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the other way.

no allusion, shows that in this case and that, on the contrary, he is the Clement is speaking of the officers true successor and representative of of Christian churches; as plainly as the Apostles, having only laid down in the other case the context shows that august title out of modesty. that he is speaking of the Jewish To prove this, they call upon the priesthood.

New Testament. That, as we have Clement of Rome, then, does seen, tells us of bishops and dea. nothing at all towards identifying cons, but refuses to say one word in the prelate-bishops of the third cen- favor of this transmitted apostletury with the New Testament apos- ship. Next they call Clement of His testimony indeed is quite Rome; he being unquestionably co

temporary with the Apostles, and But the epistles of Ignatius! his epistle being of undoubted genThese, the prelatist tells us, say alluineness. He gives no testimony that can be asked for. If they do for their cause, but much against -if their testimony is just what the them; on this point, as on others, Episcopalian wants in order to make he agrees with the New Testament. out his case—then, for that very He knows nothing of any succesreason, when all the other circum- sors to the Apostles except

66 bishstances are taken into consideration, ops and deacons.” Next they call they are not to be trusted. Igna. Ignatius, cotemporary with Clement, tius died in the early part of the though probably younger; and his second century, A. D. 116, or ear testimony, professedly some fifteen lier. Just before his death he wrote or twenty-five years later than that several epistles. The epistles now of Clement, exhibits entirely anothextant under his name, if not mere er order of things. He discourses forgeries, are, as all parties acknow- largely of the bishop, the presbyledge, greatly corrupted. They ex- ters, and the deacons. He repreist in two forms, one well charged sents Christian character as consistwith Arian opinions and phrases; ing to a great extent in the duty of the other being made conformable obeying the bishop and reverencing to the views of the Athanasian party the clergy. He associates the bishop in the Arian controversy. In either with the altar. He even goes so far form, the text is corrupt to an in. in making the bishop God's vicegedefinite extent ; though the Athan. rent, that Mr. Chapin carefully abasian edition, being the more com- stains from quoting his irreverent pendious of the two, must needs be, comparisons. Such a witness brings in that proportion, less corrupt. No suspicion upon himself by the very mortal man can attempt to reform amplitude and unsparingness of his the text, and give us an uncorrupt- testimony.* We cannot avoid inquired copy, otherwise than by conjec. ing whether he has not been tamture. Now, independently of these pered with. Upon making inquiry, circumstances, Ignatius has the ap- we find that on other subjects he is pearance of a suborned and pre- known to have been corrupted, and pared witness. The advocates of to have given false testimony; and prelacy have occasion to prove that that whether what he says on this the bishop of ecclesiastical history subject is true, must be determined is not, according to the most obvi- either by the intrinsic probability or ous supposition, one of the bench of improbability of the thing testified, or presbyters, who has been so fortunate as to acquire by gradual usur. * Of course we shall not be understood pation, a great ascendency over his as speaking here of the real Ignatius, the fellow presbyters, and to appropriate mariyr of Antioch, who died in the Roas exclusively his a name to which but only of Ignatius as personated in these

man circus under the Emperor Trajan, they have as good a right as he ; forged or corrupt epistles.



by additional testimony from some pares the bishop not with the apos. other quarter. No cause is firm tles, but with Christ himself and which depends on such a witness. with God the Father; and it is the

But even if this witness is per- presbytery which he likens to the mitted to testify, and is regarded as sanhedrim of God” and the “col. as credible, what does he prove. lege of apostles.” He says indeed, Schooled and prepared as he has " that as Jesus Christ, our insepara. been, he has not been trained to ble life, is sent by the will of the say exactly the right thing for those Father," so “ the bishops, appointed who call him to testify. In the first to the utmost bounds of the earth, place, for aught that appears, the are by the will of Jesus Christ ;"* bishop in every church, about whom but he nowhere alledges a divine he speaks so much, may have been warrant, or even an apostolical tra. a Presbyterian bishop; and his dition, for a hierarchy subsisting in "council" may have been a

three orders. The modern doctrine sion" of lay.elders. In the second of transmitted apostleship-and parplace, admitting that what he calls ticularly that important part of it “ the presbytery” consisted of cler- which teaches that the prelate-bishop ical and preaching elders, officiating is the same in order and authority in various chapels, and all belonging with the New Testament apostle, to one church, we see not how it having only laid down his proper appears that the bishop was any title in excess of meekness-does thing more than a permanent presi. not appear to have been broached dent of that body, the princeps se- in the days when the epistles of natûs, the first among his equals. Ignatius were written. In the third place, admitting that The attempt then to set up the the presbyters of whom this Igna- bishops of the Protestant Episcopal tius speaks, were merely Episco- church in the United States, as havpalian priests ; and that, in the ing full apostolical authority not only churches to which those epistles over those who have agreed to conwere addressed, the clerical body form to the conventional regulations was already divided into three dis- of that respectable body, but over tinct orders, it does not appear from all Christians within these territothe testimony, that a similar arrange rial limits—is a failure. ment existed any where beyond the ment in their behalf fails, at the limits of Syria and Asia Minor. very point at which there ought to And in the fourth place, if we ad. be no room for doubt. That old mit that the monarchical principle rusty chain of succession, along had already established itself in the which the magnetic fluid is supchurches on the European as well posed to have been transmitted to as on the Asiatic side of the Medi- their persons, seems glorious and terranean, and that every where, golden to such eyes as Mr. Cha

