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VII. In the formation of the past ing; (1.) the attenuation or preces. tense and the past participle of some sion of the vowel sound ah to eh; weakly inflected verbs, there is not as, Lat. papyrus, Eng. paper ; (2)

, only a shortening of the quantity of the attenuation or precession of the the vowel, but sometimes also a vowel sound eh to ih; as, Lat. Ste. restoration of the vowel sound, phanus, Eng. Stephen; (3.) the which had been attenuated; as, change of the vowel sound ih by meet, met; lose, lost ; leave, left. vriddhi to ai (=the English diphThe vowel in the present tense thong i;) as, Lat. libellus, Eng. standing, or having stood originally, libel. These changes are to be rein an open syllable, suffers attenua. garded as a strengthening of the tion, while the vowel of the past several vowel sounds, on occasion tense and past participle being in a of the accent which had been disclose syllable, is retained.

turbed by cutting off the final syllaVIII. There are certain vowel ble; connected in the two former changes in the transition from Goth- cases with a subsequent attenuation. ic or Anglo-Saxon to English ; (1.) X. In words derived from the the attenuation or precession of the Greek, we have some vowel chanvowel sound ah to eh; as, to make ges, which are found in the ancient from Anglo-Sax. macian ; (2.) the Greek, and are to be explained by attenuation or precession of eh to a reference to that language, and ih; as, to steal from Anglo-Sax. others, which exhibit themselves in stelan; (3.) the strengthening of ih the transition of Greek words into to ai (=the Eng. diphthong i,) by English. vriddhi, as, to bile from Anglo-Sax. Among the former we may reck. bitan; (4.) the strengthening of uh on (1.) the play of vowels in collat. to au by vriddhi ; as, thou from eral roots, closely connected in sig. Anglo-Sax. thu.

nification; as, Nchro in chrome, IX. We come now to words de. ~ chra in catachresis, and chri in rived from the Latin. Among these chrism, all signifying primarily to we find some vowel changes, which touch the surface. This process in are found in the ancient Latin, and the formation of collateral roots, is a are to be explained by a reference part of the great system of the natto that language, and others, which ural development of roots, as ex. exhibit themselves in the transition hibited by Becker. It is distinct of Latin words into English. from the formation of words from

Among the former is a play of roots. The different use and applivowels in words compounded with cation of these roots depended withprepositions ; (1.) the change of out doubt on the appropriate import radical a into i in an open, and into supposed to inhere in each vowel. e in a close syllable; as, facile, de. (2.) The attenuation or precession ficient, defect; (2.) the change of of the vowel a to e; as, system from radical a into u; as, capable, occu- „sta; lemma for lebma from lab; pant; (3.) the change of radical e tmesis from „tam, by transposition into i in an open syllable ; as, legi- tma. (3.) The strengthening of u ble, intelligible ; (4.) the change of by vriddhi, or the change of u into au into u; as, claudent, include. eu; as, zeugma from „zug or zyg. This change of vowel, which mod. (4.) The change of vowel by interern philologists have investigated nal infection ; as, tome from tam. with great care, is to be regarded Among the latter, besides those as an attenuation or lightening of common to Latin and Greek derivathe vowel sound, as an offset to the tives, are the following; (1.) the weight of the preceding prefix. attenuation or precession of ai to Among the latter are the follow- e; as, phenomenon, from pha,

e;

or by lengthening the root and tical language, have by common strengthening the vowel phain ; (2.) consent been subjected to the same the attenuation or precession of oi general principles as Greek and to e; as, economy from Voic; (3.) Latin derivatives. Thus (1.) a in the attenuation or precession of ou an accented open syllable suffers at. to u; as, music from ✓ mous. tenuation, or is changed from ah to

XÍ. In words derived from the eh; as, Nabal ; (2.) e in an open Hebrew, no new phonetic principle syllable, accented or unaccented, is exhibited.

suffers attenuation, or is changed Hebrew or Phenician words which from eh to ih ; as, Sheba, Medeba ; have come to us through the Greek (3.) i in an accented or final open and Latin, fall under the class of syllable suffers vriddhi, or is chanGreek and Latin derivatives. ged from ih to ai (=the English

Words derived immediately from diphthong i;) as, Ziba, Levi. the Hebrew as an ancient ecclesias.

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LITERARY NOTICES.

