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their friends happy. In such cirmotive than mere expediency, will cumstances, they have the advan. see the advantage of cultivating all tage greatly on their side, even sup- the highest powers of the mind,

and posing that both had cultivated the warmest affections of the heart. social and domestic affections with They will see that the commercial the same fervor, which, however, revolutions to which our country is can not be the case. The passion subject, will from time to time, come for mere wealth and show, is a dis- to lay waste the fair fields of prosorganizing and disuniting principle perity, and that then, she who has in its very essence; and to suppose been best prepared by education, that the kindly and humane affec. will be most likely to preserve her tions as readily unite themselves own respectability, and the happiwith its selfish nature, as with those ness of those around her. And it is of a more elevated kind, is prepos. to be hoped that the sad experience terous. Whom do we see, with the of the past, will open so many eyes placid brow and the gentle smile, to the value of this better wealth, laying aside the tinsel trappings with that in the golden days of prosperity, which affection may have decked superior qualities shall retain the her in the hour of prosperity, and ascendency and the estimation they betaking herself to the humble em- deserve ; that airs shall not again ployments which a change of cir- take precedence of graces, flippancumstances requires; but her who, cy of wit, rudeness of refinement, by force of a judicious education, or inanity of intelligence, nor apathy by natural strength and enlargement and indifference of warm and gen. of mind, has been led to perceive erous feelings. We even venture and appreciate the true relations of to hope that improvement may be things; that there is a higher and a carried to such an extent, that the , better good, than any the exter. pleasure and benefit to be derived nals of life can furnish; that mind from the exercise of elegant accomis superior to matter, and of the plishments and useful employments, same value, wherever placed; and shall be thought fully equal, and even that sympathy and affection are the superior to that obtained from gossipvery jewels of life, the pure and in- ing, scandal, and worsted work. born gems that give light even in Then will manners become what darkness ?

they should ever be, the beautiful Let not then the timid and waver- index and exposition of character, ing mother be misled by a too short- and will flow from it so naturally, sighted view of things, into a belief and with so little study, that we that she consults the best welfare of may confidently expect our stores of her daughters, by restricting their waste paper to be very considerably education to a low standard. We increased by superfluous pages, here trust the time is coming, is come, and there, from even our best di. when those who act from no higher gested systems of etiquette.

THE TREE OF LIFE.

When the Lord had created man, is to be interpreted accordingly. he prepared for him “ a garden east. This view of the matter we reject; ward in Eden, and there he put the and for the following reasons : man whom he had made." It would 1. The language here used, is seem from this, and the parallel pas not that of poetry and fiction, but of sages, that the terms Eden and gar- sober, historical prose. Here are den are not of precisely the same no startling figures, and bold personi

, import. Eden appears to have been fications ; none of the imagery and the name of a country, within the drapery which belong to oriental limits of which the garden was situ. verse ; but all has the appearance ated. The exact location either of of simple, historical narrative and the garden or country, it is impossi- truth. Judging from the style, ble now to ascertain. We only merely, if the first three chapters of know that it was “ eastward” from Genesis are not history, then is there Palestine or Arabia, where Moses no history in the Bible. But was when he wrote this history, and 2. The first three chapters of that it was in the neighborhood of Genesis are to be regarded as histothe Euphrates and the Tigris. The ry, because in their proper, historigarden, we are told, contained“ eve- cal sense, they furnish a rational acry tree that is pleasant to the sight, count, and the only rational account, and good for food ; the tree of life, of many known and important facts. also, in the midst of the garden, and Among the facts here referred to, the tree of the knowledge of good are the creation of the world ; the and evil.”

origin of the human race; the instiWe have further mention of " the tutions of marriage, and of the Sabtree of life,” in the following chap- bath; the division of time into weeks; ter. It was lest fallen, doomed man the introduction of sin and misery should put forth his hand, and par. into the world ; the natural sterility take of the tree of life, and eat, and of the earth, and the consequent ne. live forever,” that he was “sent cessity of labor; the subjection of forth from the garden of Eden, to the woman to her husband; the sortill the ground from whence he was rows of child-bearing; the natural taken.” “So the Lord drave out antipathy of the human race to the the man; and he placed at the east serpent, &c. Here is a long train of the garden of Eden, cherubim of acknowledged facts, (to which and a flaming sword, which turned several others, we presume, might every way, to keep the way of the be added,) all which are satisfactotree of life.”

rily accounted for, if we admit the Before attempting an explanation historical truth of the first chapters of this difficult portion of Scripture, of Genesis. But if we reject this it will be necessary to consider some truth, and substitute an allegorical of the various expositions which sense, no rational account of them, commentators have given of it. and indeed no account whatever,