as early as A. D. 115, the pin's ; but as for us, even though bishops had become a distinct or. our faith were easy enough to adder from the presbyters ; the main mit that there is no “solution of point is, after all, untouched. Igna. continuity" under the depth of those tius, so far as we can see, testifies dark centuries through which the not one word to the point on which chain is said to stretch unbroken, the Episcopalian argument turns, we find the first link wanting-the particularly as managed by Mr. very link on which the whole se. Chapin. He does not say that the ries is alledged to depend the link bishops of whom he speaks were which ought to connect the whole apostles, or that they had the same with the original and undoubted rank and authority with the apostles of the preceding age. He com- Archbishop Wake's translation.


The argu



apostles. It is not enough to assert, is an imitation-nay, a shocking what nobody denies, that the first parody of that laying on of the bishops, so called in the New Tes. Apostles' hands, in connection with tament, were ordained by the apos- which the Holy Spirit was imparted tles ; those are admitted to have to primitive believers, in the miracubeen mere presbyters. The in- lous gifts of prophecy, of healing, quiry is not concerning a succession and of tongues. For the texts from or through New Testament which speak of such a laying on of bishops, but concerning a succes- hands by the Apostles, and which sion of apostles from apostles. It at the same time speak distinctly must therefore be proved, not that of the miraculous descent of the the apostles ordained bishops and Holy Spirit as the accompaniment, deacons in the churches, and mis. (see Acts viii, 14-20; xix, 6,) are sionary preachers for the work at his first proof that the Apostles large, but that they ordained men practiced this Episcopalian cereto the highest of the three orders mony. His second proof is found of the hierarchy ; and that they or- in the word “confirm,” where Paul dained them to be apostles, and, and Barnabas are spoken of as reunder that name, to exercise in their visiting the churches which they own persons, and to transmit to had planted, and

had planted, and “confirming” " other ages

all the authority and either of the churches,” or “the power which belonged to the ori. souls of the disciples ;" for to him ginal twelve. Till this proof is it seems a plain case, that neither a fairly made out, the succession of church, nor a believer, can be really prelates is any thing but a succes- confirmed unless by the due persion of apostles.

formance of some rite of confirmaWe promised to say something tion, which is both “outward and respecting the Episcopalian doctrine external.” His third proof-and it and ceremony of confirmation; but is to this that we would particularly we fear that our readers, wearied call attention is found in the lanwith the unexpected prolixity of this guage of Paul, where he speaks so article, will be too ready to excuse strikingly of the “earnest,” the us. Our remarks then on this topic “seal,” and the “pledge” of the shall be confined to a brief exhibi- Spirit. Let us not pronounce a tion of some specimens of our au. hasty judgment on this piece of thor's exegesis.

interpretation, however surprising ; Confirmation, as it is prescribed but let us rather turn to the two in the ritual of the Protestant Epis- passages referred to, and give them copal church, is a public ceremony a new and deliberate perusa). by which persons who have been The first of these texts is, (2 Cor. baptized, and have come to years i, 20, 22,) “ For all the promises of of discretion, may acknowledge and God in Christ,”—the promises of renew by their own personal act, that gospel which had been preachthe obligations involved in their bap- ed by Paul and his companions to tism. It is equivalent to that public the Corinthians,—“ are yea, and in profession of religion, which a bap- him amen, to the glory of God by tized person makes at uniting with Now he who stablisheth us,”a Congregational church. As rep- ( o de Bepatov,) he furthermore who

Si resented in the prescribed “order is establishing us—" with you in of confirmation,” we find little to Christ, and hath anointed us, is God, object to it, except that one part of who hath also sealed us, and given the form seems to involve, or at us the pledge of the Holy Spirit in least to countenance, the monstrous our hearts." Of this text our audogma of baptismal regeneration. thor deliberately says, “ The whole But as Mr. Chapin represents it, it passage most evidently [!] contains


a reference to the performance of fulfillment, the first instalment, of some external rite, by which the re- those exceeding great and precious cipient was consecrated or set apart promises which are the object of his to the worship of God through faith—when it so evident that Paul Christ, which [external rite?] was means, in both these passages, just to them not the evidence of their what John means when he says Christian character, but a token of “ He that believeth hath the witness it, and not the Spirit, but a pledge in himself,”—what must be the conof it in the heart."

