Parof godly and learned divines as liament, if they were willing to give

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