Elements of Algebra ; being an The editor, Mr. Thomson, was

Abridgment of Day's Algebra, well fitted for the undertaking, both adapled to the capacities of the by his taste for mathematical studyoung, and the method of instruc- ies, and by much experience in tion in schools and academies. teaching the elements of algebra to By James B. THOmson, A. M. young learners. We have no doubt New Haven, Durrie & Peck. that all teachers who desire a trea. 12mo. pp. 252.

tise on this useful and interesting

subject, more concise and simple Nearly thirty years have elapsed than “ Day's Algebra,” will find in since President Day (then professor this publication a book exactly of mathematics and natural philos. adapted to their wants. ophy) first published his Introduc. tion to Algebra.” It excelled all other treatises known to our col. leges and academies, in the clear. The Family Sabbath-Day Miscel. ness and precision of its definitions lany; comprising over three hun. and rules, in the happy choice of dred religious tales and anec. examples and illustrations, and in dotes, original and select, with the exposition of such principles as occasional reflections, adapted to are not only important in them. the use of families on the Lord's selves, but have an additional value day. By CHARLES A. GOODRICH. in their relation to the higher Published by Daniel Fanshaw, branches of mathematics. This 601 Broadway, New York. work being specially “adapted to the method of instruction in the This work having been previously American colleges," it was a good published by the author and exidea to reduce it to such a form, as tensively circulated, must be well would render it suitable for scholars known to most of our readers ; to of the primary schools, and the or whom it can need no recommenda. dinary classes in academies.

tion from us.

RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS.

NATIONAL SOCIETIES.

ion of those students in each col.

lege, who are aided by the society, In the first number of this work, and the distribution among them of will be found some account of a spe. the funds voted by the directors for cial meeting of the American Edu- their use, be entrusted to a commitcation Society; and of the appoint- tee at or near the college or theoment of a committee to revise the logical institution, who shall be aprules and regulations. This com- pointed by the directors. mittee reported at the meeting in 7. That the appropriating comBoston, May 28th, a series of reso- mittee, at or near each college or lutions, which, after a single amend- institution, be the examining comment, were unanimously adopted, mittee. as follows:

8. That the appropriating comResolved, 1. That no aid be given mittee, at or near each college or to any candidate for assistance, be institution, before recommending a fore the commencement of the col. candidate for the patronage of the lege course, or before the candidate society, shall satisfy themselves, has completed two years of classical both by personal examination and study.

personal testimony, respecting his 2. That aid be given only to need, his piety, his proficiency in those students who, being in other his studies, and his promise of userespects qualified, are proved by fulness generally, and shall report the testimony of their instructors, the particulars, and make return of to be making good proficiency in the testimony to the directors, upon their studies.

whom in all cases shall devolve the 3. That aid given to each student responsibility of making the apbe proportioned to his wants, the pointments. average not to exceed eighty dol. 9. That the appropriating comlars annually, and the maximum mittee, for each institution, shall not to exceed one hundred dollars, renew their inquiries respecting annually.

each individual, before each suc4. That it be discretionary with cessive appropriation, and shall parthe local committees, in consulta- ticularly ascertain from his teacher, tion with the beneficiaries, to deter- his diligence and proficiency as a mine whether in each case, the aid scholar, and his unexceptionable deafforded be in the form of gratuity portment. or loan ; that the sums gratuitously 10. That the directors be reques. given shall be considered as an en- ted to inquire whether the expenses couragement, and an expression of of conducting the business of the the interest of Christian friends, and society may not be materially rethat loans be made on condition of duced. payment before settlement in the It will be seen, that hereafter the ministry.

patronage of the society is to be 5. That each recipient of aid confined to students in the colleges shall subscribe an obligation, to re- and theological seminaries ; that the fund to the society whatever he may aid is to be wholly gratuitous to receive from its treasury, if he shall those who desire it; and that the voluntarily fail to enter upon the selection and oversight of the benework of the ministry.

ficiaries is to be entrusted to a 6. That the immediate supervis committee of gentlemen at or near the several institutions of learning. A new society, entitled, “ The These are the most important fea. American' Philo-Italian Society," tures of the new arrangement; and was organized December 12th, it is hoped, that they will remove 1842, in New York; the object most of those objections to the so- of which, is to promote the diffu. ciety, which have for some years sion of useful and religious knowl. past embarrassed it.