The first is that which regards the can possibly be given. narrative, in the first three chapters 3. That the first three chapters of Genesis, as a mythus, an allegory, of Genesis are to be interpreted as an interesting and instructive fable. history, is certain from the allusions The whole account of man's crea- to them in other parts of Scripture. tion and apostasy, it is said, is not Our Savior refers to one of these veritable history, but allegory, and chapters, and quotes expressly from

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it, in his discourse with the Pharisees, tation of the first chapters of Gene. on the subject of divorce. “ Have sis, we leave them utterly without ye not read, that he which made foundation. them at the beginning, made them For these reasons, we reject the male and female ; and said, for this mythical, allegorical interpretation cause shall a man leave his father of these chapters, and insist that and his mother, and shall cleave they must be received in the literal, unto his wife, and they twain shall historical sense. The first human be one flesh.” The apostle Paul pair were literally brought into exrefers to facts recorded in these istence, as here described; and chapters, in his repeated contrasts were placed in a literal garden in between Adam and Christ, and in Eden; in which were literal trees; numerous other passages.

as the tree of life, and the tree of man is not of the woman, but the the knowledge of good and evil. woman of the man;" referring to And here our first parents were litthe circumstances of her creation. erally seduced, through the subtilty “ Neither was the man created for of the serpent, and fell into sin ; the woman, but the woman for the after which they were severally man.” 1 Cor. xi, 8, 9. “I fear lest, doomed, as the narrative relates, by any means, as the serpent be- and driven out from the garden of guiled Eve, through his subtilty, so Eden, to subdue and cultivate the rugyour mind should be corrupted from ged earth. These and other things the simplicity that is in Christ." narrated in the first chapters of Gene

' What are we to make of this pas- sis, are plain historical facts, and as sage, if it is not literally true that such, are to be received, on the authe serpent did beguile Eve, through thority of the infallible word of God. his subtilty ? Again ; " I suffer not But if there was a literal tree of a woman to teach, nor to usurp au- life in the midst of the garden, what thority over the man, but to be in was it there for ? What was the silence ; for Adam was first formed, design, object, import, and use of then Eve; and Adam was not de. this remarkable tree? ceived, but the woman, being de- Some have supposed that the tree ceived, was in the transgression.” of life was the loken of the first If these allusions of the apostle are covenantthe covenant of works. correct, or his reasonings just, then It has been said, that “when God the facts to which he refers, and had created man, he entered into a from which he reasons, actually covenant of life with him, upon contook place, as recorded in the first dition of perfect obedience, forbidchapters of Genesis.

ding him to eat of the tree of knowl4. In proof of the literal, histori- edge of good and evil, upon pain of cal interpretation of these chapters, death." In other words, God prowe urge again, that on them are posed to man, if he would continue founded some important doctrines perfectly obedient, that he would of the gospel. Among these doc- give him eternal life ; but if he failtrines are that of the primeval inno- ed of such obedience, that he should cence of man; that of the apostasy; die. The man consented to the and that of natural depravily, in proposal, and thus a proper coveconsequence of our connection with nant was formed. The token of a fallen father. These doctrines, this covenant was the tree of life, on account of their intimate con- which, standing in the midst of the nection with the great subject of re- garden, was a pledge and an assurdemption, may be regarded as es- ance to man, of that endless life, sential in the Christian system. Yet which, on condition of obedience, if we set aside the literal interpre. God had promised.

Vol. I.

49

In reference to this theory, we very dispensation under which Adremark, in the first place, that we am was placed-a dispensation of have never yet been able to discov- pure law, to confirm which no puber any evidence in the Scriptures, lic pledge or token was necessary. of a proper covenant transaction Some have thought there was a between God and Adam, previous to connexion between the tree of life, the fall. God created our first pa- and the trial, the probation, on rents rational, intelligent beingsm which our first parents were placed. free moral agents—the proper sub- If they persevered in holiness to the jects of law and government. As end of their trial, they were to be such, he placed them at once under confirmed in holiness ; in assurance law-a dispensation which imported of which they should then be permitthat if they obeyed, they should be ted to eat of the tree of life. Its fruit rewarded ; if they disobeyed, they should be to them a pledge, a token, should be punished. The language that their probation was happily acof God to Adam, on this occasion, complished, and that an unchang was that, not of proposal, of condi- ing state of holiness and happiness tion, of covenant, but of imperative would now be their portion. law. 66 The Lord God commanded We have no doubt that our first the man, saying, of every tree of parents were on trial before the the garden, thou mayest freely eat; fall, and that, had they persevered but of the tree of knowledge of in holiness for a limited time, they good and evil, thou shall not eat of would have been, like the angels, it; for in the day that thou eatest confirmed in a state of holiness and