dition of that man's mind, who with The other passage, (Eph. i, 13,) the Bible open before him can see is, “ In whom”--that is, in Christ nothing here but an Episcopalian “ye also trusted,” [' as we have confirmation? How is it that he done'-see the preceding verse,] contrives to miss the plain mean“after that ye heard the word of ing of passages so spiritual and extruth, the gospel of your salvation; perimental - How is it that in dein whom also, after that ye believ. fiance of text and context, he is ined, ye were sealed with that Holy duced to force upon the Apostle a Spirit of promise, which is the meaning so foreign to his language pledge of our inheritance until the and his argument ? The natural redemption of the purchased pos. history of this abnormal condition session, to the praise of his glory.” of a mind not unendowed with comA well known parallel to this is mon sense, nor unprivileged in refound in the same epistle, (iv, 30,) spect to information, might be stud. “Grieve not that Holy Spirit of God ied to advantage. by whom ye are sealed to the day Such exegesis originates in the of redemption.” of this passage, author's false or imperfect concepspeaking so distinctly of that inward, tions of the genius of Christianity. living testimony to the truth of the His mind is full of the visible in gospel, which the believer finds in religion—the “outward and exter. the progressive experience of its nal.” Organization and order, hierpower, and in the indwelling of the archies, ordinances, rites, liturgies, sanctifying Spirit within him,-our ceremonies, and vestments, have author coolly says that it is " of the occupied his thoughts and kindled same purport,” as indeed it is, with his enthusiasm, till they rise before the one which he has just before him, always and every where, like construed into a mere recognition a morbid hallucination. Thus with of a ceremony.

“ The reference him, the visible, or what he suppo[to the external rite of confirma- ses to be the visible in Christianity, tion) is so direct, the allusion so dis. eclipses the spiritual; and when he tinct, as to be apparent to the most reads his Bible, the images that are casual reader.” What exegesis ! dancing in his brain seem to dance

With what spectacles, it will be upon the sacred page. Thus if he asked, does this man read his Bible ? finds Christ praying for the reWhen it is so perfectly obvious that deemed that they all may be onein both these passages the Apostle one in their Redeemer and their is appealing to that experimental God-one in that unity of holy purproof of the truth of the gospel, pose and desire, and that unmeaswhich the believer finds in its quick- ured communication of the Holy ening and sanctifying effects upon Spirit, in which the incarnate Son himself by the Holy Spirit promised is one with the Eternal Father-he on the condition of his believing- construes all that as if the Savior an experience which is at once the were speaking of an organized and only true “seal” of the genuine- outward unity. Thus, too, if he ness of his subjective faith, and the finds Paul speaking of believers as "earnest,” the pledge, the begun anointed and sealed with the Holy Spirit, and as receiving in this ful fracting its spiritual revelations into fillment of a gospel promise a bless- a strange confusion, will clear away. ed pledge that all shall be fulfilled Then he will understand that the —this is to him “most evidently," Christianity of the Bible is larger most visibly and palpably, a refer than Episcopalianism, and more gloence to the “ external rite” of con- rious than that chimera of organized firmation.

"catholicity,” to which so many Such a habit of mind has been blinded minds are ready to do homaggravated in the present case, if it age. was not originally induced, by an It is not in any hostility to that ill directed study of the Fathers. body of professed Christians of Our author probably values himself which this author. is a member, and upon his patristic learning. We the peculiarities of which he has give him full credit for having ex- undertaken to maintain, that we pended much time, and much patient have animadverted so freely on the attention, on this particular branch book before us. We respect that of theological study. We think in. sect, as we respect other sects, not deed that he has read the Fathers for those matters of organization more than was good for him, unless and form in which it differs from he had read them in a different the rest of Protestant Christendom way and for a different purpose. —not for its threefold hierarchy, its He has studied them, but he has not printed prayers, its white-robed mastered them. On the contrary, priests, or the pretense of an excluthey have mastered him, and he has sive validity' in its sacraments sat at their feet, and humbled his but for whatever of simple Chriscommon sense to learn of their ig- tian truth is proclaimed from its norance and superstition, till they pulpits ; for whatever of spiritual have taught him to reason almost worship is breathed out towards as childishly, and to misinterpret heaven from its assemblies; for Scripture almost as wretchedly as whatever of the power of godliness they do.

dwells in the hearts and glows in We counsel him, therefore, to the lives of its members; and for eschew the Fathers. To him they whatever efforts it is putting forth at have been and will be blind guides. home and abroad, in love to Christ, Let him study Baxter rather than to make known to all men that docOrigen, Dwight rather than Irenæus, trine of the cross which is the wisChalmers rather than Tertullian. In- dom of God and the power of God stead of stumbling on the dark to salvation. Episcopalians ought mountains of Clemens Alexandri. not to imagine that they are assailnus, let him take a course of logic ed, or that we attempt to exclude under the archbishop of Dublin. their church from the visible body We do not recommend the arch. of Christ, when we expose the fol. bishop's treatise on the kingdom of lies and the errors of a book like Christ to his present attention, but this. In showing what this book is, only the Logic, for we remember we are rendering to them, as a Christhat “strong meat” is not for all, tian community, a service, for which but only for those that are able to they ought to be grateful. If such bear it. Let him get rid of his pa. books are to have circulation and tristic logic, his patristic interpreta- authority among them, and are to tion, and his patristic divinity, and operate in forming the minds and ere long, it may be hoped that the the hearts of their clergy and their mists which hang over his Bible, laity, their church must be the suf. dimming its blessed light, and re- ferer.

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