edge among the Italians. Theo. No change has taken place in dore Dwight, Jr. is the correspondthe oganization of the other national ing secretary. The address of the religious societies; but some im- executive committee to the Ameriprovement is manifest in their finan- can public, is an interesting docucial condition, and the most encour. ment. The door, we are informed, aging prospects of usefulness cheer is open for the diffusion of useful ther onward to still greater exer- and religious knowledge among the tions. The income of the Seamen's Italians. They may be divided into Friend Society, twelve thousand, three classes, papists, Catholics, innine hundred and ninety two dollars fidels. The first sympathize with and seventy cents, exceeds that of the pope in all his secular and spirthe last year, but still falls short of įtual tyranny-with a spirit of serthe expenditures by about eight hun vility towards man, not of sincer. dred dollars. The Foreign Evan- ity towards God-selfish men, who gelical Society has received its whole have an interest in supporting the income from twelve of our cities established religion. The second and large towns, to the amount of are Catholics, but not papists ; that ten thousand six hundred and seven is, they abhor the dominion of the dollars, exceeding the disbursements pope, while they are prejudiced nearly nine hundred dollars. The against Protestants, as infidels. They American Tract Society, has re- are a class between the Protestants ceived the noble sum of ninety six and papists—men of conscience, thousand two hundred and forty dole who desire the knowledge of the lars, and fifty three cents, exceed- truth, but have had no proper means ing the income of last year, and of gaining it. The third constitutes leaving a balance in the treasury of a large class in almost all papal two hundred and ninety dollars. countries--men who have received The American Home Missionary their ideas of Christianity, solely Society, we regret to add, has over. from the superstitions and vices of drawn its treasury seven thousand a corrupt priesthood. These two and eighteen dollars and thirty eight last classes among the Italians may cents. The receipts were ninety easily be reached and influenced, nine thousand eight hundred and particularly by the agency of intel. twelve dollars, and eighty four cents. ligent natives, who are ready to enThis is seven thousand three hun. gage in the work of propagating dred and forty nine dollars and the Gospel among their country. twenty cents, more than the total men. It is the plan of the society receipts of the preceding year. to prosecute its work in Italy, by This institution, being emphatically the exclusive agency of Italians. the hope of our country, ought to have a more liberal patronage

STATE OF RELIGION. not less than that extended to the cause of foreign missions. With The reports of the Congregational such an income, the society might associations of the several states, employ two thousand ministers, in- come to hand too late for notice in stead of eight hundred and forty the present number. We can only eight, the present number.

say, that our January report of the Vol. I.

56

state of religion the year preceding, bodies, the Old School, not less presents a less gratifying view than than fifty new churches have been that which a gracious Providence added, and most of the old church. has since spread out before us. The es have been enlarged. The num. last six months have been distin. ber of members in the churches at. guished above any equal period for tached to the New School General several years by the refreshing in- Assembly, has in many presbyteries fluences of the Spirit.

been doubled ; in others, trebled ; The reports on the state of re- and in nearly all the churches religion presented to the two Gen- vivals of religion have been enjoyed. eral Assemblies of the Presbyterian Perhaps in no previous year, since church, contain definite and most the colonization of the country, encouraging statements respecting have the Presbyterian churches been the prosperity of the cause of truth, so generally blessed with the effuwithin their respective bounds and sions of the Holy Spirit. fields of labor. To one of these

DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.

FOR THE MURDER OF
HUTCHINSON HEBERTON.

THE TRIAL OF SINGLETON MERCER, view the thoughtless girl met her

MAHLON pretended lover again and again ;

sometimes by accident; frequently

by appointment; always away from The recent tragedy in Philadel- her father's house, and without the phia, is worthy of a more attentive knowledge of her friends. At length consideration than is commonly giv. being completely taken in his toils, en to scenes of vice and crime. Its she became the victim of his lust. details have already been spread Her ruin accomplished, her seducer before the public, with a disgusting continued to deceive her with the minuteness, and are read by all promise of marriage, till her inticlasses with an eagerness which macy with him became known to shocks every sentiment of delicacy. her friends, and she Aed from the We shall allude to them no farther house of her father to one of those than is necessary in order to review haunts of vice to which she had the legal proceedings in the case, and been previously introduced by Heto exhibit the tone of moral feeling in berton. As he, however, was now the community in which the event ready to discard her, she was soon occurred. Early in January, Mah- restored to her mourning parents, lon H. Heberton, a notorious liber. but only to increase their anguish tine, formed the acquaintance of by confessing her shame. The terSarah G. Mercer, a mere girl of rible disclosure overwhelmed all her sixteen, the daughter of respectable friends with indignation and sorrow; and pious parents, residing in South- but its effect on the mind of her wark. The acquaintance began im- brother, (a young man of twenty,) properly ; Heberton accosting Miss was alarming. In the frenzy of

* Mercer in the street, without an introduction, and she consenting to * Efforts were made by Mr. Mercer, 10 walk with him, under the impres- induce Heberton to marry his daughter, sion that he was a Spanish gentle. but the proposal was rejected by Heberman whom she had before seen at excited the indignation of Singleton 10

ton with insolence. This circumstance her sister's house. After this inter- the highest pitch.

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