; of it, thou shalt surely die.” Cer- happiness forever. But we much tainly, this is the language of strict doubt whether the object of the tree

and except, as law is some- of life is truly stated in the above times loosely called covenant in the theory. This theory supposes, that Scriptures, there was no covenant the fruit of the tree of life might with Adam, before he fell. Mani- not be eaten, until the probation festly, there was no literal, proper of our first parents was ended; covenant. But if there was whereas it is plain, from the parraproper covenant made with Adam tion, that it might be eaten at any in the garden, then the tree of life time. There was but one prohibcould not have been the token of ited tree in the garden ; and that such a covenant; and the theory was the tree of knowledge of good above stated, as to the object and and evil. Of every other tree (and import of this tree, is without foun- consequently of the tree of life) it dation.

is expressly said that our first paThere is another objection to the rents might freely eat. How, then, theory in question. Man needed can it be made to appear that they no token, to assure him that God might not eat of the tree of life, would reward the obedient, more until their trial was accomplished, than the angels now need such a and their confirmed state of holitoken in heaven. The proper im- ness and happiness commenced ? port of law is, obey and live ; trans- But if neither of the above theogress and die.* And this was the ries as to the import and design of

the tree of life is to be admitted, * We do not suppose, indeed, that the what supposition shall we form in obedient merit a reward at the hands of regard to the subject ? What was God, in the same sense that the disobe. dient merit punishment. Still, they are proper subjects of reward. It is suitable dignity,) on the ground of which the that they should be rewarded. They goodness of God has always rewarded have the merit of congruity, (if not con- them, and always will.

law ;

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the object of the tree of life? For And here, we think, we have the what was this remarkable tree plant- precise object and use of the tree ed in the midst of the garden ? of life. It was planted in the midst

Before replying to these ques- of the garden-in a situation easy tions, let it be premised, that tem- of access from every part of it, poral death—the dissolution of the that it might be a perfect and uniconnexion between soul and body- versal restorative ; that it might is to be regarded as one of the bit- heal all maladies, overcome all the ter consequences of the apostasy. causes of disease and decay, and It is so represented in the Scrip- preserve innocent and happy man tures. “By man came death." in perpetual health, strength, and " In Adam all die.” “By one maturity, till his trial should be man, sin entered into the world, ended, and he should be removed and death by sin.” (1 Cor. xv, 21; to his final and glorified state in Rom. v, 12.) It is not at all likely heaven. that man would ever have been That this was the design and use called to endure the pains of tem of the tree in question is evident, poral death, if he had not sinned. first, from its name. It was called He might not, in that case, have the tree of life; thus indicating that lived in this world always, but some

it was intended to preserve and pereasier exit out of it would have petuate life, and to deliver from been provided for him, than that death. to which he is now subjected. He The same is still more evident, might have been translated, as secondly, from what was said of Enoch and Elijah were. At any this tree subsequent to the apos. rate, he would not have been doom- tasy. Of the curse pronounced ed to pass through the iron gate of upon fallen man, temporal death death.

constituted a part. “ In the sweat But if man in his innocence was of thy face shalt thou eat bread, not to die, then some provision must till thou return unto the ground; for have been made for counteracting out of it wast thou taken ; for dust and removing the sources of disease thou art, and unto dust shalt thou and decay within him—the ordinary return." Of the doom here decauses of death. As he was not to lead nounced, there was to be—there a life of indolence, but one of cheer has been, no remission. With the ful, healthful industry, being com- exception of Enoch and Elijah, the manded to “ dress the garden and dread decree has been rigidly exto keep it;" he was subject, as ecuted, and will be, upon all the man now is, to casualties and inju. generations of men. But the tree ries. As he was on trial, too, he of life is upon the earth, and how must have been placed in circum- is man ever to die, if he may have stances fitted to try him; to try his access to this verdant tree? If he faith, his fortitude, his submission, may pluck and apply its healing his patience, his self-denial. He leaves, and partake of its life-giving, was moreover subject, inherently health-restoring fruit ; how is the and naturally, to hunger, thirst, inexorable curse of temporal dissolassitude, weariness, disease, de lution ever to be executed ? It can cay. And these causes must ulti. not be. Man must be shut out from mately have worn him out and re- the tree of life, or he can never resulted in death, unless some method turn to dust. He must be rigidly had been devised to counteract kept from it, or he will live forever. their influence, and repair those Accordingly, we find him instantly wastes in the physical constitution driven out from the garden of Eden; which they were calculated to make. and driven out for this express and

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